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[Expanded Programme on Immunization: Global Advisory Group] Programme Elargi de Vaccination: Groupe consultatif mondial.
Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1984 Mar 23; 59(12):85-9.In addition to the conclusions and recommendations reached at the 6th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group and summarized in this report, the Group reviewed at length the status of the program in the Western Pacific Region and made a series of recommendations specifically directed to activities in the Region. Of particular significance for the operational progress of the global program are the recommendations concerning "Administration of EPI Vaccines," which were subsequently endorsed by the Precongress workshop on Immunization held before the XVIIth International Congress of Pediatrics in Manila in November 1983. These recommendations are not listed here. In his report to the World Health Assembly in 1982, the Director-General summarized the major problems which threaten the success of efforts to achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world by 1990. The 5-Point Action Program adopted at that time remains a relevant guide for countries and for WHO as they work to resolve those problems. The EPI is concerned about the prevention of the target diseases, not merely with the administration of vaccine. In addition to working toward increases in immunization coverage, the EPI must assure the strenghtening of surveillance systems so that the magnitude of the health problem represented by the target diseases is known at the community, district, regional, and national levels; immunization strategies are continuously adapted in order to reach groups at highest risk; and the target diseases are reduced to a minimum. The development of surveillance systems is one of the priorities in the development of effective primary health care services. Disease surveillance in its various forms should be used at all management levels for monitoring immunization programs performance and for measuring program impact. Specific recommendations regarding disease surveillance to be undertaken at global and regional levels and at the national level are listed. The results of more than 100 lameness surveys conducted in 25 developing countries confirm that paralytic poliomyelitis constitutes an important public health problem in any area in which the disease is endemic. In most programs, initial emphasis should be placed on the develpment of sentinel surveillance sites to monitor disease incidence trends. Some progress has been made in acting on the recommendations made at the meeting on the prevention of neonatal tetanus held in Lahore in 1982, but intensification of activities is required. In many developing countries, the surveillance and control of diphtheria must be improved. All aspects of progress and problems in the global program are reflected at least somewhere in the Western Pacific Region, and most of the findings and recommendations generally are valid beyond the regional boundaries.
Food emergency in wonderland: a case study prepared by the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the training of relief workers.
In: Advances in international maternal and child health, vol. 4, 1984, edited by D.B. Jelliffe and E.F. Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1984. 110-23.This monograph chapter is an exercise whose aim is to help relief workers to be better equipped to solve the practical problems of an emergency relief operation. Its events and contents are imaginary, but are drawn from direct experience. It has been used extensively in Red Cross training projects in several countries, and is designed, 1st, to be complemented with other types of educational media, and 2nd, to be adapted to the training requirements of diverse types of project, through "biasing" in favor of health, nutrition, sanitation, or logistics. A description is given of the management of the case study educational setting, based on real experience with the use of the material; the best results appeared achieveable through a class session on part 1, consisting of initial assessment of an hypothetical nutritional emergency, followed by work in small groups on part 2. Part 1 consists of presentation of situation characteristics, e.g. "overworked health assistant reports a big increase in chest infections, diarrhea, and typhus," and "there is a hand-dug well 1/2 mile from the shelter." Part 2 describes the situation 2 months later, after intervention has begun. Situation characteristics appear such as, "Records from clinic attendance indicates that the commonest disease symptoms are diarrhea, cough with or without temperature, general aches and pains, worms, and eye infections." The case study also includes additional information on food stocks, demographic data, and nutritional survey data (the latter not included in this article). Concluding the article are examples of topics for group discussions and presentations.
New York, New York, UNICEF, . 42 p.In the last 12 months, world-wide support has been gathering behind the idea of a revolution which could save the lives of up to 7 million children each year, protect the health and growth of many millions more, and help to slow down world population growth. This document summarizes case studies which illustrate the techniques which make this revolution possible. These techniques are: oral rehydration therapy (ORT); growth monitoring; expanded immunization using newly improved vaccines to prevent the 6 main immunizable diseases which kill an esitmated 5 million children a year and disable 5 million more (measles, whooping cough, neonatal tetanus, polio, diphtheria and tuberculosis); and the promotion of scientific knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding and about how and when an infant should be given supplementary foods. Results are summarized from Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Barbados, the Philippines, Nicaragua and Honduras, Malawi, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Colombia, and Ethiopia. The impact of economic recession and female education on childrens' health is discussed, and basic statistics for developed and underdeveloped countries are given.