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UN Chronicle. 1984 Mar; 21: p..A call for more women in the engineering profession and for special incentives to encourage more women to enter the teaching professions in the fields of science and technology was made by the Advisory Committee on Science and Technology for Development at its recent session. The Advisory Committee stressed the need for all women to be informed broadly bout science and technology and urged Governments to adopt appropriate measures to achieve that. Recommendations on the important roles which non-governmental organization (NGOs) and women, among others, should play in promoting science and technology for development were adopted by the Advisory Committee in its report to the Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development, its parent body. The 28-member Committee met in New York from 14 to 21 February. The Committee had before it the recommendations of five ad hoc panels of specialists which examined topics relating to the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development. The Programme was adopted in 1979 by the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development. (excerpt)
Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1984. 40 p. (IDRC-220e)Add to my documents.
Doctors--barefoot and otherwise. The World Health Organization, the United States, and global primary medical care.
Jama. 1984 Dec 14; 252(22):3146-8.The international effort to provide primary health care (PHC) services for all by the year 2000 requires the development of appropriate manpower resources in the developing countries. Given the limited health budgets of developing countries, research on manpower development is necessary to ensure that funds for manpower development are used in the most efficient manner. In recognition of this need, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Medical Sciences convened a workshop, entitled "Health for All - A Challenge to Health Manpower Development Research" in Ibadan, Nigeria in 1982. The participants at the workshop agreed that manpower development strategies must be developed in the context of PHC, and that the current manpower development strategies in most developing countries do not provide the type of manpower required in PHC systems. Specifically, the workshop recommended that health manpower development strategies must 1) take into account the fact that health improvement is dependent not just on health services but on improvements in sanitation, water, housing, and nutrition; 2) recognize that PHC systems require an extensive cadre of health workers, paramedics, and auxiliary personnel, and that PHC systems are not highly physician dependent; and 3) recognize that medical schools must train physicians capable of serving the needs of the entire population rather than just the needs of the elite few. Participants also recognized that the development of effective strategies may be hindered by various professional, technical, financial, and bureaucratic factors. Given the pressing needs and scarce resources of developing countries, manpower development research must be highly policy oriented. The recommendations of the workshop were endorsed by WHO's Advisory Committee on Medical Research in 1983 and then distributed to WHO's 6 regional offices. The regional offices are currently discussing the recommendations with individual countries in an effort to determine how each country can implement the recommendations. The success of the effort to train appropriate manpower will require the assistance of developed countries and especially the US. The US can assist by providing training in US institutions for individuals from developing countries. Training programs, however, must be reoriented in such a way as to equip students to work in PHC settings. Medical personnel from the US can provide technical assistance in the developing countries, but efforts must made to ensure that this assistance is directed toward the development of PHC prsonnel and services.