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Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.
Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 175-86. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)In carrying out the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action, the UN has expanded its technical cooperation activities with the countries concerned in diverse population development fields, including studies of the interaction between social, economic, and demographic variables, the formulation and implementation of policies, the integration of demographic factors in the planning process, the training of national staff, and the improvement of the data base and institutional arrangements. Discussion focuses on country problems and policies, national institutional capacity in population and development planning, strengthening national institutional capacities, and integration of population and development in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region. The interaction between structural change in population and social and economic development is generally recognized at the aggregate, sectoral, and regional levels, yet it has not thus far been possible to take this factor fully into account in the development planning process in many countries. In too many cases, population policies have been formulated and implemented in isolation and not in harmony with development policies or as an integral part of overall development strategy. Deficiencies in achieving integrated population policies and integration of demographic factors in the development planning process often have been caused or aggravated by a deficient knowledge of the interactions between demographic and socioeconomic factors and by insufficient expertise, resources, and proper institutional arrangements in the field. The population policies most frequently formulated and implemented during the last decade dealt with fertility, population growth, migration (internal and international), and mortality. Many governments continue to assign relatively low priority to the formulation of population policy and the formulation of related institutional arrangements. The fact that population is still understood as family planning by a number of governments also delays the legislative procedure necessary to establish government institutions for population research and study. The need exists to create a viable national institutional capacity through the establishment of a population planning unit within the administrative structure of national planning bodies. The substantive content of the work programs of these units would vary from country to country. There also is a need for a broader approach to the adoption of population policies and development planning strategies. Some progress has been made in integrating population into development planning in the ESCAP region, but the progress has been slow.
Population and Development Review. 1984 Mar; 10(1):103-26.This paper presents some of the results of projections prepared by the World Bank in 1983 for all the world's countries. The projections (presented against a background of recent demographic trends as estimated by the United Nations) trace the approach of each individual country to a stationary state. Implications of the underlying fertility and mortality assumptions are shown mainly in terms of time trends of total population to the year 2100, annual rates of growth, and absolute annual increments. These indices are shown for the largest individual countries, for world regions, and for country groupings according to economic criteria. The detailed predictive performance of such projections is likely to be poor but the projections indicate orders of magnitude characterizing certain aggregate demographic phenomena whose occurrence is highly probable and set clearly interpretable reference points useful in discussing contemporary issues of policy. (author's)
Laws and policies affecting fertility: a decade of change. Leis e politicas que afetam a fecundidade: uma decada de mudancas.
Population Reports. Series E: Law and Policy. 1984; (7):E105-E151.In the last decade over 50 countries have strengthened laws or policies relating to fertility. Approximately 40 developing countries have issued explicit statements on population policy emphasizing the relationship to national development. In several countries constitutional amendments have been passed reflecting a more positive attitude toward family planning. High-level units, e.g. small technical units, interministerial councils and coordinating councils have been established to formulate policies or coordinate programs. Other actions relating to fertility include: increased resources for family planning programs, both in the public and in the private sector; elimination of restrictions on family planning information, services and supplies; special benefits for family planning acceptors or couples with small families, and measures to improve the status of women, which indirectly affects childbearing patterns. The recognition that policies, laws and programs to influence fertility are an integral part of efforts to promote social and economic development was reaffirmed at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. 147 governments expressed their support for voluntary programs to help people control their fertility. Governments cite at least 4 reasons for increased attention to policies affecting fertility and family planning. Some of these are the desire to slow population growth to achieve national development objectives, concern for maternal and child health, support for the basic human right to determine family size, and equity in the provision of health services. In addition to the strongest laws and policies to lower fertility in Asia, legal changes are occurring in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Family planning programs, laws on contraceptives and voluntary sterilization, compensation, incentives and disincentives, the legal status of women and fertility and policy-making and implementation are reviewed, as well as equal employment, education, political and civil rights and equality of women within marriage and the family.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
In: Ghosh PK, ed. Third world development: a basic needs approach. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 115-45. (International Development Resource Books No. 13)The basic needs approach is critically examined, and the appropriateness of donor agency support for the basic needs approach is questioned. The basic needs approach is plagued by operational problems. It is difficult 1) to define minimum basic need levels, especially if absolute standards are advocated; 2) to measure basic needs; and 3) to implement basic needs programs in such a way as to ensure that only the poorest segments of the population derive benefits and that the benefits remain in the hands of the poor. Basic needs advocates fail to deal with the question of economic growth. They assume that economic growth will continue and ignore the fact that there is a trade-off between satisfying basic needs and investing in growth. They also ignore the issue of trade-offs between fulfilling present and future basic needs. The basic needs approach implies a specific development pattern, and the longterm consequences of this implied development pattern are not sufficiently examined by advocates of the approach. The basic needs approach requires a development pattern that stresses rural development and labor intensive production instead of industrialization, capital intensive production, and growth of the modern sector. Ultimately, the development pattern advocated by this approach will result in an international division of labor between the developing and developed countries which will not improve international marketing conditions for the developing countries since developed countries will not be willing to substantially increase their importation of labor intensive products from the developing countries. Donor agencies need to adopt a cautious attitude toward funding and promoting the basic needs approach. Many developing countries strongly resent the basic needs approach. They feel that donors and the developed countries do not have the right to force them to focus their energies on eradicating poverty. They also fear that the approach is an attempt to reduce financial assistance. Donor agencies lack sufficient expertise to evaluate poverty-oriented programs and to assess the long range impact of many of these programs. In one country, a donor-supported basic needs program to increase agricultural productivity had the unexpected result of reducing the price of agricultural products. Another project aimed at improving living standards in a particular rural community unexpectedly increased property values and, ultimately, led to the migration of the former residents to an urban slum. Furthermore, donor agencies do not have the right to impose development strategies on aid recipients. Development strategies must be formulated by the recipients, and donors should support only those strategies which accord with the development goals of the recipient countries.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug 13. 40 p. (E/CONF.76/L.3; M-84-718)This report of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City during August 1984, includes: recommendations for action (socioeconomic development and population, the role and status of women, development of population policies, population goals and policies, and promotion of knowledge and policy) and for implementation (role of national governments; role of international cooperation; and monitoring, review, and appraisal). While many of the recommendations are addressed to governments, other efforts or initiatives are encouraged, i.e., those of international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, private institutions or organizations, or families and individuals where their efforts can make an effective contribution to overall population or development goals on the basis of strict respect for sovereignty and national legislation in force. The recommendations reflect the importance attached to an integrated approach toward population and development, both in national policies and at the international level. In view of the slow progress made since 1974 in the achievement of equality for women, the broadening of the role and the improvement of the status of women remain important goals that should be pursued as ends in themselves. The ability of women to control their own fertility forms an important basis for the enjoyment of other rights; likewise, the assurance of socioeconomic opportunities on a equal basis with men and the provision of the necessary services and facilities enable women to take greater responsibility for their reproductive lives. Governments are urged to adopt population policies and social and economic development policies that are mutually reinforcing. Countries which consider that their population growth rates hinder the attainment of national goals are invited to consider pursuing relevant demographic policies, within the framework of socioeconomic development. In planning for economic and social development, governments should give appropriate consideration to shifts in family and household structures and their implications for requirements in different policy fields. The international community should play an important role in the further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Organs, organizations, and bodies of the UN system and donor countries which play an important role in supporting population programs, as well as other international, regional, and subregional organizations, are urged to assist governments at their request in implementing the reccomendations.
New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984; 13(2):25-30.Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 13 p.An overview of the global economy is provided, with particular attention to the 3rd world, and focusing on 4 economic issues that deserve priority in 1984 and for some years to come: improving economic policy and performance in the industrial countries; liberalizing trade; reviving international capital flows; and improving economic policy in the developing countries. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the industrial countries as a group are likely to achieve economic growth of 3.5% in 1984, up from 2.25% in 1983 and negative growth in 1982. The World Bank estimate is that the developing countries will average growth of 3-3.5% in 1984, up from less than 1% in 1983 and less than 2% in 1982. Yet, since population is growing more than 2% a year in the developing countries, average per capita income actually fell in 1982-83 and will increase only modestly in 1984. Economic conditions vary greatly among the developing countries. 1 priority issue, clearly, is improved economic policies and performance in the industrial countries so that they can translate their current recovery into sustained and noninflationary growth. To move from recovery into a sustained period of economic expansion, the industrial countries need to create an environment conducive to structural change. Sustained and rapid growth will require further liberalization of international trade, and this is another priority issue. Barriers to trade must be reduced, including trade between the industrial and developing countries. Trade with developing countries is vitally important to the industrial countries. For the developing countries, growing exports to the industrial countries are essential for the recovery of growth and credit worthiness. For the world's low income countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, effective programs of official development assistance are essential. So the World Bank will continue to urge governments to increase their International Development Association (IDA) contributions. Strengthening IDA will be difficult, but it is essential. The slump in commercial bank lending and direct investment, along with very slow growth in official lending and development assistance, has forced the developing countries to cut imports. Looking ahead, it is expected that most developing countries will continue to be able to import more than they export and that the negative net transfers for medium- and longterm lending from private sources will continue to decline gradually. The debt crisis has had a most damaging effect on the private sector in the developing world. Developing countries must pursue economic policy reform urgently and tenaciously, for it is absolutely fundamental to the resumption of their economic and social progress.