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  1. 1

    Report of the third meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Bacterial Enteric Infections: Microbiology, Epidemiology, Immunology, and Vaccine Development.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1984. 17 p. (WHO/CDD/BEI/84.5)

    The scientific topic discussed in detail by the Scientific Working Group (SWG) was recent research advances in the field of cholera. The SWG reviewed new knowlenge in areas such as epidemiology and ecology, phage-typing, pathogenesis, immunization, and related pathogens, and made recommendations for future research. The Diarrhoeal Disease Control Pragramme was continuing to emphasize the implementation of oral rehydration therapy as a means of reducing diarrheal mortality, and research aimed at an improved case-management strategy. The Steering Committee granted support to a number of projects aimed at clarifying the epidemiology of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of bacterial agents of acute diarrhea. Support was provided by the Steering Committee to projects aimed at, or closely related to the development of new vaccines against typhoid fever, cholera, and Shigella dysentery.
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  2. 2

    News from WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases. Technical Advisory Group

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(5):212-6.

    This article highlights the conclusions and recommendations of the 5th meeting of the Technical Advisory Group of the World Health Organization (WHO) Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program held in March 1984. On the basis of clinical trials supported by the CDD Program, WHO has endorsed use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing trisodium citrate dihydrate in place of sodium bicarbonate. Although the bicarbonate formulation remains highly effective and may continue to be used, the citrate formula results in less stool output and is more stable under tropical climatic conditions. At its meeting, the Technical Advisory Group expressed satisfaction with progress in the health services and research components of the program's activities. By 1983, 72 countries or areas had formulated plans of operation for national CDD programs and 52 had actually implemented programs. Training courses directed at program managers, first-line supervisors, and middle-level health workers are held on a regular basis. 38 developing countries are now producing ORS. Another area of activity has involved development of a management information system to monitor progress toward the target of increased access to and use of oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea in children under 1 year of age. Data from 40 countries indicate that access to ORS was 6-10% in 1982 and usage was 1-4%. There have been reviews of 10 national CDD programs, 7 of which utilized a joint national-external team to collect and analyze information on the management and impact of the CDD program. During 1983, 71 new research projects were funded by the CDD program, bringing the total number of projects supported to 231 (59% in developing countries). Biomedical research has focused on development of more stable and effective ORS; the etiology and epidemiology of acute diarrhea: and development and evaluation of new diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antidiarrheal drugs. In 1982-83, the CDD program received US$1.4 million from WHO and about US$11 million from voluntary contributors. The 1984-85 budget has been set at US$19.7 million.
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  3. 3

    Report of the third meeting of the scientific working group on viral diarrhoeas: microbiology, epidemiology, immunology and vaccine development, [held in] Geneva, 1-3, February 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [1984]. 19p.

    The current status of the Scientific Working Group Program is reviewed, showing an expansion of activities in both its health services component (planning, implementation and evaluation of national diarrheal diseases control programs) and its research component (biomedical and operational). Submission of research proposals is encouraged by the Steering Committee (SC), namely those investigating the etiological role of viral agents in diarrheal disease and the epidemiology of these agents. Recently, the SC has made a particular effort to stimulate research in the area of immunology of viral enteric infections, which has been a generally neglected area. Other important areas of Program activity include site visits to review progress made by its projects, to participate in the initial design or the analysis of studies, or to stimulate general interest among research workers in the activities of the SWG. Workshops have also been initiated and conducted in WHO regions. The SWG notes with satisfaction the progress of the Program and commends the SC's efforts to stimulate and support research activities. SWG recommendations bear on the need for more data on the etiology and epidemiology of diarrhea in the community and the encouragement of further community-based studies. Particular attention should also be given to the preparation of reagents for the serotyping and subgrouping of rotaviruses. Moreover, the Group recommends that research strengthening workshops be continously held. In addition to the review of the meeting and recommendations, this paper includes a report on active and passive immunity to viral diarrheas. Special attention is given to rotavirus diarrhea as it tends to be common and quite severe. Its epidemiology is briefly presented, showing its incidence, seasonality (winter) in temperate climates, age-specific occurrence (most severe in infants and young children) and transmission (fecal-oral, person-to-person). Neonatal ans sequential postneonatal rotavirus infection are addressed ans issues for further investigation clarified; e.g., the relationship between low birth weight and the occurrence and severity of infection. Much remains to be elucidated regarding the serotyping-specific epidemiology of rotaviruses. The Group notes that further immunological studies of rotaviruses are essential to elucidate the role of passive protection. The other area of study in which research activities need to concentrate is vaccine development.
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  4. 4

    Oral rehydration salts (ORS) formulation containing trisodium citrate.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme; UNICEF

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, [1984]. 2 p. (WHO/CDD/SER/84.7)

    In 1982-1983 the Who Diarrhoeal Diseases Control (CDD) Programme supported laboratory studies to identify a more stable ORS composition, particularly for use in tropical countries, where ORS has to be packed and stored under climatic conditions of high humidity and temperature. The results of these studies demostrate that ORS containing 2.9 grams of trisodium citrate dihydrate in place of 2.5 grams of sodium bicarbonate was the best of the formulations evaluated. 7 clinical trials were undertaken in which the efficacy of ORS-citrate and ORS-bicarbonate was compared. All but 1 of these trials had a double-blind study design. 4 of these studies were undertaken in children below 2 years of age with moderate to severe noncholera diarrhea. The ORS-citrate was received by 128 children and found to be uniformly as effective as ORS-bicarbonate in correcting acidosis. In 3 of the 4 studies from which preliminary data are available, there was a trend towards a reduction (8-14%) of diarrheal stool output in children receiving the ORS-citrate. Countries should have no hesitation in continuning to use ORS-bicarbonate, which is highly effective. However, because of its better stability and apparently greater efficacy, WHO and UNICEF now recommend that countries use and produce ORS-citrate where feasible.
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  5. 5

    Interim programme report, 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [1984] 27 p.

    This is the 1st interim report issued by the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control (CDD) Programme, summarizing progress in its main areas of activity during the previous calendar year. Most of the information is presented in the form of tables, graphs and lists. Other important developments are mentioned briefly in each section. The information is presented according to major program areas; health services; research; and program management. Within the health services component, national program planning, training, the production of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), health education and promotion are areas of priority activity. Progress in the rate of development of national programs, participants in the various levelsof training programs, and the countries producing their own ORS packets and developing promotional and educational materials are presented. An evaluation of the health services component, based on a questionnaire survey to determine the impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), indicates significant decreases in diarrheal admission rates and in overall diarrheal case-fatality rates. Data collected from a total of 45 morbidity and and mortality surveys are shown. Biomedical and operational research projects supported by the program are given. Thhe research areas in which there was the greatest % increase in the number of projects funded were parasite-related diarrheas, drug development and management of diarrheal disease. Research is also in progress on community attitudes and practices in relation to diarrheal disease and on the development of local educational materials. The program's organizational structure is briefly described and its financial status summarized. The report ends with a list of new publications and documents concerning health services, research and management of diarrheal diseases.
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  6. 6

    [A possible objective from now to the year 2000: reduce infant mortality in the third world by half] Un objectif possible d'ici 1' an 2000: reduire de moitie la mortalite infantile dans les pays du tiers-monde

    Berthet E

    Hygiene Mentale. 1984 Jun; 3(2):41-9.

    Every day 40,000 children die throughout the world, most of them in developing countries. There is a close relationship between infant mortality, life expectancy at birth, the adult literacy rate and national income per capita. Why such huge differences between the infant mortality rate of 7/1000 (live births) in Sweden and 208 in Upper Volta? The 4 scourges which afflict developing countries: hunger (malnutrition), disease, ignorance and poverty are responsible for this state of affairs. The author suggests that coordinated action by governments and International Agencies should be taken to halve the infant mortality rate by the year 2000. He notes that in the past 3 mistakes were made which should not be repeated. The 1st was to improve the living conditions of the population. The green revolution in India provides a striking example of an important progress which benefited only the wealthier farmers. A 2nd mistake was to believe that only a medical approach reduces the infant mortality rate. A 3rd error was to overlook the importance of health education and not to seek the active participation of the people concerned. The author recalls that the International Union for Health Education carried out a sanitary and social program from 1975 to 1978 in Africa, south of the Sahara. To this effect, the IUHE had to find out what the people really wanted, whether they could be motivated to increase the welfare of the villagers by measures adapted to existing possibilities, and to study how the people could recruit health workers among the villagers and train them to create village health committees. 4 weapons used together should reduce the infant mortality rate by 1/2 in the developing world before the end of the century. They are: the promotion of breast feeding, the extended coverage of vaccinations, the early detection of malnutrition and the treatment at hoem of diarrheic diseases thanks to oral rehydration. (author's modified) (summaries in ENG, SPA)
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