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[Unpublished] 1984 Jul. , 193 p.As of 1984, Lebanon had not yet formulated a clear and specific population policy because laws existed against contraception and political differences among the various ethnic groups also existed which culminated in a civil war. Nevertheless the government condoned the creation of the Lebanese Family Planning Association (LFPA) in August 1969 and its activities. The government also helped spread family planning through its own institutions such as the Ministry of Health and the Office of Social Development. Further some of LFPA's staff members have been part of the government itself. LFPA conducted a survey in June 1975 in Zahrani in rural south Lebanon and it showed that the people wished to limit their fertility, but could not since birth control was not available. Therefore LFPA established the 1st Community Based Family Planning Services Program in Zahrani which later spread to other villages. Wasitas (field workers) served as the major means of providing birth control and information to the women. They emphasized child spacing. The wasitas also served as a major adaptive and indigenous agent of social change and development. Initially they underwent intensive training lasting at least 1 week, but in 1979, LFPA hosted annual 1 month training sessions. The wasitas use of traditional communication methods resulted in not only an increase of contraceptive use, but also in meeting the elemental needs of the women for psychological comfort and self reliance. In some instances, however, some wasitas resorted to deception in encouraging the most uneducated women to use birth control because of strong incentives, e.g., the wasita received 50% of the money earned for the sale of each contraceptive. LFPA needed to reassess those measures which lead to possible encroachment of the dignity and freedom of choice of the women villagers.
Africa Region Planned Parenthood and Women's Development Programme: report of the December 1983 Anglophone Project Manager's Workshop.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, Planned Parenthood and Women's Development Programme, 1984. 34 p.The Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) workshop, held in Mombasa, Africa in 1983, was designed so that participants would: 1) acquire additional knowledge of the PPWD program, 2) develop skills to initiate, plan, manage, and evaluate PPWD projects, 3) identify constraints and problems affecting project management, 4) assess the viability of the projects they have formulated in their countries, 5) acquire skills in integrating family planning components into development activities, and 6) develop plans to improve their PPWD projects back home. Some of the common problems were: 1) problems and needs addressed by women's groups--such as women's economic and social status; 2) current problems of project development, implementation, and management; 3) factors which lead to success; 4) operational, financial, and leadership problems in organizations; 5) collaboration; 6) integration of family planning into the project; and 7) problems of monitoring and evaluation. The major needs identified were health, water, sanitation, housing, and education. In addition, the social factors such as communication, beliefs, influential groups, religious influences, relations and conflicts, language problems, and types of resources available are also part of the factors involved in participatory development. The workshop discussed the steps of project planning and prepared participants for the group encounters which facilitate the testing of some of the concepts discussed. Therefore, 2 women's groups were selected for the case studies, one in Makiwo, and one in Kibuyuni. The main objective of the visit was to give the participants a chance to study an on-going project, exchange ideas with the group, and test some of the concepts learned against real life situations in the community. Group members discussed at length the problem of leadership--identified as being key to group project success: 5 types of leaders were identified. It was concluded that training could help alleviate some of the prevalent leadership problems; rotating leadership would also be an alternative. A checklist for monitoring and evaluation of projects was drawn up and could also be used to assess project proposals. Workshop evaluation, issues raised and recommendations, and general comments are given.
New York, United Nations, 1984. 68 p. (ST/ESA/138)This study used 7 focused case studies from developing and developed countries to examine different programs attempting to provide comprehensive family and child welfare services, and to relate the findings to the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year and the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women. The various chapters examine the objectives and purposes of comprehensive family and child welfare services; present the 7 case studies; outline the administrative structures and operation of both national and locally based programs and explore emerging issues of decentralization and interorganizational coordination; describe various aspects of service delivery including the range of services, comprehensive services, principles shaping the services, the village or neighborhood as the focal point, and staff functions; examine the relationship of comprehensive family and child welfare services to objectives of the UN Decade for Women and International Women's Year in the areas of modes of delivery, education, health, and employment and self-reliance; and offer conclusions in these areas. Comprehensive services consist of a number of complementary services designed to be mutually reinforcing and linked to produce a system rather than merely a collection of disparate services. The case studies of 3 nongovernmental organizations in the US, Sri Lanka, and Kenya and 4 governmental agencies in India, Bangladesh, Czechoslovakia, and Colombia show that comprehensive programs support national development policies. The study also demonstrates that although decentralization of authority stimulates local participation in program implementation, it does not foster local participation in the policy formulation process. It appears that no nongovernmental organization has had any direct effect on the formulation of national policies. Decentralization was seen in the administrative structures and operation of every governmental program to some extent, although the studies did not specify which functions were exercised primarily at a given level. The effectiveness of administrative structures was found to depend more on the will and behavior of the individuals using them than on any characteristics inherent in the structures. Pre-existing community structures were used whenever possible in implementing programs, and they appeared to improve prospects of involving local institutions in planning, decision-making, and implementation of the program. The case studies indicate that interorganizational communication has functioned satsifactorily in many respects, although more research on this topic is needed.