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  1. 1
    031138

    WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)

    The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
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  2. 2
    032447

    Oral rehydration salts: an analysis of AID's options.

    Elliott V

    [Columbia Maryland], Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Public Applied Systems, 1984 Sep. 26, [13] p. (Contract No. PDC-1406-I-02-4062-00, W.0.2; Project No. 936-5939-12)

    Westinghouse Health Systems, under a US Agency for International Development (USAID) contract, ass ssed the global supply and demand of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and developed a set of recommendations concerning USAID's future role as a supplier of ORS. 1.5 billion ORS packets (assuming each packet is equivalent to 1 liter of ORS solution) would be required to treat all ORS treatable cases of diarrhea which occur annually among the world's children under 5 years of age. Currently, about 200 million packets are manufactured/year. In 1983, international sources supplied slightly less than 37 million packets, and the remaining packets were produced by local or in-country manufacturers. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), which currently provides 81% of the international supply, contracts with private firms to manufacture ORS and then distributes the packets to developing countries, either at cost or free of charge. UNICEF purchases the packets for about US$.04-US$.05. USAID provides about 12.3% of the international supply. Prior to 1981, USAID distributed UNICEF packets. Since 1981, USAID has distributed ORS packets manufactured by the US firm of Jianas Brothers. USAID must pay a relatively high price for the packets (US$.08-US$.09) since the manufacturer is required to produce the packets on an as needed basis. Other international suppliers of ORS include the International Dispensary Association, the Swedish International Development Authority, the International Red Cross, and the World Health Organization. Currently, 38 developing countries manufacture and distrubute their own ORS products. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase the supply of ORS; however, the supply and demand in the future is unpredictable. Factors which may alter the supply and demand in the future include 1) the development of superior alternative formulations and different type of ORS products, 2) a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea due to improved environmental conditions or the development of a vaccine for diarrhea, 3) increased production of ORS in developing countries, 4) increased commercial sector involvement in the production and sale of ORS products, and 5) the use of more effective marketing techniques and more efficient distribution systems for ORS products. USAID options as a future supplier of ORS include 1) purchasing and distributing UNICEF packets; 2) contracting with a US firm to develop a central procurement system, similar to USAID's current contraceptive procurement system; 3) contracting with the a US firm to establish a ORS stockpile of a specified amount; 4) promoting private and public sector production of ORS within developing countries; 5) including ORS as 1 of the commodities available to all USAID assisted countries. The investigators recommended that USAID should contribute toward increasing the global supply of ORS; however, given the unpredictability of the ORS demand and supply, USAID should adopt a short-term and flexible strategy. This strategy precludes the establishment of a central procurement system; instead, USAID should contract a private firm to establish an ORS stockpile and to fill orders from the stockpile. Consideration should be given to altering the ORS packets size and to alternative ORS presentations. USAID should also promote the production of quality ORS products within developing countries and continue to support research on other diarrhea intervention strategies. This report also discusses some of the problems involved in manufacturing and packaging ORS. The appendices contain 1) a WHO and UNICEF statement on the ORS formulation made with citrate instead of bicarbonate, 2) a list of developing countries which manufacture ORS, and 3) statistical information on distribution of ORS by international sources.
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  3. 3
    031753

    [World population and development: an important change in perspective] Population mondiale et developpement: un important changement de perspective.

    Vallin J

    Problemes Economiques. 1984 Oct 24; (1895):26-32.

    The International Population Conference in Mexico City was much less controversial than the World Population Conference in Bucharest 10 years previously, in part because the message of Bucharest was widely accepted and in part because of changes that occurred in the demographic and economic situations in the succeeding decade. The UN medium population projection for 1985 has been proved quite accurate; it is not as alarming as the high projection but still represents a doubling of world population in less than 40 years. The control of fertility upon which the medium projection was predicated is well underway. The movement from high to low rates of fertility and mortality began in the 18th century in the industrial countries and lasted about 1 1/2 centuries during which the population surplus was dispersed throughout the world, especially in North and South America. The 2nd phase of movement from high to low rates currently underway in the developing countries has produced a far greater population increase. The proportion of the population in the developed areas of Europe, North America, the USSR, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand will decline from about 1/3 of the 2.5 billion world population of 1950 to 1/4 of the 3.7 billion of 1985, to 1/5 of the 4.8 billion of 2000, and probably 1/7 of the 10 billion when world population stabilizes at the end of the next century. The growth rates of developing countries are not homogeneous; the populations of China and India have roughly doubled in the past 35 years while that of Latin America has multiplied by 2 1/2. The population of Africa more than doubled in 35 years and will almost triple by 2025. The number of countries with over 50 million inhabitants, 9 in 1950, will increase from 19 in 1985 to 32 in 2025. The process of urbanization is almost complete in the industrialized countries, with about 75% of the population urban in 1985, but urban populations will continue to grow rapidly in the developing countries as rural migration is added to natural increase. The number of cities with 10 million inhabitants has increased from 2 to 13 between 1950 and 1985, and is expected to reach 25 by 2000, with Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Shanghai the world's largest cities. The peak rate of world population growth was reached in the 1960s, with annual increases of 2.4%. In 1980-85 in the developed and developing worlds respectively the rates of population growth were .7% and 2.0%/year; total fertility rates were 2.05 and 4.2, and the life expectancies at birth were 72.4 and 57.0. Considerable variations occurred in individual countries. Annual rates of growth in 1980-85 were 2.4% in Latin America, 3.0% in Africa, 2.2% in South Asia and 1.2% in East Asia. Today only Iran among high fertility countries pursues a pronatalist policy. Since Bucharest, it has become evident to developing and developed countries alike that population control and economic development must go hand in hand.
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  4. 4
    030727
    Peer Reviewed

    Population, resources and the environment: some crucial issues at the Conference on Population

    Salas RM

    Ambio. 1984; 13(3):142-7.

    The Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities discussed population, resource, and environmental problems and issues which will be considered at the 1985 International Conference on Population. Although the global, annual population growth rate declined from 2.02%-1.67% between 1974-84, we can not be complacent. The decline in the growth rate was unevenly distributed. For example, most of the decline in Asia was accounted for by the decline in China's population growth rate. The world population will not stabilize until the end of the 21st century. Currently, the population is increasing by 78 million each year, and by the year 2000, the annual increase will be 89 million. There is a general world consensus that rapid population growth and the growth of massive urban centers is undesirable, that government should formulate and vigorously pursue population policies, that population must be integrated into development, and that population is a relevant factor in socioeconomic development. A wide range of issues will be dealt with at the 1985 International Conference on Population. There is still a high unmet demand for family planning in many countries, and contraceptive accessibility and delivery systems need to be improved. More attention must be focused on the impact of fertility on the family and the status of women. There is a growing imbalance between population and resources. Population growth and increased income levels heighten the demand for goods. The demand for goods is straining the world's resources base and contributing toward the degradation of the environment. Spatial distribution patterns frequently impede socioeconomic development. In response to the UN 5th Population Inquiry, 77 noted they were dissatisfied with some aspect of spatial distribution in their country. Latin American countries were concerned with urban primacy, the urban and rural distribution, and regional settlements. Asian and African countries were concerned primarily with the need to reduce rural to urban migration. Many changes are occuring in the area of international migration. Countries which in the past were the traditional recipients of permanent migrants, e.g., the US, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, have, in recent years, reduced the number of migrants they are willing to admit. The flow of migrant workers between countries is increasing and flow patterns are changing. Problems associated with illegal migration and with refugee movements must be addressed by the international community. It is now recognized that demographic variables should be integrated into development planning. This can best be achieved through the development of models such as the BACHUE models and the BARILOCHE model.
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  5. 5
    267814

    Population, resources, environment and development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)

    Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
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  6. 6
    021441
    Peer Reviewed

    A perspective on long-term population growth.

    Demeny PG

    Population and Development Review. 1984 Mar; 10(1):103-26.

    This paper presents some of the results of projections prepared by the World Bank in 1983 for all the world's countries. The projections (presented against a background of recent demographic trends as estimated by the United Nations) trace the approach of each individual country to a stationary state. Implications of the underlying fertility and mortality assumptions are shown mainly in terms of time trends of total population to the year 2100, annual rates of growth, and absolute annual increments. These indices are shown for the largest individual countries, for world regions, and for country groupings according to economic criteria. The detailed predictive performance of such projections is likely to be poor but the projections indicate orders of magnitude characterizing certain aggregate demographic phenomena whose occurrence is highly probable and set clearly interpretable reference points useful in discussing contemporary issues of policy. (author's)
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  7. 7
    051486

    Financial resources for maternal/child health and family planning: a global review.

    Maine D; Wray J; Wallace M; Belsey M

    [Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference, Arlington, Virginia, Jun 11-13, 1984. 19 p. (NCIH 11th Annual International Health Conference Paper)

    This article discusses the relative merits of various maternal and child health interventions and programs. The Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH) has been studying international resources for maternal and child health (MCH), including family planning (FP) at the request of the Maternal and Child Health Program of the World Health Organization. A questionnaire was sent to 100s of donor agencies, including multilateral, bilateral and governmental agencies (NGOs). Data were obtained from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development which collects information on development cooperation from 17 developed countries. Despite its limitations, this study indicates important program implications. Over US$37 billion in official (government) development funds were disbursed in 1981, 73% of which came from DAC members. Of DAC members, the United States provides the largest amount of official development funding (US$5.8 billion in 1981). Nongovernmental funds for 1981 are estimated to be over US$2 billion. 6% of bilateral commitments for funding from DAC countries were for health in 1981, amounting to US$1.3 billion. The median allocations of funding to the sectors and programs of interest in various geographical regions are shown, indicating that in African countries a much smaller proportion of total development funding is allocated to health and population than in Asia or Latin America. Overall, about 10% of the reported international funding was allocated to health and population. In the last year or 2 numerous family planning projects (often integrated with health services) have been initiated in Africa. More money is available per eligible person in Africa than in other regions both for health and population services and for MCH/FP services because African countries have small populations compared to those in Asia and Latin America. For all regions, the US$s/per person eligible for services is very low. Only for all health and population services in Africa is there over US$1 available per person. In recent years a large proportion of agencies have increased funding of MCH/FP. 46 of 53 agencies indicated they would consider increasing funding. The priority of possible services should be considered carefully if they are to reach the vast number of women and children needing services in developing countries.
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  8. 8
    028327

    United Nations International Conference on Population, 6-13 August 19849

    Brown GF

    Studies in Family Planning. 1984 Nov-Dec; 15(6/1):296-302.

    The international Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, met to review past developments and to make recommendations for future implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Despite the several ifferences of opinion, the degree of controversy was minor for an intergovernmental meeting of this size. The 147 government delegations at the Conference reached overall agreement on recommendations for future international commitment to expanding population efforts in the future. This review examines the recommendations of the Mexico Conference with regard to health, family planning, women in development, research, and realted issues. The total 88 recommendations wre intended to reaffirm and refine the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, and to strengthen the Plan for the next decade. Substantial improvement in development was noted including fertility and mortality declines, improvements in school enrollement and literacy rates, as well as access to health services. Economic trends, however, were much less encouraging. While the global rate of population growth has declined slightly since 1974, world population has increased by 770 million during the decade, with 90% of that increase in the developing countries. Part of the controversy at the Conference focused on the remarkable change of position by the US delegation, which largely reversed the policies expressed at Bucharest. The US delegation stated that population was a neutral issue in development, that development is the primary requirement in achieving fertility decline. Several recommendations emphasized the need to integrate population and development planning, and called for increased national and international efforts toward the eradication of mass hunger, illiteracy, and unemployment; achievement of adaquate health and nutrition levels; and improvement in women's status. The need for futher development of management, training, information, education and communication was recognized. A clear call to strenghten global efforts in population policies and programs emerged.
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  9. 9
    027731

    Report of the International Conference on Population, 1984.

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 101 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements E/CONF.76/19)

    The purpose of this Conference was to appraise the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action, adopted by consensus at Bucharest, 10 years ago. Full validity of the principles and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action was reaffirmed and a set of recommendations for future implementation was put forth. The Conference confirmed that the principal aim of social, economic and human development, of which population goals are integral parts, is to improve the standards of living and quality of life of people. Population problems, e.g. economic difficulties, resource mobilization, population growth, high mortality and morbidity, migration, tremendous demographic differences between developed and developing countries, high fertility, inadequate family planning, rapid urbanization, continue. The interrelationship between economic and social development was stressed. Recommendations for action encompass the following areas: socioeconomic development, the environment and population, the role and status of women, development of population policies and promotion of knowledge and police. Recommendations for implementation concern the role of national governments, the role of international cooperation and monitoring, review and appraisal. Included in the section on population goals and policies are population growth, morbidity and mortality, reproduction and the family, population distribution and internal migration, international migration and population structure. The same basic goal of improving stansards of living and quality of life to pormote peace and security is refelected by the recommendations.
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  10. 10
    267402

    The United Nations' flawed population policy.

    Huessy PR

    Washington, D.C., Heritage Foundation, 1984 Aug 27. 16 p. (Backgrounder No. 376)

    The United Nations' 2nd World Population Conference (Mexico City, 1984) called for greatly expanding funding for family planning assistance worldwide. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the conference's chief sponsor, will no doubt receive the largest portion of any assistance increase. UNFPA plays a critical role in population-related programs worldwide. The central debate on population policy should be over the extent and adequacy of the natural resources base and how countries can humanely and voluntarily change family size preferences. In countries like Singapore and South Korea, success has been achieved by combining social and economic incentives to discourage large families. Although couples in developing countries report wanting contraceptive service programs, they also want families of 4 to 6 children. So far UNFPA has been ineffective in changing the population situation. This overview of its activities reveals that UNFPA loses ultimate reponsibility for implementation of many of its own programs. UNFPA does not advocate a reduction in population growth within a single country, but rather helps couples have the number of children they desire. UNFPA's specific population and family programs are divided into functional areas: basic data collection, population change study, formulation and implementation of population policies, support for family planning/maternal child health programs and educational and communication programs. UNFPA stresses the importance of using contraceptives but not of achieving the small family norm. UNFPA's projects in some of the largest less developed nations are described, illustrating how the UN agency spends its assistance funds. From 1971 to 1982, the UNFPA spent almost US $230 million in the 10 largest less developed countries without any significant change in population growth. UNFPA program administrators are far from resolving the serious population problems facing developing countries and generally oblivious to new directions in which population policies should move. No progress will be made until UNFPA recognizes the need to approach the problem from a different perspective, working to change attitudes toward small families.
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  11. 11
    267350

    Report of the Expert Group on Fertility and Family. Introduction.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-44. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This volume is comprised of the reports of the 1st of 4 Expert Group Meetings, scheduled in preparation for the 1984 International Conference on Population. Individuals and organizations attending this meeting are listed. The central task of the meeting was to examine critical, high-priority issues relevant to fertility and family and, on that basis, to make recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action, adopted in 1974 at Bucharest. The 1st item on the agenda dealt with ways in which modernization elements in the socio-cultural and economic patterns and institutions of societies alter reproduction. The 2nd topic of discussion was the relationship between family structure and fertility. The view adopted was that family structure could be influenced by a variety of factors that would have implications for fertility (e.g., delayed at marriage, improvements in education). The deliberations on factors influencing choice with respect to childbearing focused upon the complexity of decision making in matters of reproduction. In question, too, was a possible conflict between the acknowledged rights to freedom of choice in respect to childbearing and to the rights and goals of society, as well the acceptability of incentives and disincentives as measures introduced by governments to achieve social goals. The 4th item, reproductive and economic activity of women, was discussed from several perspectives: the amount of reproductive lifetime available to women for productive pursuits other than childbearing; the introduction of social support programs and income-generating opportunities. In the discussion of demographic goals and policy alternatives, the 5th item on the agenda, the policy options considered were family planning programs, incentives and desincentives, social and economic development, and marriage and divorce laws. Particular attention was given to the importance of local institutional settings for the achievement of government policy goals. The Expert Group's recommendations on population policy, family planning, the conditions of women, adolescent fertility, IEC, management and training, international cooperation and areas of research (demographic data, determinants of fertility, operational research and bio-medical) are included in this introduction. Finally, presented in the form of annexes are the agenda for the meeting, the list of documents and the texts of the opening statements.
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  12. 12
    267312

    Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.

    Hankinson R

    New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)

    A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
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  13. 13
    267294

    Population on the world agenda, 1984: a view from Bucharest.

    Demeny P

    Population and Development Review. 1984; 10(2):353-9.

    Thise comments and remarks were fomulated in 1974 during a panel discussion which was part of the program for the Population Tribune, a nongovernmental meeting, organized in parallel with the 1st UN World Population Conference at Bucharest. The panelists discussed the ways in which they expected the deliberations of a similarly conceived international conference, taking place 10 years after Bucharest, would differ from those of the 1974 meeting. The author prefaces his comments by clarifying his own position: population change is nnot the determinant of economic and social development. 5 major differences between the future policy debates and those at Bucharest are identified, explored and critically judged. The next Conference's deliberations will be characterised by a greatly increased understanding and appreciation of what its topic is supposed to be, of what the population problem really is and of what population policy is about. The author argues that the present conference did not deal with these issues in a satisfactory fashion. He maintains that there has been a failure to identify the structure of the population problem: an inconsistency between collective and individual interest. The principle to be adopted by governments is to analyze their own situation, identify their problems and act according to their best interest. The principles are the same whether a country is developed or developing. A 2nd major difference will be an increased understanding and appreciation that population policies should be guided by a search for improvement and optimization. A 3rd important difference will be increased demographic sophistication of the participants, to overcome the mechanistic and naive interpretation of the development-fertility link. A 4th difference is the expectation that, by 1984, the economic sophistication in discussing problems of development will have been greatly increased, which will facilitate constructive discussions of economic-demographic interrelations. A final change expected for 1984 would manifest itself in a calmer yet more helpful stance of the developed countries with respect to the developing world in demographic matters. Ultimately, the solutions must be local, rather than global.
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  14. 14
    026268

    Concise report on the world population situation in 1983: conditions, trends, prospects, policies.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)

    The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
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  15. 15
    027092

    Fertility and family.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 476 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    The Expert Group on Fertility and Family was one of 4 expert groups assigned the task of examining critical, high priority population issues and, on that basis, making recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action. The report of the Expert Group consisted of 6 topics: 1) fertility response to modernization; 2) family structure and fertility; 3) choice with respect to childbearing, 4) reproductive and economic activity of women, 5) goals, policies and technical cooperation, and 6) recommendations. Contained in this report are also selected background papers with discuss in detail fertility determinants such as modernization, fertility decision processes, socioeconomic determinants, infant and child mortality as a ddeterminant of achieved fertility in some developed countries, the World Fertility Survey's contribution to understanding of fertility levels and trends, fertility in relation to family structure, measurement of the impact of population policies and programs on fertility, and techinical cooperation in the field of fertility and the family.
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  16. 16
    027148

    Population: the Mexico conference and the future.

    Salas RM

    [Unpublished] 1984. 13 p. (UNFPA/ICP/84/E/2500)

    The complex relationship between population and development continues to be of critical concern for all countries of the World. World population is expected to increase to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and stabilize at 10.5 billion by the end of the next century. This depends, however, on maintenance of the current momentum to reduce fertility. Although government programs to reduce fertility are available in countries covering 80% of the population of the developing world, levels of desired fertility in developing countries are higher than the fertility level necessary to attain eventual population stability (2.1 children/woman). The increase in the number of metropolitan centers and urbanization of the population have been striking features of the past decade. Changes in the volume, direction, and characteristics of international migration flows have raised concerns about human rights and the welfare aspects of these population movements. A significant feature of world demography has been the clearer emergence of intraregional similarities and interregional differences in population issues. Although the principles and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action will remain valid in the decades ahead, national population goals must be systematically reassessed. Countries should seek consistency between national and global goals and policies, take a longterm perspective, be aware of the interrelationships of the specific recommendations, be conscious of changing perceptions of population issues, and be alert to the primacy of the individual and his rights. The link between population and global security, and the role of population in shaping political behavior, point to the need for international cooperation. A more satisfying future can be brought about only through determined, rational, and humane population policies.
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  17. 17
    027948

    The fifth inquiry: a summary

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Populi. 1984; 11(2):4-12.

    This article highlights some of the findings of the 5th Population Inquiry carried out by the UN Population Division in 1982-83. A total of 109 countries responded to questionnaires on government population perceptions, practices, and policies. Slightly over 25% of countries reported that they had established targets for population growth. Of the 81 developing countries included, 56 (69%) characterized present health and mortality conditions as unacceptable. In contrast, only 4 (14%) of the 28 developed countries did so. Infants were identified most frequently as the target of special policy concern. 40 countries, 39 of which were in the Third World, referred to the implementation of some aspect of primary health care. In terms of fertility control, 38% of governments reported that they have not expressed a formal view on the present level of fertility. Whereas 50% of developed countries viewed their fertility levels as too low and 50% considered them satisfactory, the corresponding figures among developing countries were 8% and 28%. Most governments pursue policies aimed at both influencing the fertility rate and improving maternal and child health. In developed countries, the emphasis is usually on economic measures that enhance the status of women. In developing countries, family planning was the most frequently reported measure. The government provides direct support to the provision of family planning services in about 65% of countries and indirect support in 16%. In terms of population distribution and internal migration, the major spatial concern was to alter the urban-rural distribution, generally through reducing migration to the largest metropolitan area and retaining population in rural areas. 55 governments (47 in developing and 8 in developed countries) reported the rate of growth of the largest metropolitan area to be too high. Less than 1/3 of responding governments viewed recent immigration levels as significant. 59 countries have designated a single agency to be responsible to the coordination or formulation of population policies. In general, the population issue of concern mentioned most frequently was the need for further analysis of the relationship between population and social and economic development.
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  18. 18
    024924

    Current projection assumptions for the United Nations demographic projections.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population projections: methodology of the United Nations. New York, N.Y., United Nations, 1984. 25-32. (Population Studies, No. 83; ST/ESA/SER.A/83)

    The United Nations population projection assumptions are statements of expected trends in fertility, mortality and migration in the world. In every assessment, each of the 3 demographic components is unambiguously specified at the national level for each of the 5-year periods during the population interval (1950-2025). The approach used by the UN in preparing its projections is briefly summarized. At the general level, the analyst relies on available information of past events and current demographic levels and differentials, the demographic trends and experiences of similar countries in the region and his or her informed interpretations of what is likely to occur in the future. One common feature of the UN population projections that guides the analyst in preparing the assumptions is the general conceptual scheme of the demographic transition, or the socio-economic threshold hypothesis of fertility decline. As can be observed from the projected demographic trends reported in this paper, population stabilization at low levels of fertility, mortality and migration is the expected future for each country, with the only important differences being the timing of the stabilization. Irrespective of whether the country is developed, with very low fertility (for example, the Federal Republic of Germany or Japan), or developing with high fertility (such as, Bangladesh or the Syrian Arab Republic), it is assumed that fertility will arrive at replacement levels in the not too distant future. Serious alternative theories or hypotheses of population change, such as declining population size, are not only very few in number, but they tend to be somewhat more unacceptable and inconvenient to the demographic analyst as well as being considerably less palatable to goverments.
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  19. 19
    266944

    International consultation of NGOs on population issues in preparation of the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population: report of the consultation.

    [Unpublished] [1984]. 83 p.

    196 individuals from 44 countries, representing national and international non-governmental organizations, bilateral agencies and intergovernmental organizations attended the consultation. The purposes of the consultation were: 1) to provide an overview of the contributions of non-governmental organizations to the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action through a wide range of population and population related programs carried out since the Plan was adopted in 1974; 2) to explore what non-governmental organizations believe needs to be done in the world population field during the balance of the century; 3) to prepare for participation in the January 1984 Conference Preparatory Committee meeting and in the Conference itself to be held in August 1984; and 4) to provide suggestions for activities of national affiliates relative to the 1984 Conference. This report provides a synopsis of the plenary sessions and their recommendations. Addresses by numerous individuals covered the following topics: the creative role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the population field; vital contributions of NGO's to the implementation of the world population plan of action; the family; population distribution and migration; population, resources, environment and international economic crisis; mortality and health; and NGO prospects for the implementation of the world population plan of action.
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  20. 20
    037646

    The state of the world's children 1984.

    Grant JP

    New York, New York, UNICEF, [1984]. 42 p.

    In the last 12 months, world-wide support has been gathering behind the idea of a revolution which could save the lives of up to 7 million children each year, protect the health and growth of many millions more, and help to slow down world population growth. This document summarizes case studies which illustrate the techniques which make this revolution possible. These techniques are: oral rehydration therapy (ORT); growth monitoring; expanded immunization using newly improved vaccines to prevent the 6 main immunizable diseases which kill an esitmated 5 million children a year and disable 5 million more (measles, whooping cough, neonatal tetanus, polio, diphtheria and tuberculosis); and the promotion of scientific knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding and about how and when an infant should be given supplementary foods. Results are summarized from Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Barbados, the Philippines, Nicaragua and Honduras, Malawi, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Colombia, and Ethiopia. The impact of economic recession and female education on childrens' health is discussed, and basic statistics for developed and underdeveloped countries are given.
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