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In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 383-402. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)Following an exploration of the interrelationships between population, development, and international economic relations, this paper discusses the trade requirements of a growing population under the International Development Strategy. The discussion concludes with some reflections concerning the nature of the structural adjustments in the world economy necessary to create an international environment supportive of the development needs of the developing countries and conducive to a sustained growth of the world economy. Because of the close link between production and international economic relations, any change in the rate of growth of population has implications for trading patterns and the flow of capital. Population also directly affects the level of consumption and hence, import demand for consumer goods and for raw materials and the capital equipment necessary to produce goods for final consumption. Evidence exists in support of the view that the savings rate could be influenced by demographic trends. Also the role of changing age structure of the population should not be discounted. The experience of the fastest growing developing countries reflects the strong links between development, industrialization, and international trade. Their liberal trading policies and outward orientations have contributed significantly to their success. Given the projected population growth for developing countries of 2.6% in the 1980s and 2.3% in the 1990s, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth target would be 4.4% in the 1980s and 4.7% in the 1990s. Achievement of the ambitious growth targets set by the International Development Strategy would only make a modest beginning towards narrowing the relative income gap between the developed and developing countries by 2000. Accelerating the growth of developing countries would require a faster accumulation of capital or an increase in the investment to GDP ratio from 26.7% in 1980 to 28.8% in 1990 and 27.6% in 2000. A table shows that the resulting external balance in the year 2000 would be 4.8% of the GDP of developing countries as a whole. The developed market economies will need to improve substantially their savings performance in order to make available financial resources needed by developing economies.
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1984. 160 p.This expanded voters' guide to important foreign policy issues facing the US is intended to provide voters, information they need to take part in the national foreign policy debate and reach their own informed conclusions. The approach is nonpartisan and impartial and the style is telegraphic. Each of the 18 topics includes a list of significant questions, a presentation of essential background, an outline of policy choices and the pros and cons of each, and a brief bibliography. The book covers 5 major themes: leadership, national security, economic and social issues, critical regions, and the UN. The chapters cover: 1) president, congress, and foreign policy; 2) the arms race and arms control; 3) defense budget and major weapons systems; 4) nuclear proliferation; 5) jobs and international trade; 6) oil and energy; 7) the international debt crisis; 8) immigration and refugees; 9) Soviet Union; 10) the Atlantic alliance; 11) Lebanon, the Arabs, and Israel; 12) the Iran-Iraq war; 13) Central America; 14) Japan; 15) China and Taiwan; 16) South Africa and Namibia; 17) Third World: population, food, and development; and 18) the US and the UN.