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  1. 1

    [Rural-rural migration: the case of the colonies] Migracion rural-rural el caso de las colonias.

    Blanes J; Calderon F; Dandler J; Prudencio J; Lanza L

    In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.

    A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
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  2. 2

    A summary of the report on the evaluation of MEX/79/P04 "Integration of population policy with development plans and programmes".

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. 19, [9] p.

    The objective of this UNFPA project was to build the institutional and methodological base for integration of population policy into and its harmonization with national, sectoral and state policies or socioeconomic development in Mexico. More specifically, the project was to achieve integration of population policy with 6 sectoral plans, 24 state plans and the Master Development Plan within 3 years. Although the Mission considers it an achievement that the project signed agreements with all 31 states and the Federal District, no formal contacts had been made with the 6 sectors. Mexico's National Population Council (CONAPO) coordinated the project. The Mission recommended that support to integration activities be continued on the basis of the experience that has been acquired. Therefore it is necessary 1) to strengthen the activities at the state level; 2) to support the development of methodologies considering the impact of socioeconomic plans and programs on demographic variables and to provide a comprehensive program of international technical experience; 3) to recognize that responses to ad hoc support activities are an important integration instrument for both sectors and states; and 4) to exact greater clarity concerning the role of the project in the National Population Program. A lack of aedquately trained personnel proved to be a continual obstacle to implementation. The Mission recommends that at an early stage in the development of such projects a thorough assessment of the human resource requirements and existing capacity for integration of demographic and socioeconomic variables be made and that, based on this assessment, a specific training strategy be developed and incorporated in the project's design. In addition to training, the project also included research support activities; the outputs, however, were descriptive rather than analytical, which can be traced to both the design and execution of the work plan for research activities. The UNFPA's funding constraints and its management of reduced funds further complicated the project's execution, which suffered from high personnel turnover and lack of coordination of project activities.
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  3. 3

    [Reconciling censal and inter-censal data and determination of the population base] Conciliacion censal y determinacion de la poblacion base.

    Rincon MJ

    In: Metodos para proyecciones demograficas [compiled by] United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]. San Jose, Costa Rica, Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, 1984 Nov. 13-42. (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] Series E, No. 1003)

    This work describes procedures used by the Latin American Demographic Center (CELADE) for establishing a base population for projection in quinquennial age groups by means of evaluation of population censuses and reconciliation of demographic data for 2 or more intercensal periods. Demographic reconciliation refers to the array of procedures through which the degree of coverage of successive censuses is evaluated; age and sex distributions resulting from incomplete coverage, differential omission, and poor age reporting are corrected; the demographic dynamics of intercensal periods are made coherent with estimates of mortality, fertility, and migration from all available sources; and a base population for population projection is established. There are no fixed rules for evaluation and reconciliation of census data, because the history and quality of data collection in each country are unique. The compensatory equation, in which 2 or more population censuses are reconciled in regard to fertility, mortality, and international migration in intermediate years usually in terms of age cohorts, is an indispensable tool for demographers in developing countries. The need to add children born in the years between censuses and the different types of errors typifying different age groups means that the process of census reconciliation should be carried out separately for at least 3 age groups: children under 5, the 5-9 year cohort, and those over 10 years of age. The age group 0-4 is often the most seriously underestimated. Because the age group 5-9 years is often the best enumerated in Latin American population censuses, it can serve as the basis for correction of the population aged 0-4. The data required include the population aged 5-9 in single years in the last census, the deaths in children under 10 by year of birth and age at death in single years, and the annual number of births in the 10 years preceding the last census. Data from Panama illustrate that the results of this technique are not always acceptable, in which case correction of the 0-4 cohort may be accomplished by means of correction of births and deaths using indirect methods. Corrections for the 5-9 cohort, if required, can be made in a similar manner to that for the youngest group. Evaluation and correction of errors of omission and misreporting of age of the population over 10 is the most difficult because data sources are most often inadequate, these age groups have the greatest age and sex differentials and poorest age reporting, and are most likely to be effected by emigration. All available data should be utilized to produce a group of alternative estimates for each cohort based on diverse basic data and assumptions about such variables as the sex ratios for age agroups. The most likely values must then be selected or calculated. The process by which census results from 1950-80 were used to estimate the base population for a projection by components in Panama illustrates the procedure used by CELADE.
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  4. 4

    A midterm evaluation report of the rural health system project of the Ministry of Health, Guyana.

    Carlson D; Hamilton M

    [Unpublished] 1984. v, 37, [60] p.

    This is an evaluation of the Rural Health Systems Project funded in 1979 through a contract between AID, the Rural Health Development Staff of the University of Hawaii and the government of Guyana. The goal of the project is to improve and expand primary care services to rural areas of Guyana through training community health workers and medexes, and utilizing them in an interlocking, tiered, supervisory and referral structure. The evaluation team was to assess the adequacy and relevancy of medex training; the performance of graduates, the adequacy of support and management systems for medexes, and the ability and commitment to continue the training by the government of Guyana. The evluation team visited a large number of health facilities staffed by medexes, interviewed key persons in the Ministry of Health, AID, and the Health Manpower Developement Staff of the University of Hawaii. The team's findings show that the Medex Training Program is of high quality. Medex are working effectively in medically underserved areas; progress is being made in financial information, 2-way radio and supply systems, this despite severe economic difficulties. The development of transportation systems has been extremely slow and difficult and contracts for building housing have not been completed. The team offers a number of recommendations which include the continuation of the Medex Training Program in order to maintain a steady supply of trained personnel; the need to develop a comprehensive career structure and professional incentive program; the regionalization of the expanded 2-way radio system as a continuing education medium; the immediate implementation and careful monitoring of the new financial managements information system; and the necessity for further action to improve the transportation systems. Furthermore, the team's recommendations emphasize that AID expedite its approval of documents necessary for housing contracts to be negotiated; that responsibility for supervisory medexes in rural health centers be gradually transferred to the regional health teams and that Medex headquarters and training staff be more closely integrated. The report includes various appendices: a map of the country, a list of persons interviewed by the team; training and education manuals for diabetes; samples of the system for teaching essentials to medex (e.g., clinical practice, history taking and physical examination) and the declaration of Alma Ata on primary health care.
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  5. 5

    Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.

    Andrews D

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 167-76.

    Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
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  6. 6

    Introduction of a home- and clinic-based growth chart in Dominica.

    Wit JM; Davies C; Molthof J

    Tropical Doctor. 1984 Jan; 14(1):34-40.

    A description of the Dominican Child Health Passport (CHP) and its clinic-based counterpart are presented. These are adaptions of the World Health Organization (WHO) growth chart. A prototype of the chart was introduced in June, 1980 for a pilot project in the town of Portsmouth. At 7 consequtive child welfare clinics all parents who received a CHP at an earlier visit were interviewed. Questions were asked about some aspects of clinic attendance, the use of and attitude towards the CHP; and understanding of it. The children ranged in age from 1-21 months with a mean of 7 months. 31 parents (61%) had visited the clinic 4 weeks ago (the usual period between visits) and the average was 5 weeks. Weighing was the reason that 49% of the mothers brought their children to the clinic. This could mean that there is already an awareness of the importance of weighing for monitoring child health. Of the 51 parents, only 1 had forgotten the CHP. 10 children possessing a CHP were taken to a doctor. 6 mothers took the CHP along, and on 5 occasions the doctor showed an interest. Opinions on various aspects of the CHP are given. The price--60 cents Eastern Caribbean Currency (=US $0.22) was considered acceptable. Almost all mothers liked to have the CHP at home. However, a substantial % did not like the idea of having child spacing methods entered on the card. 4 CHPs with different weight curves were shown to mothers, who were asked if they would worry about a child who showed the growth pattern indicated. Severe underweight with loss of weight was recognized by 51% of the interviewees. Obesity was not usually considered something to worry about; this is understandable in a place where undernourishment is common in infants. About 1/3 of the respondents recognized the danger if an infant was still in the normal range of weight-for-age but was losing weight.
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