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UN Chronicle. 1984 Mar; 21: p..A call for more women in the engineering profession and for special incentives to encourage more women to enter the teaching professions in the fields of science and technology was made by the Advisory Committee on Science and Technology for Development at its recent session. The Advisory Committee stressed the need for all women to be informed broadly bout science and technology and urged Governments to adopt appropriate measures to achieve that. Recommendations on the important roles which non-governmental organization (NGOs) and women, among others, should play in promoting science and technology for development were adopted by the Advisory Committee in its report to the Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development, its parent body. The 28-member Committee met in New York from 14 to 21 February. The Committee had before it the recommendations of five ad hoc panels of specialists which examined topics relating to the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development. The Programme was adopted in 1979 by the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development. (excerpt)
Alcohol related problems and their prevention with particular reference to adolescence. Report of the Task Force meeting Geneva, 31 August - 4 September 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984. 46 p. (MNH/NAT/84.1.)Cultural, socioeconomic, and biological factors all influence alcohol use by adolescents and their experience of alcohol-related problems. Although the assessment of these problems presents methodological difficulties, strategies for prevention based on educational and legislative approaches both promise some measure of success. Further research is required to establish adequate data bases and to test the effectiveness of interventions. A number of specific research proposals were developed. These included epidemiological studies, with particular emphasis on longitudinal surveys, biomedical investigations and comparative evaluations of preventive interventions. In view of the increasing concern about alcohol-related problems in many developing countries, it was recommended that priority be given to the development of approaches applicable in such settings. It was also recommended that research projects should be facilitated which rely upon a strong multicentric approach. (author's)
WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
The role of food safety in health and development. Report of a Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Safety.
World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1984; (705):1-79.This document presents the recommendations of a Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committe on Food Safety. Illness due to contaminated food is perhaps the most widespread health problem in the world and a major cause of reduced economic productivity. The safety of food is affected by food systems, sociocultural factors, food chain technology, ecologic factors, nturitional aspects, and epidemiology. It was the assumption of the Committee that, if food safety is given sufficient priority within national planning, countries can prevent and control foodborne disease, especially pathogen-induced diarrheal syndromes, and interrupt the vicious cycle of diarrhea-malnutrition-disease. Attainment of this objective requires a national commitment and the collaboration of all ministries and agencies concerned with health, agriculture, finance, planning, and commerce as well as the food industry, the biamedical and agricultural scientific community, and the consuming public. Prevention and control interventions should aim to avoid or minimize contamination, to destroy or denature the contaminant, and to prevent the further spread or multiplication of the contaminant. The Committee outlined a series of recommendations for achieving a worldwide reduction in the morbidity and mortality caused by foodborne hazards. Food safety should be considered an integral part of the primary health care delivery system. Food safety should also be regarded as an integral part of the total food system. National food control infrastructures should be strengthened, and regional, national, multinational, and international surveillance of foodborne diseases should be carried out. Each country should aim to develop at least 1 laboratory capable of identifying the etiologic agents of diarrhea and other foodborne diseases. Health workers should be trained to play a role in identifying and monitoring critical control points in food production and preparation. Health education, within the context of the cultural and social values of the community, should inform the public about food safety hazards and preventive measures. Finally, the hazard analysis critical control point approach to prevention is recommended.
The poor quality of official socio-economic statistics relating to the rural tropical world: with special reference to South India.
MODERN ASIAN STUDIES. 1984; 18(3):491-514.Statistics relating to the sizes of farm-holdings, the output and yield of crops, household income and expenditure, occupation, cattle ownership, and the sizes of villages were considered, and some features of the Karnataka population census were criticized. The main reason for the extremely poor quality of so many official socioeconomic statistics relating to the rural tropical world is the failure to realize that statistical procedures are based on conditions peculiar to advanced countries. The All-India National Sample Survey is a rare example of a wasted exercise which runs into several hundred separate reports. Because of the inevitable unreliability of most statistics it should be assumed that all statistics covering whole countries or large states, which relate to agricultural yields, crop values, and production, are bound to include a large element of estimation. Organizations like the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) should provide some information on the basis of estimates, and statistical tables without notes should not be published, such as the regular Statistical Bulletins of the FAO. Far fewer figures of far higher quality should be produced. Owing to the diversity of agrarian systems, very few economic generalizations (any presumed inverse relationship between crop yield and size of farm-holding) can be of universal application. Organizations like the FAO should advise tropical countries that it is wasteful to collect statistics that are considered conventional in advanced countries because of the nature of their agrarian systems and systems of land tenure. Instead of estimating the proportions of households below poverty levels, economic indicators of living standards, such as agricultural wage rates and determinants of the distribution of household farmland, should be identified.
[Unpublished] 1984. 4 p.In addressing the International Population Conference in Mexico City the New Zealand Delegation identified its role concerning the issues of world population and family planning. As a national member of the global community, New Zealand recognizes the importance of a worldwide balance of material goods and resources and population. Between the years 1974 and 1984, following the Population Conference in Bucharest, mortality trends have shown progress. The world population is gradually decreasing in developing and industrialized nations. however, during the same decade, the population showed an increase of 770 million. Many of the countries who experienced the greatest population increase were the least equipped to serve the population influx with proper food, shelter and health and education services. The Population Conferences have allowed for the global community to come together and review past accomplishments and to look at future needs. New Zealand's position on the role of women through family planning is to support women's exploration into positions beyond traditional roles and that women be fully incorporated in the process of development.
The state of the environment 1985. Environmental aspects of emerging agricultural technologies. Population and the environment.
Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 1984. , vi, 43 p.World production of food crops has basically increased from 1945-1985 due to the emergence of agricultural technologies such as petroleum- based chemical fertilizers and pesticides, efficient and sophisticated farm equipment, hybridization, and, recently, genetic engineering. However, only developed countries and a few developing countries, for example India, have experienced this growth. Social, economic, environmental, and political factors such as inequitable access to resources have prevented this phenomenon from occurring in developing countries where the people often experience famine and malnutrition. Nevertheless the technical path which lead to high food crop yields cannot always be adapted by many poor farmers and landless laborers in developing countries. Further, this path is energy intensive and destroys the environment. To increase production in developing countries, the governments must encourage environmentally sound agricultural development, such as integrated pest management and minimum tillage. Despite any attempts at increasing food production in these countries, however, rapid population growth hampers any increases. As population grows, the availability of fertile, tillable land for food crops decreases. In addition, soil degradation and deforestation occur because more trees and plants are cleared to grow crops and, immediately following harvest, a new set of crops are grown quickly thereby depleting the topsoil and its nutrients. Further, people gather more wood for cooking. These governments, with cooperation and aid from developed countries and international agencies, need to address a multitude of problems such as poverty, population growth, environmental degradation, and women's status, in order to bring food production, the status of the environment, and population growth into balance.
New York, New York, International Women's Tribune Center, 1984 Sep. iv, 116 p.The 1st 2 issues of newsletters in this volume, Women and Appropriate Technology, Parts I and II, emphasize resource materials and appropriate technology groups and projects from around the world that might be found useful. The 3rd issue, Women and Food Production, focuses specifically on the need for women to have greater access to land, technology, and capital in the production of food crops, whether for their own use or as crops for marketing. The last issues, Women MOving Appropriate Technology Ahead, concentrates on strategies for introducing appropriate technology ideas and approaches into one's own community. Together, these 4 issues combine several issues related to women's access to and uses of appropriate technologies, with practical information for concrete action and sample projects involving women from countries around the world. Originally published between 1978 and 1973, all 4 newsletters in this volume have been updated and edited in some parts to assure their continued relevance. Resource groups, UN news and conferences, available periodicals, training, credit and loan information, cash crops, international nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies are all discussed.
New York, New York, FPIA, . 227 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
Pretesting communication materials with special emphasis on child health and nutrition education. A manual for trainers and supervisors.
Rangoon, Burma, UNICEF, Rangoon, 1984 Feb. 62 p.This is a complete manual on how to pretest printed materials on child health and nutrition, prepared by UNICEF primarily for developing countries. It is charmingly illustrated with photographs, cartoons, and samples of visual materials. Pretesting means interviewing the intended audience to see if they understand and like the materials. Often illiterate rural people are unfamiliar with most of the visual conventions we take for granted, are embarrassed or threatened about certain content, or are put off by color selection, unfamiliar details or overly lengthy presentations, for example. The most common objection to pretesting is lack of time and money; yet losses on untested materials may be much higher. Detailed help is provided with techniques for interviewing, such as how to establish rapport, word questions, probe for information rather than yes answers, handle negative attitudes. Sections explain where, when, whom and how to interview many subjects, and how to evaluate results. Final sections deal with discussion questions, feedback from users, types of problems encountered with people of low visual literacy, and how to convince a supervisor of the need for pretesting.
[Unpublished] 1984 Oct. 7 p.Health-By-the-People (HBP) programs in the developing world, utilizing the efforts of the local population to repair and maintain its own health, are examined as illustrated by UN Children's Fund and Ford Foundation projects. HBP programs, if spread widely, will have a major impact on any developing country's population problem. In addition to substantially reducing the infant mortality rate, they help move people from a passive state of acceptance to taking charge of their own affairs. The time has come for a new international initiative to help communities of the developing world to take charge of their own internal transformation, while receiving assistance in specific areas from existing program-oriented organizations. The voluntary sector in each country needs to set up an HBP Task Force whose ultimate objective would be to universalize health-by-the-people efforts within its national boundaries.
[Main objectives of the WHO Special Program on Human Reproduction] Osnovnye napravleniia Spetsialnoi Programmy VOZ po Reproduktsii Cheloveka.
AKUSHERSTVO I GINEKOLOGIIA. 1984 Jul; (7):3-6.The WHO Special Program on Human reproduction was established in 1972 to coordinate international research on birth control, family planning, development of effective methods of contraception, and treatments for disorders of the human reproductive system. The Program's main objectives are: implementation of family planning programs at primary health care facilities, evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of existing birth control methods, development of new birth control methods, and development of new methods of sterility treatment. In order to attain these goals, the Program forth 3 major tasks for international research: 1) psychosociological aspects of family planning, 2) birth control methods, and 3) studies on sterility. Since most of the participating nations belong to the 3rd World, the Program is focused on human reproduction in developing countries. The USSR plays an important role in the WHO Special Program on Human reproduction. A WHO Paticipating Center has been established at the All-Union Center for Maternal and Child Care in Moscow. Soviet research concentrates on 3 major areas: diagnosis and treatment of female sterility, endocrinological aspects of contraception, and birth control prostaglandins.
[Expanded Programme on Immunization: Global Advisory Group] Programme Elargi de Vaccination: Groupe consultatif mondial.
Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1984 Mar 23; 59(12):85-9.In addition to the conclusions and recommendations reached at the 6th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group and summarized in this report, the Group reviewed at length the status of the program in the Western Pacific Region and made a series of recommendations specifically directed to activities in the Region. Of particular significance for the operational progress of the global program are the recommendations concerning "Administration of EPI Vaccines," which were subsequently endorsed by the Precongress workshop on Immunization held before the XVIIth International Congress of Pediatrics in Manila in November 1983. These recommendations are not listed here. In his report to the World Health Assembly in 1982, the Director-General summarized the major problems which threaten the success of efforts to achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world by 1990. The 5-Point Action Program adopted at that time remains a relevant guide for countries and for WHO as they work to resolve those problems. The EPI is concerned about the prevention of the target diseases, not merely with the administration of vaccine. In addition to working toward increases in immunization coverage, the EPI must assure the strenghtening of surveillance systems so that the magnitude of the health problem represented by the target diseases is known at the community, district, regional, and national levels; immunization strategies are continuously adapted in order to reach groups at highest risk; and the target diseases are reduced to a minimum. The development of surveillance systems is one of the priorities in the development of effective primary health care services. Disease surveillance in its various forms should be used at all management levels for monitoring immunization programs performance and for measuring program impact. Specific recommendations regarding disease surveillance to be undertaken at global and regional levels and at the national level are listed. The results of more than 100 lameness surveys conducted in 25 developing countries confirm that paralytic poliomyelitis constitutes an important public health problem in any area in which the disease is endemic. In most programs, initial emphasis should be placed on the develpment of sentinel surveillance sites to monitor disease incidence trends. Some progress has been made in acting on the recommendations made at the meeting on the prevention of neonatal tetanus held in Lahore in 1982, but intensification of activities is required. In many developing countries, the surveillance and control of diphtheria must be improved. All aspects of progress and problems in the global program are reflected at least somewhere in the Western Pacific Region, and most of the findings and recommendations generally are valid beyond the regional boundaries.
POPULI. 1984; 11(4):4-12.The purposes of the 1984 International Conference on Population were to review the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, to sustain the momentum gained in population programs, and to make recommendations for future implementation of the plan that are deemed appropriate for the conditions of the next decade. The Bucharest Conference was the 1st one to bring together high-ranking governmental officials and experts to discuss the issues of population development. The Plan was the 1st international and comprehensive document on population policies, programs, and measures. The most tangible effect of the Conference was a growing interest in the UN population program, parallel with a rapid expansion of UN Fund for Population Activites (UNFPA) fund raising and project financing. Signs of hope and optimism could be found in the Plan as well as in the 2 General Assembly resolutions; international, political, and economic developments in the years that followed have hardly concurred with such expectations. As far as population policies are concerned, the situation in the developing world in 1984 is far different than it was in 1974. Research and study will have to be further promoted because 1) there are several new approaches to population issues and the relating policies adopted in the Recommendations, 2) research in reproductive physiology and contraception should be continued following new promising developments in those fields, and 3) studies on organzational, communicational, and psychological aspects of population programs will be essential for the successful implementation of those programs at levels significantly higher than in the past.
MANAGING INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. 1984 Sep-Oct; 1(5):23-44.The decision to hold the UN Mexico City Conference on Population was not arrived at without controversy. The mandate of the 1984 Conference was to review progress made over the 10 years following the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974, which adopted the World Population Plan of Action. The Plan as not viewed by all parties as a success, but it has continued to be recognized for a decade now as the statement of what can be agreed to at the international level with respect to population. The decision to hold the 1984 Conference was influenced by 1) the view that population questions had become less controversial and that ideological opposition was receding, 2) the feeling among many population specialists that the population issue had lost salience, and 3) the fact that demand for multinational population support began to significantly exceed supply. Developing countries were more strongly in favor of holding the Conference than developed countries, who expressed more reservations; this configuration of support was very different from that of 1974. The final decision was to hold the conference, but it was further decided that the Conference would limit its attention to the Plan's recommendations for action and for implementation. The report reviewing and appraising population trends and policies since the last World Population Conference was based on 4 expert group meetings on 1) fertility and the family, 2) population distribution, migration, and development, 3) population resources, environment, and development, and 4) mortality and health policy. The final report highlights 1) the slowing of economic growth, 2) world population growth rates, 3) new and changing population policies, 4) fertility change, 5) urban growth, 6) foregin employment, and 7) changes in population structure.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jan. 13 p.The UN Development Program (UNDP) began a special drive in the mid-1970s to ensure that women would enjoy greater benefits from its programs of technical cooperation. Efforts have increased steadily since 1975 when UNDP's Governing Council declared that "the integration of women in development should be a continuous consideration in the formulation, design, and implementation of UNDP projects and programs." They involve: promotion to create a greater awareness of women's needs and approaches which can meet them effectively; orientation and training to enhance skills in developing, implementing, and monitoring programs of benefit to women; improving the data base to provide better information on women's productive roles; programming to address women's concerns and generate self-sustaining activities, replicable nationally, regionally, and interregionally; and personnel action to increase the number of women professionals within UNDP. A number of projects supported by UNDP are directly benefiting women, especially those in rural and poor urban areas of developing countries. Among other things, these projects are helping to reduce women's workloads; addressing needs for clean water, health care, and education; providing training in basic skills; and helping to develop income-earning potentials. Examples are cited for the countries of Indonesia, Mali, Mexico, Yemen Arab Republic, Nepal, Rwanda, Honduras, Papua New Guinea, Liberia, Bolivia, and the Philippines.
Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.
Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe, Karlovy Vary, 10-12 December 1984. Issued by the World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]. 8 p. (EPI/GEN/84/9)This discussion of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) presents some background history and discusses current program status, some linkages between the global EPI and immunization programs in Europe, and the use of vaccines. In the early 1970s, as confidence grew that the global smallpox eradication program would achieve its goals, policy advisers within and outside of the World Health Organization (WHO) looked for an initiative which could become its successor. Representatives from industrialized nations and particularly from European countries were influential in selecting childhood immunization, as such programs had been such an early and successful element of their own health systems. Thus, the EPI was born. The resolution creating the EPI was passed by the World Health Assembly in 1974. Program policies were formalized by the World Health Assembly in 1977. It was at that time that the goal of providing immunization services for all children of the world by 1990 was set and that WHO's priority attention to developing countries was specified. The European Region takes pride of place in establishing the EPI and in supporting its work in developing countries and is itself a full-fledged member of the program with respect to immunization challenges which remain within its own countries. When the EPI began, no global immunization information system existed, and it is likely that coverage in developing countries was less than 5%. It now is on the order of 30% for a 3rd dose of DPT. Given the high dropout rates persisting in many developing countries, coverage for a 1st dose of DPT may be on the order of 50%, reflecting the delivery capacity of present immunization programs. Coverage for measles and poliomyelitis in infants and for tetanus toxoid among women of childbearing age is considerably less than 30%, reflecting the perception until the last 3-4 years that measles was a problem only in Africa, that poliomyelitis was not a problem in countries with poor levels of sanitation, and that neonatal tetanus was simply not a problem. While the EPI is working at the global level to help strengthen routine disease reporting systems, particularly in developing countries, it also has had to take refuge in estimates to obtain a picture of actual morbidity and mortality. A table presents a summary of such estimates. Not all countries of the Region are yet making optimal use of existing vaccines. Countries of the Region might want to recommit themselves to the EPI goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization services for all children by 1990.
Social, economic, political, and demographic determinants of development-agency aid to Third World countries.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1984. xvi, 563 p. (8501088)The following dissertation is a report of research on the determinants of economic assistance to the development efforts of 3rd world countries by 6 international agencies including the UN, the US, and the World Bank. With annual data for 109 countries, these agencies' grants and loans were related, by multiple regression, to several socioeconomic variables summarizing the modernization of the nations concerned. Grants and loans of these agencies were also regressed on measures of polity types and political instability in these same analyses. Most socioeconomic variable relationships to fundings of economic development by 2 World Bank branches and 2 UN specialized agencies were in support of a need-for-aid interpretation of these agencies' grant-loan policies. The similar relationships of loans from the 3rd World Bank branch to these economic variables usually supported a credit-worthiness or "good economic performance" emphasis in that World Bank branch's policy on loans. Need for aid and loan credit worthiness were equally important in determining US foreign economic assistance. Polity type and other control variables had small effects on development assistance by the 6 agencies studied. Several of the economic variables' relationships to these agencies' funding were significant, but small; few such relationships were very large. (author's)
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1984 Jun; 10(2):43-8.In Mexico City from August 6-13, 1984, the UN will sponsor the International Conference on Population (ICP), 10 years after the UN's 1st worldwide governmental population conference on population. The ICP will reaffirm the World Population Plan of Action, assess the progress made in its implemention, and set priorities for the future. Issues to be discussed at the conference include 1) very slowly declining population growth rates, 2) a still increasing world population size, 3) strategies to meet the unmet need for family planning services, 4) intergrating population into development planning, 5) whether the ICP should set specific targets, and 6) whether other important issues not related to population, such as apartheid or disarmament, will be discussed. The 1974 Bucharest conference developed and approved the World Population Plan of Action, which placed population planning squarely in the development context, and endorsed family planning as a human right, but did not set targets for fertility decline. Perhaps most importantly, the Bucharest conference marked the end of the international political debate over whether governments should support family planning. The ICP, which has been more strongly supported by developing than developed countries, is charged with 1) reinforcing the momentum of population activities, 2) identifying emerging problems, and 3) initiating programs where none have yet had substantial impact. The Preparatory Committe for the ICP drafted 83 recommendations covering the relationship between population and development, and policies on morbidity and mortality, fertility, migration, aging, and the roles of governments and international organizations. The recommendations emphasize the urgency of the need to support family planning as well as mention family life and sex education, natural family planning, breast feeding, and male involvement in family planning for the 1st time. In addition, the recommendations support strong service goals, the integration of women in development, and increased funding for population activities.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jun. 10,  p.105 developing country projects dealing primarily or exclusively with adolescent fertility were analyzed in an attempt to determine the nature and level of adolescent fertility programming in the developing world. There were 37 projects in Asia, 21 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 8 in North Africa and the Middle East, 22 in the Caribbean, and 17 in Latin America. About 27% of the programs were exclusively urban, 16% exclusively rural, and the remainder operated in both rural and urban settings. Various types of organizations sponsored projects, but the majority were sponsored by International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and other private organizations. There were marked regional differences in sponsorship. Only 11 of the 105 programs were conducted by government agencies, but 14 programs received some support from national governments and local governments also sometimes contributed support. Family life education for both in and out of school youth was the predominant project activity in 66 of the 105 projects. 20 projects focused on training of professionals in family life education such as educators, counselors, and health personnel. Curricula primarily concentrated on sex education, responsible parenthood, the importance of delayed 1st birth and child spacing, and general population concerns. 25 projects conduct youth training sessions and teach teams to serve as peer counselors and cators, motivating their peers toward acceptance of family planning and the small family and providing accurate information on sexuality. About 21 projects have a specific counseling component, with most counseling services teaching family planning, distributing condoms, or referring clients to clinics. Only 16 projects had as a stated objective provision for adolescents of diagnostic or clinical health services related to contraceptive use, family planning, or venereal disease. 18 projects offered training in vocational or income-generating skills integrated with family planning, sex education, and family life education. Over 20 projects described educational materials preparation and production as an activity. Innovative approaches observed in the 105 projects included adoption of the multiservice center concept, integration of family planning education with self-help initiatives to improve young women's socioeconomic status, participation of adolescents in program decision making, and innovative promotional activities. Factors contributing to program success identified by project staff include conducting a needs assessment survey, securing parental and community support, solid funding, a flexible program design, skilled personnel, availability of adequate materials, good cooperation with other community agencies, active participation of young people in planning and running the program, good publicity, and use of innovative teaching methods. Projects are increasingly tending toward less formal kinds of communication in family life education.
New York, New York, FPIA, 1984. 258 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) over the past 13 years, with emphasis on calendar year 1984. A brief overview provides data on 1984 project assistance of all types, followed by greater detail in 3 regional reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America, a report of interregional projects, program management information, and fiscal information. Each regional report contains an overview, a table showing the value and composition of FPIA assistance by calendar year for 1972-84, and discussions of project assistance, commodity assistance, special grants, and invitational travel. A series of tables in each regional report provides data on the number of active projects by country and calendar year; the number of projects, grants, and modifications awarded by year, classification of current projects in the region; the dollar value and quantities of commodities shipped in 1984 and cumulatively, quantities of selected commodities shipped by calendar year, and commodity assistance to nonproject countries. Country reports within the regional reports provide information on project and commodity assistance for 26 countries in Africa, 17 in Asia and the Pacific, and 12 in Latin America. FPIA programming reached a new high of $18.0 million in project and commodity assistance in 1984, with 118 projects in 37 countries receiving $7.2 million in direct support and 240 agencies in 73 countries receiving $10.6 million in commodity shipments. The cumulative value of FPIA assistance since 1972 totals over $120 million. 1984 project and commodity assistance respectively totalled $2,526,609 and $3,359,158 for Africa, $1,518,908 and $2,645,485 for Asia and the Pacific, and $3,008,663 and $4,560,958 for Latin America, in addition to $184,385 and $12,568 for interregional assistance. The total volume of FPIA assistance between 1972-84 was $19,796,746 for Africa, $46,345,512 for Latin America, $49,354,682 for Asia and the Pacific, and $4,505,798 for interregional assistance. Between 1972-84, FPIA has provided totals of $558,426 for special grants, $784,138 for invitational travel, $57,978,856 for commodity assistance, and $60,681,288 for project assistance. 36% of cumulative commodity assistance has been for condoms, 42% for pills, 8% for other contraceptives, 10% for medical equipment and supplies, 3% for IEC, and 1% for other things. 41% of FPIA assistance has gone to Asia and the Pacific, 39% to Latin America, 16% to Africa, and 4% to interregional programs.
Patterns of infertility in the developing world: preliminary observations from the WHO clinical study, Task Force on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infertility, WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.
[Unpublished] 1984 Feb. 11 p.This paper presents preliminary observations on infertility derived from a World Health Organization (WHO) clinical study conducted in 33 medical centers in 25 developed and developing countries. A major purpose of the investigation was to provide a standardized approach, including standardized diagnostic procedures and identical definitions, for the study of infertile couples. As of January 1984, 7600 couples had been enrolled in the study and over 5400 had completed the protocol. Infertility of at least 1 year's duration was required for admission to the study. The study results so far suggest certain patterns. Couples in developed countries were more likely to have primary than secondary infertility and to have been infertile for a shorter period of time than those in developing countries. However, Africa was the only area in which the majority of couples requesting medical consultation had secondary infertility. Over 70% of couples in developing countries had infertility for over 2.5 years before seeking consultation, whereas half of those in developed countries waited less than 2 years. On the other hand, similar proportions of couples (13-16%) in all regions became pregnant. Reasons for infertility were identified in both partners in 1/3 of African couples and 40% of those in the East Mediterranean region. The rate of infertility of unexplained etiology was 9-20% in developed countries, Latin America, and Asia, but 0% in Africa and 5% in the East Mediterranean. Over half of African women had infection-attributable diagnoses (including 43% bilateral tubal occlusion, 15% pelvic adhesions, and 4% acquired tubal abnormalities), a rate that was 60% higher than in other areas. Similarly, varicocele was diagnosed in 25% of African males investigated compared with 6-19% in other areas. Abnormal sperm morphology and low sperm motility were also more common among African males. Higher risks of tubal occlusion were consistently associated with number of previous pregnancies, a history of sexually transmitted infections, and a previous episode of postpartum or postabortal complications.