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New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Center, 1984 Sep. iv, 116 p.The 1st 2 issues of newsletters in this volume, Women and Appropriate Technology, Parts I and II, emphasize resource materials and appropriate technology groups and projects from around the world that might be found useful. The 3rd issue, Women and Food Production, focuses specifically on the need for women to have greater access to land, technology, and capital in the production of food crops, whether for their own use or as crops for marketing. The last issues, Women MOving Appropriate Technology Ahead, concentrates on strategies for introducing appropriate technology ideas and approaches into one's own community. Together, these 4 issues combine several issues related to women's access to and uses of appropriate technologies, with practical information for concrete action and sample projects involving women from countries around the world. Originally published between 1978 and 1973, all 4 newsletters in this volume have been updated and edited in some parts to assure their continued relevance. Resource groups, UN news and conferences, available periodicals, training, credit and loan information, cash crops, international nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies are all discussed.
Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.
Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
Working paper/Strategies for meeting basic socio-economic needs in the context of achieving the goals of population policies and programmes.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 253-66. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58.)The developing countries in the Economic ans Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region present widely different development levels. 13 countries have low incomes with per capita incomes from US $80--US $370. 8 are middle income countries with incomes from US $590--US $3830. Most of the population lives in the low income countries. These populations 1) are rural, 2) have low life expectancy, 3) have high fertility, 4) have low nutrition, and 5) are illiterate. Most people do not have their basic needs met, and they live in countries with very unequal structures of income distribution. The lower 40% of the population in these countries will not be able to reach minimum levels of satisfaction for their basic needs without a development effort that is both qualitatively and quantitatively different. The middle income countries generally have declining population growth rates, higher literacy, adequate nutrition, and a life expectancy above 60. Many of the poorest countries had increasing birth rates during the 1970s. Most of the poorest countries will have a labor force that continues to be largely agricultural and rural. Countries in Southeast and East Asia, including China, have a high economic growth potential. South Asia's per capita incomes will still remain below US $200 in the year 2000. The satisfaction of basic needs remains one of the main criteria of development; this includes health, education, food, clothing, housing, and drinking water. The key elements in countries who have improved their satisfaction of basic needs are literacy rates, women's status, equal improvement for men and women, free health care, free education, and income redistribution. A basic strategy would 1) concentrate health care on maternal and child health, sanitation, and public health; 2) give educational priority to universal primary education; and 3) improve the productivity of small holdings and concentrate on staple foods.
Demography India. 1984 Jan-Dec; 13(1-2):153-67.The threshold hypothesis shares with transition theory the basic assumption that a decline in fertility is interrelated with a decline in mortality and change in the social, economic, and cultural conditions of the population. However, threshold theory fails to formulate a causal chain between fertility and the other variables and its application at the aggregate country level is limited by intracountry heterogeneity in cultural and social variables. Problematic is the fixing of the timing for a country of a decline in fertility to be inferred from the fact that some indicators of development have reached the threshold zone while others have not. This paper attempts to develope a combined index for socioeconomic development on the basis of data from 12 countries of the ESCAP region of South East Asia. Variables included were life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, adult female literacy, percentages of females economically active, GNP per capita, and percentage urban population. In 1970, 3 of the countries analyzed had a crude birth rate below 25, 6 countries had a rate between 25-40, and 3 had a rate above 40. The lowest value of the index recorded for countries of low fertility (crude birth rate below 25) and the highest value recorded for countries of high fertility (above 40) are taken as the threshold zones for the overall index. The number of countries in the threshold range increased from 5 in 1970 to 8 in 1975. With the increase in the index value, a reduction in the fertility level was noted. In contrast, where socioeconomic development was slow, fertility showed little change. Policy makers could use this system to assess which indicator could be pushed through to raise the overall index of development so as to effect a decline in fertility.
[Columbia Maryland], Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Public Applied Systems, 1984 Sep. 26,  p. (Contract No. PDC-1406-I-02-4062-00, W.0.2; Project No. 936-5939-12)Westinghouse Health Systems, under a US Agency for International Development (USAID) contract, ass ssed the global supply and demand of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and developed a set of recommendations concerning USAID's future role as a supplier of ORS. 1.5 billion ORS packets (assuming each packet is equivalent to 1 liter of ORS solution) would be required to treat all ORS treatable cases of diarrhea which occur annually among the world's children under 5 years of age. Currently, about 200 million packets are manufactured/year. In 1983, international sources supplied slightly less than 37 million packets, and the remaining packets were produced by local or in-country manufacturers. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), which currently provides 81% of the international supply, contracts with private firms to manufacture ORS and then distributes the packets to developing countries, either at cost or free of charge. UNICEF purchases the packets for about US$.04-US$.05. USAID provides about 12.3% of the international supply. Prior to 1981, USAID distributed UNICEF packets. Since 1981, USAID has distributed ORS packets manufactured by the US firm of Jianas Brothers. USAID must pay a relatively high price for the packets (US$.08-US$.09) since the manufacturer is required to produce the packets on an as needed basis. Other international suppliers of ORS include the International Dispensary Association, the Swedish International Development Authority, the International Red Cross, and the World Health Organization. Currently, 38 developing countries manufacture and distrubute their own ORS products. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase the supply of ORS; however, the supply and demand in the future is unpredictable. Factors which may alter the supply and demand in the future include 1) the development of superior alternative formulations and different type of ORS products, 2) a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea due to improved environmental conditions or the development of a vaccine for diarrhea, 3) increased production of ORS in developing countries, 4) increased commercial sector involvement in the production and sale of ORS products, and 5) the use of more effective marketing techniques and more efficient distribution systems for ORS products. USAID options as a future supplier of ORS include 1) purchasing and distributing UNICEF packets; 2) contracting with a US firm to develop a central procurement system, similar to USAID's current contraceptive procurement system; 3) contracting with the a US firm to establish a ORS stockpile of a specified amount; 4) promoting private and public sector production of ORS within developing countries; 5) including ORS as 1 of the commodities available to all USAID assisted countries. The investigators recommended that USAID should contribute toward increasing the global supply of ORS; however, given the unpredictability of the ORS demand and supply, USAID should adopt a short-term and flexible strategy. This strategy precludes the establishment of a central procurement system; instead, USAID should contract a private firm to establish an ORS stockpile and to fill orders from the stockpile. Consideration should be given to altering the ORS packets size and to alternative ORS presentations. USAID should also promote the production of quality ORS products within developing countries and continue to support research on other diarrhea intervention strategies. This report also discusses some of the problems involved in manufacturing and packaging ORS. The appendices contain 1) a WHO and UNICEF statement on the ORS formulation made with citrate instead of bicarbonate, 2) a list of developing countries which manufacture ORS, and 3) statistical information on distribution of ORS by international sources.
POPIN Working Group on Dissemination of Population Information: Report on the meeting held from 2 to 4 April 1984.
Popin Bulletin. 1984 Dec; (6-7):69-79.The objectives of this meeting were: to analyze the general dissemination strategy and functions of POPIN member organizations and assess the methods currently employed to identify users; to select publications or other information output and evaluate how they are being distributed and how procedures for the selective dissemination of information are developed; to develop guidelines for determining the potential audience and reader's interests; to discuss the methodology for maintaining a register of readers' interest; to develop guidelines for establishing linds with key press and broadcasting agencies to ensure rapid dissemination of information; to dientify media and organizations currently involved in the dissemination of population information; to document experience and provide recommendations for the utilization of innovative approaches to serve audiences; and to explore ways and means to meet the special needs of policy makers. Problem areas in population information dissemination were identified at the meeting as well as priority areas in meeting speical information needs of policy makers. Collection of information for dissemination is difficult, costly and time-consuming; there is a shortage of staff trained in the repackaging and dissemination of population information; the direct use of the mass media for information dissemination is still very limited; and financial resources are limited. Priority areas include: compilation of a calendar of events or meetings; conducting media surveys and inventories of population infromation centers and their services and compilation of results; resource development through product marketing and preparation of resource catalogues; and preparation of executive summaries highlighting policy implications to facilitate policy making. Recommendations include: promotion of training and technical assistance in population information activities by the POPIN Coordinating Unit; encouraging member organizations with relevant data bases to develop subsets for distribution to other institutions and, where feasible, to provide technical assistance and support for their wider use; the POPIN Coordinating Unit should alert its members regularly of new technological facilities and innovations in the field of information; organizations conducting population information activities at the national and/or regional levels should be encouraged to provide the POPIN Coordinating Unit with yearly calendars of meetings for publication in the POPIN Bulletin; and the members of POPIN are urged to emphasize the need to incorporate specific plans and budgets for population information activities.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 175-86. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)In carrying out the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action, the UN has expanded its technical cooperation activities with the countries concerned in diverse population development fields, including studies of the interaction between social, economic, and demographic variables, the formulation and implementation of policies, the integration of demographic factors in the planning process, the training of national staff, and the improvement of the data base and institutional arrangements. Discussion focuses on country problems and policies, national institutional capacity in population and development planning, strengthening national institutional capacities, and integration of population and development in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region. The interaction between structural change in population and social and economic development is generally recognized at the aggregate, sectoral, and regional levels, yet it has not thus far been possible to take this factor fully into account in the development planning process in many countries. In too many cases, population policies have been formulated and implemented in isolation and not in harmony with development policies or as an integral part of overall development strategy. Deficiencies in achieving integrated population policies and integration of demographic factors in the development planning process often have been caused or aggravated by a deficient knowledge of the interactions between demographic and socioeconomic factors and by insufficient expertise, resources, and proper institutional arrangements in the field. The population policies most frequently formulated and implemented during the last decade dealt with fertility, population growth, migration (internal and international), and mortality. Many governments continue to assign relatively low priority to the formulation of population policy and the formulation of related institutional arrangements. The fact that population is still understood as family planning by a number of governments also delays the legislative procedure necessary to establish government institutions for population research and study. The need exists to create a viable national institutional capacity through the establishment of a population planning unit within the administrative structure of national planning bodies. The substantive content of the work programs of these units would vary from country to country. There also is a need for a broader approach to the adoption of population policies and development planning strategies. Some progress has been made in integrating population into development planning in the ESCAP region, but the progress has been slow.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference, Arlington, Virginia, Jun 11-13, 1984. 19 p. (NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference Paper)This article discusses the relative merits of various maternal and child health interventions and programs. The Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH) has been studying international resources for maternal and child health (MCH), including family planning (FP) at the request of the Maternal and Child Health Program of the World Health Organization. A questionnaire was sent to 100s of donor agencies, including multilateral, bilateral and governmental agencies (NGOs). Data were obtained from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development which collects information on development cooperation from 17 developed countries. Despite its limitations, this study indicates important program implications. Over US$37 billion in official (government) development funds were disbursed in 1981, 73% of which came from DAC members. Of DAC members, the United States provides the largest amount of official development funding (US$5.8 billion in 1981). Nongovernmental funds for 1981 are estimated to be over US$2 billion. 6% of bilateral commitments for funding from DAC countries were for health in 1981, amounting to US$1.3 billion. The median allocations of funding to the sectors and programs of interest in various geographical regions are shown, indicating that in African countries a much smaller proportion of total development funding is allocated to health and population than in Asia or Latin America. Overall, about 10% of the reported international funding was allocated to health and population. In the last year or 2 numerous family planning projects (often integrated with health services) have been initiated in Africa. More money is available per eligible person in Africa than in other regions both for health and population services and for MCH/FP services because African countries have small populations compared to those in Asia and Latin America. For all regions, the US$s/per person eligible for services is very low. Only for all health and population services in Africa is there over US$1 available per person. In recent years a large proportion of agencies have increased funding of MCH/FP. 46 of 53 agencies indicated they would consider increasing funding. The priority of possible services should be considered carefully if they are to reach the vast number of women and children needing services in developing countries.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 467-76. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)This paper refers to the substantive collaboration that the UN Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (DTCD) has provided in the field of fertility and family. The objectives are: 1) to present, within the framework of the structure of its program, a review of the Department's experience in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action; 2) to distill from this experience the major problems encountered as well as lessons learned; and 3) to synthesize from these a series of recommendations to improve technical co-operation activities. Within the the UN system, the DTCD is a major executing agency for projects funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) at the country, intercountry and global levels. The Department's experience in the implementation of the Plan of Action is primarily to provide developing countries with support to develop or improve national capacities for data collection, evaluation, analyses and presenting the data in a form responsive to users. The long-term objective of this undertaking is to assist governments in creating the capacity for conducting all types of demographic data collection and analysis and to increase the capacity of governments to utilize effectively the data and analysis resulting from censuses, surveys and vital registration systems. The purpose of the UN program of training in population is to establish within developing countries a cadre of professionals capable of establishing a body of demographic knowledge within their own countries. The goal of the majority of the projects on population policy and development planning is to assist governments in the process of incorporating population variables into the national development planning process. The Department's program generates a process of development in such a way that training creates the ability to design and conduct fertility surveys, the analysis of which can be used in the formulation of policy to be incorporated into national development plans. Problems encountered during the last decade of experience include: 1) the lack of importance placed on the analysis of census, survey and vital registration results in the preparation of fertility studies; 2) government motivation; 3) countries that have clear-cut policies on fertility have often not implemented them as integral parts of the national development strategy; and 4) the lack of an infrastructure and other national counterpart support for population projects. Several recommendations are proposed with respect to the provision of future technical co-operation.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations [WFPHA], 1984 Aug. vii, 78 p. (Information for Action)This bibliograph contains 4 parts. Part 1 is anannotated bibiography covering the following topics: an overview of health care in developing countries; planning and management of primary health care (PHC): manpower training and utilization; community participation and health education; delivery of health services, including nutrition, maternal and child health, family planning, medical and dental care; disease control, water and sanitation, and pharmaceutical; and auxiliary services, Part 2 is a reference directory covering periodicals directories, handbooks and catalogs, in PHC, as well as computerized information services, educational aids and training programs, (including audiovisual and other teaching aids), and procurement of supplies and pharmaceuticals. Also given are lists of international and private donor agencies, including development cooperation agencies, and directories of foundations and proposal writing. Parts 3 and 4 are the August 1984 updates of the original May 1982 edition of the bibliography.
Assessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countries: incompatible paradigms and competing social systems.
Social Science and Medicine. 1984; 19(4):373-84.This paper addresses conceptual issues underlying the assessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countries as practiced by foreign development agencies coping with a potentially destabilizing unmet social demand. As such, these agencies mediate the gap between existing health care structures patterned around the narrow needs of the ruling classes and the magnitude of public ill-health which mass movements strive to eradicate with implications for capitalism at large. It is in this context that foreign agencies are shown to intervene for the reassessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countires with the objective of defending capitalism against the delegitimizing effects of its own development, specifically the persistence of mass disease. Constrained by this objective, the interpretations they offer of the miserable state of health prevailing in developing countries and how it could be improved remains ideological: it ranges between "stage theory" and modern consumption-production Malthusiansim. Developing countries are entering into a new pattern of public health which derives from their unique location in the development of capitalism, more specifically in the new international division of labor. Their present position affects not only the pattern and magnitude of disease formation but also the effective alleviation of mass disease without an alteration in the mode of production itself. In the context of underdevelopment, increased productivity is at the necessary cost of public health. Public health improvement is basically incompatible with production-consumption Malthusianism from which the leading "Basic Needs" orientation in the assessment and implementation of health care priorities derives. Marx said that "countries of developing capitalism suffer not only from its development but also from its underdevelopment." (author's modified)
Populi. 1984; 11(2):4-12.This article highlights some of the findings of the 5th Population Inquiry carried out by the UN Population Division in 1982-83. A total of 109 countries responded to questionnaires on government population perceptions, practices, and policies. Slightly over 25% of countries reported that they had established targets for population growth. Of the 81 developing countries included, 56 (69%) characterized present health and mortality conditions as unacceptable. In contrast, only 4 (14%) of the 28 developed countries did so. Infants were identified most frequently as the target of special policy concern. 40 countries, 39 of which were in the Third World, referred to the implementation of some aspect of primary health care. In terms of fertility control, 38% of governments reported that they have not expressed a formal view on the present level of fertility. Whereas 50% of developed countries viewed their fertility levels as too low and 50% considered them satisfactory, the corresponding figures among developing countries were 8% and 28%. Most governments pursue policies aimed at both influencing the fertility rate and improving maternal and child health. In developed countries, the emphasis is usually on economic measures that enhance the status of women. In developing countries, family planning was the most frequently reported measure. The government provides direct support to the provision of family planning services in about 65% of countries and indirect support in 16%. In terms of population distribution and internal migration, the major spatial concern was to alter the urban-rural distribution, generally through reducing migration to the largest metropolitan area and retaining population in rural areas. 55 governments (47 in developing and 8 in developed countries) reported the rate of growth of the largest metropolitan area to be too high. Less than 1/3 of responding governments viewed recent immigration levels as significant. 59 countries have designated a single agency to be responsible to the coordination or formulation of population policies. In general, the population issue of concern mentioned most frequently was the need for further analysis of the relationship between population and social and economic development.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984; 13(2):25-30.Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article.