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    The family: models for providing comprehensive services for family and child welfare.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 68 p. (ST/ESA/138)

    This study used 7 focused case studies from developing and developed countries to examine different programs attempting to provide comprehensive family and child welfare services, and to relate the findings to the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year and the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women. The various chapters examine the objectives and purposes of comprehensive family and child welfare services; present the 7 case studies; outline the administrative structures and operation of both national and locally based programs and explore emerging issues of decentralization and interorganizational coordination; describe various aspects of service delivery including the range of services, comprehensive services, principles shaping the services, the village or neighborhood as the focal point, and staff functions; examine the relationship of comprehensive family and child welfare services to objectives of the UN Decade for Women and International Women's Year in the areas of modes of delivery, education, health, and employment and self-reliance; and offer conclusions in these areas. Comprehensive services consist of a number of complementary services designed to be mutually reinforcing and linked to produce a system rather than merely a collection of disparate services. The case studies of 3 nongovernmental organizations in the US, Sri Lanka, and Kenya and 4 governmental agencies in India, Bangladesh, Czechoslovakia, and Colombia show that comprehensive programs support national development policies. The study also demonstrates that although decentralization of authority stimulates local participation in program implementation, it does not foster local participation in the policy formulation process. It appears that no nongovernmental organization has had any direct effect on the formulation of national policies. Decentralization was seen in the administrative structures and operation of every governmental program to some extent, although the studies did not specify which functions were exercised primarily at a given level. The effectiveness of administrative structures was found to depend more on the will and behavior of the individuals using them than on any characteristics inherent in the structures. Pre-existing community structures were used whenever possible in implementing programs, and they appeared to improve prospects of involving local institutions in planning, decision-making, and implementation of the program. The case studies indicate that interorganizational communication has functioned satsifactorily in many respects, although more research on this topic is needed.
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