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New York, New York, FPIA, . 227 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jun. 10,  p.105 developing country projects dealing primarily or exclusively with adolescent fertility were analyzed in an attempt to determine the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in the developing world. There were 37 projects in Asia, 21 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8 in North Africa and the Middle East, 22 in the Caribbean, and 17 in Latin America. About 27% of the programs were exclusively urban, 16% exclusively rural, and the remainder operated in both rural and urban settings. Various types of organizations sponsored projects, but the majority were sponsored by International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and other private organizations. There were marked regional differences in sponsorship. Only 11 of the 105 programs were conducted by government agencies, but 14 programs received some support from national governments and local governments also sometimes contributed support. Family life education for both in and out of school youth was the predominant project activity in 66 of the 105 projects. 20 projects focused on training of professionals in family life education such as educators, counselors, and health personnel. Curricula primarily concentrated on sex education, responsible parenthood, the importance of delayed 1st birth and child spacing, and general population concerns. 25 projects conduct youth training sessions and teach teams to serve as peer counselors and cators, motivating their peers toward acceptance of family planning and the small family and providing accurate information on sexuality. About 21 projects have a specific counseling component, with most counseling services teaching family planning, distributing condoms, or referring clients to clinics. Only 16 projects had as a stated objective provision for adolescents of diagnostic or clinical health services related to contraceptive use, family planning, or venereal disease. 18 projects offered training in vocational or income-generating skills integrated with family planning, sex education, and family life education. Over 20 projects described educational materials preparation and production as an activity. Innovative approaches observed in the 105 projects included adoption of the multiservice center concept, integration of family planning education with self-help initiatives to improve young women's socioeconomic status, participation of adolescents in program decision making, and innovative promotional activities. Factors contributing to program success identified by project staff include conducting a needs assessment survey, securing parental and community support, solid funding, a flexible program design, skilled personnel, availability of adequate materials, good cooperation with other community agencies, active participation of young people in planning and running the program, good publicity, and use of innovative teaching methods. Projects are increasingly tending toward less formal kinds of communication in family life education.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 Aug. 50  p.The need for family life education today is urgent. The rapid social changes taking place around the world are altering traditional family and community structures and values, and the task of preparing young people to cope with adult life has become more difficult. If family life education is to succeed, it must meet the needs of the young people for whom it is designed. Some common needs of young people are: coping with the physical and emotional changes of adolescence; establishing and maintaining satisfying personal relationships; understanding and responding positively to changing situations, e.g. the changing roles of men and women; and developing the necessary values and skills for successful marriage, child-rearing and social participation in the wider community. The potential scope for family life education programs encompasses psychological and emotional, social, developmental, moral, health, economic, welfare and legal components. The integration of these perspectives into family life education programs are issues which are explored in many of the materials listed in this bibliography. The bibliography is divided into 5 sections. It includes a listing of materials which discuss the definition, content and scope of family life education. It also presents family life bibliographies, curriculum guides, and training manuals and handbooks. Finally, it deals with studies of family life education programs and projects. Publishers' addresses are listed at the end of the bibliography.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 153 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 688; Population and Development Series No. 13)The 5 chapters of this document, which traces the sources of assiastance for family planning and other population programs from developed countries and the flow of assistance through principal channel organizations to developing countries, focus on the following: population assistance flows; rationales for population assistance; the shape of population programs; the major channels; and the future of population assistance. Official development assistance for population comes primarily from the US, the Nordic countries, and more recently from the Federal Republic of Germany and Japan. Population assistance is channeled primarily through the UN Fund for Population Assistance (UNFPA), nongovernmental organizations, bilateral programs, and the World Bank. In discussing why developing countries seek and why developed countries provide population assistance, this paper concentrates on official views of how population growth and high fertility affect economic development, environment, maternal and child health, and women's welfare. It explains why some countries are reluctant to seek or provide more population assistance. The paper also analyzes what population assistance does to extend reliable and affordable family planning services and information and to improve understanding of population growth, its causes, and consequences. It summarizes current population policies and family planning programs in major regions of the 3rd world and considers the role of assistance. This paper identifies the comparative advantages of principal organizations providing population assistance, focusing on UNFPA, the major nongovernment organizarions, and the major bilateral programs. Finally, it discusses the evolution of "policy issues" affecting population assistance, particularly donors' concern for "demand" for family planning, cost effectiveness of family planning services, safety, and voluntarism.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
Planned Parenthood Review. 1984 Spring-Summer; 4(1):9-10.The Planned Parenthood Federation of America supports international family planning efforts through its affiliation with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and the activities of its own International Division, Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA). FPIA is founded on the beliefs that family planning is a basic human right; family planning programs benefit individuals, families, communities, and nations; and family planning along with other needed socieconomic programs can have a major impact on development. Careful timing, spacing, and limiting of births is directly and causally related to improved infant and maternal survival through readily observed and easily explained mechanisms. Mothers in developing countries are anywhere from 10 to 20 or 30 times as likely to die in childbirth as mothers in developed countries. Risks are greatest for mothers under 18 years old, over 30, for those having births within 2 years of a previous birth, and 4th or later deliveries. The differences occur for women at all levels of affluence and access to medical care in all societies, but are particularly sharp in developing countries. Among the poorest countries, 200 or more of every 1000 liveborn infants may die in their 1st year compared to fewer than 10/1000 live births in some wealthy egalitarian countries. The infant mortality rate is so closely related to the overall level of well-being in a country or region that it is regarded as 1 of the most revealing measures of how well a society is meeting the needs of its people. Many of the risk factors for maternal mortality also contribute to infant mortality. Infant mortality in developing countries drops appreciably when women practice family planning and reduce the number of high risk pregnancies. Throughout the developing world, the higher risk infants born to very young or older mothers, mothers with recent previous pregnancies, and mothers with 3 or 4 previous births are 3-10 times more likely to die in their 1st year. Too short birth intervals may threaten the life of the older child through early weaning and resulting increased susceptibility to malnutrition and infection. Careful planning of births through contraception can result in a population better able to contribute economically and less likely to strain the medical resources.
Planned Parenthood Review. 1984 Spring-Summer; 4(1):18.Since the beginning in 1971 of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America's international program, Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), US$54 million has been contributed in direct financial support for the operation of over 300 family planning programs in 51 countries; over 3000 institutions in 115 countries have been supplied with family planning commodities, including over 600 million condoms, 120 cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUD; and about 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA funded projects in 1982 aone. Since 1971, however, the world's population has increased from 3.7 billion to around 4.7 billion people. About 85 million people are added to the world each year. There is consensus that without organized family planning programs, today's world population would be even higher. FPIA measures its progress in terms of expanding the availability of contraceptive services in devloping countries. FPIA supported projects have helped make services available in areas previously lacking them, and has helped involve a wide variety of organizations, such as women's groups, youth organizations, and Red Cross Societies, in family planning services. A prime concern of FPIA, which has limited resources, is what happens to projects once FPIA support is terminated. FPIA has been paying attention to local income generation to help projects become more self-supporting and to increas staff members' management skills. The more successful income-generating schemes appear to be directly related to family planning, selling contraceptives and locally produced educational materials, and charging fees for family planning and related medical services and tuition for training courses. FPIA funded to projects use management by objectives (MBO) to help improve management skills. MBO helps grantees improve their ability to set objectives, plan, monitor, report, and do day-to-day project management.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984. 43 p. (IPPF Medical Publications)This booklet, for health care workers in developing countries, reviews the fertility-controlling effects of breastfeeding, its strengths and limitations as an element in family planning, and how to provide modern methods of contraception to lactating women. Breastfeeding currently provides about 30% more protection against pregnancy in developing countries than all of the organized family planning programs. The recent trend toward a falling off in the practice of breastfeeding poses a threat to infant welfare and a danger of increased fertility. Health workers are urged to reach pregnant women in the community with knowledge about the value of breastfeeding versus bottle feeding. Each country must set its own policies concerning contraception for lactating women. It is preferable for lactating women to use nonhormonal methods, but if selected, they should not be used too early. Lowest-dose preparations, especially progestogen-only pills, are preferable. Determination of when to start contraception during lactation should be based on breastfeeding patterns in the community, the age at which supplementary foods are introduced, usual birth spacing intervals, and the mean duration of lactation amenorrhea. If the usual time of resumption of menstruation in a given community is known, a rough guide to the optimal time for starting contraception is returning menstruation minus 2 months.