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  1. 1
    046563

    Annual report: 1983.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, FPIA, [1984]. 227 p.

    This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
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  2. 2
    268899

    Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.

    United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Foreign Affairs

    Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)

    This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
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  3. 3
    034513

    An analysis of the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in developing countries.

    Center for Population Options. International Clearinghouse on Adolescent Fertility

    [Unpublished] 1984 Jun. 10, [13] p.

    105 developing country projects dealing primarily or exclusively with adolescent fertility were analyzed in an attempt to determine the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in the developing world. There were 37 projects in Asia, 21 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8 in North Africa and the Middle East, 22 in the Caribbean, and 17 in Latin America. About 27% of the programs were exclusively urban, 16% exclusively rural, and the remainder operated in both rural and urban settings. Various types of organizations sponsored projects, but the majority were sponsored by International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and other private organizations. There were marked regional differences in sponsorship. Only 11 of the 105 programs were conducted by government agencies, but 14 programs received some support from national governments and local governments also sometimes contributed support. Family life education for both in and out of school youth was the predominant project activity in 66 of the 105 projects. 20 projects focused on training of professionals in family life education such as educators, counselors, and health personnel. Curricula primarily concentrated on sex education, responsible parenthood, the importance of delayed 1st birth and child spacing, and general population concerns. 25 projects conduct youth training sessions and teach teams to serve as peer counselors and cators, motivating their peers toward acceptance of family planning and the small family and providing accurate information on sexuality. About 21 projects have a specific counseling component, with most counseling services teaching family planning, distributing condoms, or referring clients to clinics. Only 16 projects had as a stated objective provision for adolescents of diagnostic or clinical health services related to contraceptive use, family planning, or venereal disease. 18 projects offered training in vocational or income-generating skills integrated with family planning, sex education, and family life education. Over 20 projects described educational materials preparation and production as an activity. Innovative approaches observed in the 105 projects included adoption of the multiservice center concept, integration of family planning education with self-help initiatives to improve young women's socioeconomic status, participation of adolescents in program decision making, and innovative promotional activities. Factors contributing to program success identified by project staff include conducting a needs assessment survey, securing parental and community support, solid funding, a flexible program design, skilled personnel, availability of adequate materials, good cooperation with other community agencies, active participation of young people in planning and running the program, good publicity, and use of innovative teaching methods. Projects are increasingly tending toward less formal kinds of communication in family life education.
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  4. 4
    034829

    Annual report 1984.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, FPIA, 1984. 258 p.

    This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) over the past 13 years, with emphasis on calendar year 1984. A brief overview provides data on 1984 project assistance of all types, followed by greater detail in 3 regional reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America, a report of interregional projects, program management information, and fiscal information. Each regional report contains an overview, a table showing the value and composition of FPIA assistance by calendar year for 1972-84, and discussions of project assistance, commodity assistance, special grants, and invitational travel. A series of tables in each regional report provides data on the number of active projects by country and calendar year; the number of projects, grants, and modifications awarded by year, classification of current projects in the region; the dollar value and quantities of commodities shipped in 1984 and cumulatively, quantities of selected commodities shipped by calendar year, and commodity assistance to nonproject countries. Country reports within the regional reports provide information on project and commodity assistance for 26 countries in Africa, 17 in Asia and the Pacific, and 12 in Latin America. FPIA programming reached a new high of $18.0 million in project and commodity assistance in 1984, with 118 projects in 37 countries receiving $7.2 million in direct support and 240 agencies in 73 countries receiving $10.6 million in commodity shipments. The cumulative value of FPIA assistance since 1972 totals over $120 million. 1984 project and commodity assistance respectively totalled $2,526,609 and $3,359,158 for Africa, $1,518,908 and $2,645,485 for Asia and the Pacific, and $3,008,663 and $4,560,958 for Latin America, in addition to $184,385 and $12,568 for interregional assistance. The total volume of FPIA assistance between 1972-84 was $19,796,746 for Africa, $46,345,512 for Latin America, $49,354,682 for Asia and the Pacific, and $4,505,798 for interregional assistance. Between 1972-84, FPIA has provided totals of $558,426 for special grants, $784,138 for invitational travel, $57,978,856 for commodity assistance, and $60,681,288 for project assistance. 36% of cumulative commodity assistance has been for condoms, 42% for pills, 8% for other contraceptives, 10% for medical equipment and supplies, 3% for IEC, and 1% for other things. 41% of FPIA assistance has gone to Asia and the Pacific, 39% to Latin America, 16% to Africa, and 4% to interregional programs.
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  5. 5
    268221

    POPIN Working Group on Dissemination of Population Information: Report on the meeting held from 2 to 4 April 1984.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. International Population Information Network [POPIN]

    Popin Bulletin. 1984 Dec; (6-7):69-79.

    The objectives of this meeting were: to analyze the general dissemination strategy and functions of POPIN member organizations and assess the methods currently employed to identify users; to select publications or other information output and evaluate how they are being distributed and how procedures for the selective dissemination of information are developed; to develop guidelines for determining the potential audience and reader's interests; to discuss the methodology for maintaining a register of readers' interest; to develop guidelines for establishing linds with key press and broadcasting agencies to ensure rapid dissemination of information; to dientify media and organizations currently involved in the dissemination of population information; to document experience and provide recommendations for the utilization of innovative approaches to serve audiences; and to explore ways and means to meet the special needs of policy makers. Problem areas in population information dissemination were identified at the meeting as well as priority areas in meeting speical information needs of policy makers. Collection of information for dissemination is difficult, costly and time-consuming; there is a shortage of staff trained in the repackaging and dissemination of population information; the direct use of the mass media for information dissemination is still very limited; and financial resources are limited. Priority areas include: compilation of a calendar of events or meetings; conducting media surveys and inventories of population infromation centers and their services and compilation of results; resource development through product marketing and preparation of resource catalogues; and preparation of executive summaries highlighting policy implications to facilitate policy making. Recommendations include: promotion of training and technical assistance in population information activities by the POPIN Coordinating Unit; encouraging member organizations with relevant data bases to develop subsets for distribution to other institutions and, where feasible, to provide technical assistance and support for their wider use; the POPIN Coordinating Unit should alert its members regularly of new technological facilities and innovations in the field of information; organizations conducting population information activities at the national and/or regional levels should be encouraged to provide the POPIN Coordinating Unit with yearly calendars of meetings for publication in the POPIN Bulletin; and the members of POPIN are urged to emphasize the need to incorporate specific plans and budgets for population information activities.
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  6. 6
    268191

    Female employment and fertility in developing countries

    Brazzell JF

    In: Quantitative approaches to analyzing socioeconomic determinants of Third World fertility trends: reviews of the literature. Project final report: overview, by Indiana University Fertility Determinants Group, George J. Stolnitz, director. [Unpublished] 1984. 79-91.

    Simple no-work/work distinctions are an unreliable basis for estimating causal linkages connecting female employment/work-status patterns to fertility. World Fertility Survey (WFS) data show about 3/4, 1/2, and 1/4 child differentials for over 20, 10-19, and under 10 years marital duration grouss respectively, for women employed since marriage. Effects on marriage seem strongest in Latin America and weakest in Asia. Controlling for age, marital duration, urban-rural residence, education, and husband's work status. But from the results of a number of WFS and other studies, it seems relationships of work status and fertility are difficult to confirm beyond directional indications, even in Latin America. A UN study using proximate determinants such as contraception and work status including a housework category indicated differentials in contraceptive practice were not significant net of control for education. Philippine data indicates low-income employment might increase fertility by decreasing breastfeeding, while WFS data from 5 Asian countries indicated pre-marital work encourages increased marriage age, without being specific about effects. Also, female employment must affect a large population to have a real impact on aggregate fertility, since female labor force activity is likely to change slowly if at all. Data presently available do not cover micro-level factors that may be important, such as effects of work on breastfeeding, nor do they lend themselves to examination by multi-equation analysis. More work is needed to isolate effects of work-status attributes like male employment, and to analyze intra-cohort mid-course fertility objective changes, as well as new theoretical process models such as competing time use and maternal role incompatibility.
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  7. 7
    268082

    Public health and community medicine at Loma Linda University.

    Dysinger PW

    In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, [1984]. 26-28.

    The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in California was founded in 1967, and as of December 1983 had graduated a total of 1764 students, 187 of whom were physicians. 28 countries and 45 foreign schools were represented in this enrollment. The experience at Loma Linda University is different from many others in that there has been little government sponsorship of foreign medical graduates. Of 89 foreign medical graduates, only 17 were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development or the WHO, and all 17 returned to their home countries where they are making significant contributions in Tanzania, Kenya, Thailand and Indonesia. In 1970, the Loma Linda University School of Public Health developed an evening program in which most of the course work was taught in Los Angeles 1 evening per week over a 2-year period. 10 health officers and a few others completed that program. Their success stimulated extending the program. In 1973 an experimental program teaching a general Master of Public Health (MPH) course to Canadians was initiated. In 1980, Loma Linda University also launched an extended program in the Central American-Caribbean area. In the context of a general program in public health and preventive medicine leading to a Master of Public Health Degree, the curriculum in international health seeks to prepare health workers who will be: trainers of trainers; cross-cultural communicators; managers and supervisors of primary health care services; and practitioners of the integrated approach to community development. Graduates are prepared to deal with sociocultural, environmental and economic barriers. Students not having a professional background in health are required to add an area of concentration to degree requirements. Areas of concentration include: tropical agriculture, environmental health, health administration, health promotion, maternal and child health, nutrition and quantitative methods/health planning. The goal of the International Health Department is to help people help themselves to better health. Loma Linda University has also been involved with schools in Asia, Africa, Latin America and recently in the Philippines. The preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda is for the 2nd and 3rd years only at the present.
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  8. 8
    268079

    Public health training for physicians from abroad: current problems and a look at the future.

    Henderson DA

    In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, [1984]. 15-8.

    At a time when there is a growing interdependency among nations with regard to trade, resources and security, there is an increasing provincialism in the US. In such a climate it is difficult to generate support for international programs. Involvement on the part of medical schools has waned almost to the point of nonparticipation in international medical affairs, largely because of constraints on training and residency programs. Academic health centers have not been supported as a matter of policy. Leadership in international health in other parts of the world, diminished involvement in international health, current priorities and programs and a future prospectus are discussed. The WHO seems an unlikely source for necessary leadership in helping define future directions for education or new strategies in preventive medicine and public health in the developing world. Institutions in Europe have deteriorated and participation and leadership from them are unlikely. Few people today are interested in clinical tropical medicine. Another reason for waning academic activity in international health relates to the paucity of interest on the part of foundations. An important initiative was the development about 5 or 6 years ago of the WHO Tropical Disease Research Program. It now has a budget of about US $25 million and has attracted additional money from the US and from other countries. A gamut of prospects has resulted including a maria vaccine, a leprosy vaccine, a new drug for malaria. In the developing countries, there is a much larger base of basic competence than existed only 10 or 20 years ago, but these health workers need support if health goals are to be attained. Schools of public health should be as much professional schools as schools of medicine, and the practice of public health should be engaged in. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in its global Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in Thailand and in Indonesia has pioneered admirable new approaches in practical training. Provision must be made for sufficient faculty to permit both professional practice and education in any school that offers public health education. The US has a vital and unique role to play in public health and preventive medicine.
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  9. 9
    199267

    Searching: review of IDRC activities 1983.

    International Development Research Centre [IDRC]

    Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1984. 40 p. (IDRC-220e)

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  10. 10
    267814

    Population, resources, environment and development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)

    Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
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  11. 11
    051486

    Financial resources for maternal/child health and family planning: a global review.

    Maine D; Wray J; Wallace M; Belsey M

    [Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference, Arlington, Virginia, Jun 11-13, 1984. 19 p. (NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference Paper)

    This article discusses the relative merits of various maternal and child health interventions and programs. The Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH) has been studying international resources for maternal and child health (MCH), including family planning (FP) at the request of the Maternal and Child Health Program of the World Health Organization. A questionnaire was sent to 100s of donor agencies, including multilateral, bilateral and governmental agencies (NGOs). Data were obtained from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development which collects information on development cooperation from 17 developed countries. Despite its limitations, this study indicates important program implications. Over US$37 billion in official (government) development funds were disbursed in 1981, 73% of which came from DAC members. Of DAC members, the United States provides the largest amount of official development funding (US$5.8 billion in 1981). Nongovernmental funds for 1981 are estimated to be over US$2 billion. 6% of bilateral commitments for funding from DAC countries were for health in 1981, amounting to US$1.3 billion. The median allocations of funding to the sectors and programs of interest in various geographical regions are shown, indicating that in African countries a much smaller proportion of total development funding is allocated to health and population than in Asia or Latin America. Overall, about 10% of the reported international funding was allocated to health and population. In the last year or 2 numerous family planning projects (often integrated with health services) have been initiated in Africa. More money is available per eligible person in Africa than in other regions both for health and population services and for MCH/FP services because African countries have small populations compared to those in Asia and Latin America. For all regions, the US$s/per person eligible for services is very low. Only for all health and population services in Africa is there over US$1 available per person. In recent years a large proportion of agencies have increased funding of MCH/FP. 46 of 53 agencies indicated they would consider increasing funding. The priority of possible services should be considered carefully if they are to reach the vast number of women and children needing services in developing countries.
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  12. 12
    048361

    Laws and policies affecting fertility: a decade of change. Leis e politicas que afetam a fecundidade: uma decada de mudancas.

    Isaacs SL; Cook RJ; Pile JM; Smit L; Levitt L; Cairns G; Heckel N

    Population Reports. Series E: Law and Policy. 1984; (7):E105-E151.

    In the last decade over 50 countries have strengthened laws or policies relating to fertility. Approximately 40 developing countries have issued explicit statements on population policy emphasizing the relationship to national development. In several countries constitutional amendments have been passed reflecting a more positive attitude toward family planning. High-level units, e.g. small technical units, interministerial councils and coordinating councils have been established to formulate policies or coordinate programs. Other actions relating to fertility include: increased resources for family planning programs, both in the public and in the private sector; elimination of restrictions on family planning information, services and supplies; special benefits for family planning acceptors or couples with small families, and measures to improve the status of women, which indirectly affects childbearing patterns. The recognition that policies, laws and programs to influence fertility are an integral part of efforts to promote social and economic development was reaffirmed at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. 147 governments expressed their support for voluntary programs to help people control their fertility. Governments cite at least 4 reasons for increased attention to policies affecting fertility and family planning. Some of these are the desire to slow population growth to achieve national development objectives, concern for maternal and child health, support for the basic human right to determine family size, and equity in the provision of health services. In addition to the strongest laws and policies to lower fertility in Asia, legal changes are occurring in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Family planning programs, laws on contraceptives and voluntary sterilization, compensation, incentives and disincentives, the legal status of women and fertility and policy-making and implementation are reviewed, as well as equal employment, education, political and civil rights and equality of women within marriage and the family.
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  13. 13
    267328

    The United Nations and the politics of population, 1960-74.

    Patton CG

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1984. [505] p.

    One form of international authority proposed by David Mitrany was that of an advisory and coordinating one where both the performance of a task and the means for its accomplishment remain mainly under national control. Mitrany's theoretical framework and its organizational analogue within the UN and national political arenas account for the emergence of a new UN population policy to cope with the rapid global population growth between 1960 and 1974. The most prestigious outcome of this policy was the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), whose centralized contributions came primarily from the US, Japanese, Swedish, and some other west European governments. Its aim is to assist governments in the development of national family planning programs and in related demographic and family planning training and research programs. UNFPA grants went to UN-system agencies, governments, and private organizations. Recipients include India, Pakistan, Egypt, Malaysia, Kenya, Nigeria and Mexico. A mew ideology emerged to support the concept of an interventionist policy to lower the birth rate. That ideology include the responsibility of each government for its own population; an emphasis on social framework for parental choices about family size; and a legitimate role for international assistance. How the UNFPA came into existence is a political process involving government delegations and officials, UN Secretarist staff, and representatives of selected religious and population transnational organizations. It is also a Laswellian social process model of 7 decision-outcomes marking the significant population events and interactions underlying the creation of UNFPA. 6 UN resolutions and 2 decisions by the Secretary-General denominate these decision outcomes. 2 analytic approaches account for these decision outcomes--the Parsonian concept of organized levels (institutional, managerial, and technical) in conjunction with the Laswellian concepts of centralization/decentralization and concentration/decontration, and the concept of coalitions, (legislative and programming). This expanded UN population policy process reveals the interconnectedness of elites and groups in a global network centered at UFPA. (author's modified)
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  14. 14
    267312

    Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.

    Hankinson R

    New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)

    A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
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  15. 15
    267271

    Hopeful portents for Mexico meeting.

    Salas RM

    People. 1984; 11(2):6-7.

    This article is an interview with Rafael Salas, the Executive Director of the UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) in preparation for the International Conference on Population to be held in Mexico City in August, 1984. As result of the setback received in January when the Preparatory Committee faled to agree on a set of recommendations to guide the conference debate, the UN Economic and Social Council called a 2nd meeting of the committee in March, which approved 83 recommendations to go forward to the Conference. This brief interview discusses the difficulties and problems encountered in preparing this conference along with some of the political factors that are expected to influence certain countries in their action areas of family planning programs. The main hope of this conference is to supplement the World Population Plan of Action and make it more program-oriented.
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  16. 16
    028281

    Doctors--barefoot and otherwise. The World Health Organization, the United States, and global primary medical care.

    Mullan F; Bryant JH

    Jama. 1984 Dec 14; 252(22):3146-8.

    The international effort to provide primary health care (PHC) services for all by the year 2000 requires the development of appropriate manpower resources in the developing countries. Given the limited health budgets of developing countries, research on manpower development is necessary to ensure that funds for manpower development are used in the most efficient manner. In recognition of this need, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Medical Sciences convened a workshop, entitled "Health for All - A Challenge to Health Manpower Development Research" in Ibadan, Nigeria in 1982. The participants at the workshop agreed that manpower development strategies must be developed in the context of PHC, and that the current manpower development strategies in most developing countries do not provide the type of manpower required in PHC systems. Specifically, the workshop recommended that health manpower development strategies must 1) take into account the fact that health improvement is dependent not just on health services but on improvements in sanitation, water, housing, and nutrition; 2) recognize that PHC systems require an extensive cadre of health workers, paramedics, and auxiliary personnel, and that PHC systems are not highly physician dependent; and 3) recognize that medical schools must train physicians capable of serving the needs of the entire population rather than just the needs of the elite few. Participants also recognized that the development of effective strategies may be hindered by various professional, technical, financial, and bureaucratic factors. Given the pressing needs and scarce resources of developing countries, manpower development research must be highly policy oriented. The recommendations of the workshop were endorsed by WHO's Advisory Committee on Medical Research in 1983 and then distributed to WHO's 6 regional offices. The regional offices are currently discussing the recommendations with individual countries in an effort to determine how each country can implement the recommendations. The success of the effort to train appropriate manpower will require the assistance of developed countries and especially the US. The US can assist by providing training in US institutions for individuals from developing countries. Training programs, however, must be reoriented in such a way as to equip students to work in PHC settings. Medical personnel from the US can provide technical assistance in the developing countries, but efforts must made to ensure that this assistance is directed toward the development of PHC prsonnel and services.
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  17. 17
    028095

    Perspectives on the international relations of food.

    Hopkins RF; Puchala DJ

    In: Ghosh PK, ed. Health, food and nutrition in Third World development. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 87-124. (International Development Resource Books No. 6)

    The global food problem is delineated, and a set of concepts for analyzing the world food system is provided and used to critically examine the food system. The global food problem consists of an interrelated set of elements which affect countries differently. These elements are 1) the food shortage threat; 2) instability in the food supply stemming from price fluctuations, unpredictable markets, and an undependable trade flow; 3) an unpredictable supply of food for importation; 4) low agricultural production in developing countries; and 5) malnutrition. The global food system consists of production centers, consumption centers, and distribution channels. Conditions that characterize the system are the result of regimes, i.e., the rules and norms which control the system at any particular point in time. A regime can be identified by 1) observing transaction flows, the allocation of resources, and food diplomacy patterns; 2) by examining the agendas of food issue forums; and 3) by listening to the arguments used to bolster or criticize specific food policies. The global food system created by the current regime, which has been in existence since the 1940s, is a system which divides the countries of the world into surplus and deficit countries and has 2 distributional channels. These channels are 1) commercial sellers and buyers and 2) concessionally linked donors and recipients. The regime which created this system was imposed primarily by the US government. The regime is characterized by 1) a belief in the free market system, 2) a willing to provide famine relief but a refusal to address the chronic malnutrition problem, 3) the conditional acceptance of the distribution of food, in the form of food aid, outside the market system; 4) the promotion of the flow of technological information; 5) respect for national sovereignty, which has the effect of preventing aid from reaching the poorest segments of the population of developing countries; 6) assignment of a low priority to the development of self-reliance in developing countries; and 7) a willingness to accumulate a grain surplus for distribution to countries with shortfalls. The activities of multinational agribusiness tend to reinforce and support this regime. The international food network, consisting largely of UN agencies, can modify the food regime by 1) encouraging governments to confront critical food issues, 2) collecting and disseminating information about the food problem, 3) providing services which governments are unable to perform because of political considerations; and 4) legitimize policies via multilateral sanction. The system supported by the present regime promotes the exploitation of the poor by the wealthy and ignores the need for distributive justice. There are some indications that a new regime is in the process of being developed as evidenced by the new international economic order.
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  18. 18
    035398

    Marketing infant foods in four developing nations: trends since the W.H.O. code.

    Post JE; Smith RA; Solimano G

    In: Research Consortium for the Infant Feeding Study. The determinants of Infant feeding practices: preliminary results of a four-country study. New York, N.Y., Population Council, 1984 Apr 45-56. (International Programs Working Paper No. 19)

    The World Health Assembly, governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO), adopted a Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in May, 1981. The question of what impact legislative, reggulatory, and voluntary actions by government and industry have had on the commercial marketing of infant food in Colombia, Indonesia, Kenya, and Thailand is addressed. The research was conducted between 1981 and 1983. This study of marketing activities was intended to analyze the direct effects of marketing activities and the interaction of marketing with other factors found to influence infant feeding practices. Research objectives were organized around 3 basic questions. 1) What are the characteristics of current marketing practices and strategies of infant food companies? 2) What factors account for the current marketing environment for infant foods? 3) What is the intensity of promotional activity at this time? Data was collected through interviews and a cross-sectional survey of mothers and infants. There have been 5 important trends in the way the marketing of infant foods has changed since 1981. They are: 1) an increased amount of price competition; 2) increased product availability; 3) discontinuance of consumer-oriented mass media advertising; 4) extensive promotion of commercial infant foods to health care workers, and through them to consumers; and 5) continued distribution of infant formula samples to mothers, directly or indirectly, many of whom live in a high-risk environment.
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  19. 19
    025907

    Foreign policy choices for Americans: a nonpartisan guide for voters.

    Hoepli NL; Breen SZ; Kojm CA; Potter LG; Monjo AR; Stavrou ME

    New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1984. 160 p.

    This expanded voters' guide to important foreign policy issues facing the US is intended to provide voters, information they need to take part in the national foreign policy debate and reach their own informed conclusions. The approach is nonpartisan and impartial and the style is telegraphic. Each of the 18 topics includes a list of significant questions, a presentation of essential background, an outline of policy choices and the pros and cons of each, and a brief bibliography. The book covers 5 major themes: leadership, national security, economic and social issues, critical regions, and the UN. The chapters cover: 1) president, congress, and foreign policy; 2) the arms race and arms control; 3) defense budget and major weapons systems; 4) nuclear proliferation; 5) jobs and international trade; 6) oil and energy; 7) the international debt crisis; 8) immigration and refugees; 9) Soviet Union; 10) the Atlantic alliance; 11) Lebanon, the Arabs, and Israel; 12) the Iran-Iraq war; 13) Central America; 14) Japan; 15) China and Taiwan; 16) South Africa and Namibia; 17) Third World: population, food, and development; and 18) the US and the UN.
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  20. 20
    267164

    Algunas reflexiones sobre temas de poblacion antes de la Conferencia Internacional de Poblacion. Some population issues before the International Conference on population, statement made at El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, 6 March 1984.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1984]. 33 p. (Speech Series No. 108)

    Significant progress has been made in the last decade in understanding and responding to population issues in the areas of fertility, family planning, mortality, morbidity and health. This report considers these issues in the following contexts: moderation of population growth; population, resources and the environment; population distribution; internal migration; international migration; and integration of population with development. All these issues will be considered at the International Conference on Population, scheduled for August, 1984. The relevance of the Mexican experience in these areas is also weighed. 2 comments by Mexican representatives to the Conferences are included in this report.
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