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Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
In: Long-acting contraceptive delivery systems edited by Gerald I. Zatuchni, Alfredo Goldsmith, James D. Shelton, John J. Sciarra. Philadelphia, Harper and Row, 1984. 246-7.2 principles govern the major methods of vaginal-ring release of steroids: to suppress ovulation and, the route followed by the World Health Organization (WHO), not to suppress ovulation. When ovulation is not suppressed, as with the minipill, high rates of ectopic pregnancy have been associated with the progestin-only method. Also, high rates of ectopic pregnancy have been found for an IUD that does not suppress ovulation and works as a progestin-only device. In the phase 3 ongoing study of the WHO ring in a number of centers, no ectopic pregnancies have been reported thus far. It is unclear whether the RS 37367 enters the circulation and is then secreted in the cervical mucus or whether it is taken up by osmotic, capillary, or other action into the cervical mucus. If an effect on the cervical mucus occurs after the ring has been removed from the vagina, the RS 37367 may be stored in cervical mucus and then released slowly. It appears unlikely that the compound is absorbed systemically and resecreted into mucus because the compound is rapidly metabolized by the liver, and, although radiolabeling indicates that large amounts of radioactivity are circulated in the blood by HPLC, there is no intact compound. In regard to use, there may be more expulsion of vaginal rings in cultures with squatting toilet habits. Also, there may be poor cultural acceptance of a method that requires genital manipulation. In areas where prevailing hygiene conditions are poor, a ring that has to be removed monthly or every 3 months may increase the danger of introducing infection.
In: Methods of intercultural communications research, edited by William B. Gudykunst [and] Young Yun Kim. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1984. 185-94. (International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Vol. VIII)This chapter weds the traditions of rhetorical analysis to those of content analysis in the study of international organization pronouncements, that is, it relates a research perspective, explores possible extensions of that perspective, applies that perspective to intercultural communication, and critiques that application. Like Kenneth Burke, the author finds strength in paradoxes. Content analysis translates frequency of occurrence of certain symbols into summary judgments and comparisons of content of the discourse. By marking off units of time or space, it tallies the nature and types of symbols or classes of symbols per unit, prior to estimating or extrapolating the results to spaces or periods not directly observed. The concerns of the content analyst focus on the choice of a unit, the development and clear description of categories of symbols or themes to be quantified, the assurance that coders will intersubjectively agree on assignment of symbols to categories, and the ascertainment of direction for the materials counted. Content analysis is a means of counting and judging some matter based upon statistical central tendencies, yet the question remains as to which features of meaning are quantifiable. The suspicion that, more often than not, things of greater importance will be stated ina communique in direct proportion to their importance, is countered many times in cultural practice. Cultural indirection, ritual, cultural hierarchy, cultural "non sequiturs," or like variables weaken the tie between quantity and quality. Rhetoricians and humanists tend to be concerned with quality of communicative acts more than quantity. Kenneth Burke is an exception to this rule. He argues in "Philosophy of Literary Form" the need for measures of central tendency to disclose important concepts on the mind of a communicator. This analysis is extended from the study of a writer to a speaker, from a speaker to a set of speakers who face the same stimulus, to the definition of an outlook for an international organization, to the application of that organizational outlook to take to task a disrespectful member state. The progression, pairing, or contrasting of terms by a speaker disclose the "cornerstone terms" of the speaker's motivation. Presumably, the calculation of cornerstone points for persons suggests such points for groups or organizations of affiliation by that person; and the comparison of such points between groups and organizations will disclose the calculus for entire cultures. As Burke's symbolic analysis technique effectively discloses motivations ("factors") of the communicator, this holds out the hope that the tenets of a given culture could be disclosed through the analysis of cultural materials.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.