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[Unpublished] 1984. 51 p.This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, is arranged by project title, investigator and annual budget allocations. Project titles are listed by Scientific Working Grouping (SWG) and include research on bacterial enteric infections; parasitic diarrheas; viral diarrheas; drug development and management of acute diarrheas; global and regional groups and research strengthening activities. SWG projects are furthermore divided by geographical region: African, American, Eastern Medierranean, European, Southeast Asian and Western Pacific. The priority area for research within each SWG is specified.
[Unpublished] 1984. 4 p.In addressing the International Population Conference in Mexico City the New Zealand Delegation identified its role concerning the issues of world population and family planning. As a national member of the global community, New Zealand recognizes the importance of a worldwide balance of material goods and resources and population. Between the years 1974 and 1984, following the Population Conference in Bucharest, mortality trends have shown progress. The world population is gradually decreasing in developing and industrialized nations. however, during the same decade, the population showed an increase of 770 million. Many of the countries who experienced the greatest population increase were the least equipped to serve the population influx with proper food, shelter and health and education services. The Population Conferences have allowed for the global community to come together and review past accomplishments and to look at future needs. New Zealand's position on the role of women through family planning is to support women's exploration into positions beyond traditional roles and that women be fully incorporated in the process of development.
New York, New York, FPIA, . 227 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
LABOUR AND POPULATION ACTIVITIES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. 1984 Jun; (16):4.2 International Labor Organization/United Fund for Population Activities (ILO/UNFPA) assisted projects are at work in Fiji, developing training aids and materials on the topic of population and family welfare. These include modules devoted to population and resources, family welfare, family level relationships, family budgeting, nutrition and family welfare, family health, and communication and motivation techniques. The teaching aids will be made available to affiliated unions of the Fiji Trades Union Congress (FTUC) as well as to both cooperative officers and societies, which cover approximately half of the formal sector work force and about 1/3 of the families in the rural sector.
[Expanded Programme on Immunization: Global Advisory Group] Programme Elargi de Vaccination: Groupe consultatif mondial.
Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1984 Mar 23; 59(12):85-9.In addition to the conclusions and recommendations reached at the 6th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group and summarized in this report, the Group reviewed at length the status of the program in the Western Pacific Region and made a series of recommendations specifically directed to activities in the Region. Of particular significance for the operational progress of the global program are the recommendations concerning "Administration of EPI Vaccines," which were subsequently endorsed by the Precongress workshop on Immunization held before the XVIIth International Congress of Pediatrics in Manila in November 1983. These recommendations are not listed here. In his report to the World Health Assembly in 1982, the Director-General summarized the major problems which threaten the success of efforts to achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world by 1990. The 5-Point Action Program adopted at that time remains a relevant guide for countries and for WHO as they work to resolve those problems. The EPI is concerned about the prevention of the target diseases, not merely with the administration of vaccine. In addition to working toward increases in immunization coverage, the EPI must assure the strenghtening of surveillance systems so that the magnitude of the health problem represented by the target diseases is known at the community, district, regional, and national levels; immunization strategies are continuously adapted in order to reach groups at highest risk; and the target diseases are reduced to a minimum. The development of surveillance systems is one of the priorities in the development of effective primary health care services. Disease surveillance in its various forms should be used at all management levels for monitoring immunization programs performance and for measuring program impact. Specific recommendations regarding disease surveillance to be undertaken at global and regional levels and at the national level are listed. The results of more than 100 lameness surveys conducted in 25 developing countries confirm that paralytic poliomyelitis constitutes an important public health problem in any area in which the disease is endemic. In most programs, initial emphasis should be placed on the develpment of sentinel surveillance sites to monitor disease incidence trends. Some progress has been made in acting on the recommendations made at the meeting on the prevention of neonatal tetanus held in Lahore in 1982, but intensification of activities is required. In many developing countries, the surveillance and control of diphtheria must be improved. All aspects of progress and problems in the global program are reflected at least somewhere in the Western Pacific Region, and most of the findings and recommendations generally are valid beyond the regional boundaries.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.Mortality has declined in all the countries of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, but the declines have been far from uniform. Development may mean greater input into health services and public health, but it can also mean better transportation, more schools, higher wages, more job opportunities, and better housing. Each of these factors affects the health of the population. Mortality decline may be due to either a reduction of exposure to risk or an increased proportion of the population protected from the risk by immunization or other preventive measures. A disease may disappear, such as smallpox has, or a new treatment may substantially reduce case fatalities; both processes may be happening at once. The effective control of "preventable deaths" is the path to modern low mortality levels. Only a few ESCAP countries, those with reasonably accurate cause of death statistics, show modernized mortality levels. Deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases decline with modernization, and deaths from cancer increase. The U-shaped age pattern of mortality, in which infant and child deaths are predominant, becomes a J-shaped curve with greater mortality risk at older ages. Socioeconomic change affects mortality at national, community, and individual or household levels. Life expectancy at birth rises with per capita gross national product. On the individual level, mother's education, family income, family size, and child spacing all affect child mortality. Other sociobiological factors affect mortality risk on an individual level, such as late use of modern health services. Future mortality research needs to examine all these factors and cross discipinary lines.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.In the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, life expectancy at birth varies from less than 45 years in Afghanistan, Bhutan, Democratic Kampuchea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Nepal to 70 years and above in Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Generally, mortality has declined in the ESCAP region in the last 25 years. Early mortality improvements can largely be attributed to new disease control technologies, such as immunization and effective disease treatment. Large-scale epidemics became rare, as did large-scale famines. In countries where population was concentrated in urban areas, such as in Singapore and Hong Kong, and in countries where health services were extended to the rural sector, such as China, mortality fell to developed country levels. Health services are not the sole agent in this process; increasing literacy, social welfare policy, adequate housing and water supplies, sanitation, and economic growth are also participants. At the root of mortality differentials between and within countries are problems associated with differential rates of socioeconomic development, income distribution, and the inadequacy of health care systems to cope with their responsibilities. Health services alone may alleviate only some of the major health problems. The sophisticated approach of Western medicine may be inappropriate for these countries. The most prevalent health problems in the least developed countries of the ESCAP region are water and airborne infectious diseases, complicated by malnutrition. Treatment, although bringing immediate relief, may not have a lasting effect on the person who must return to a disease-ridden environment.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.This paper proposes a minimum core tabulation program for national mortality analyses to 1) provide a framework for comparative country mortality analyses and 2) to encourage countries to make the best possible use of information on mortality patterns, trends, and differentials. Basically, countries should 1) go beyond this minimum program, 2) pay attention to data quality, whatever the source of data, and 3) provide complete details of definitions and data collection methods. Deaths and crude death rates should be constructed for 3 time periods--1960, 1970, and 1980, for urban and rural populations, and for administrative divisions. This approach would be useful for infant mortality rates by sex and age; it would also be useful to have infant mortality rates by socioeconomic groups and by mother's education. Mortality rates should be constructed by age and sex. The 4 leading causes of death should be given for urban and rural populations. Countries using summary measures for differential mortality should use the Gini coefficient or the Atkinson index. Countries should develop their own cross-tabulation programs for differential mortality--for example, infant mortality by mother's education and rural or urban residence or infant mortality by maternal age and parity. This program proposes a core tabulation of mortality statistics that will make international comparisons possible and promote detailed assessments of national situations.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.Since very few developing countries have complete vital registration, most base their mortality statistics on data from occasional demographic surveys and population censuses. Brass technics are used to estimate child mortality from data on children ever born and children still living by 5-year age groups of mothers. Many of the 1980 censuses included these questions. In view of the importance of vital statistics for development planning, the UN has recently listed data to be collected by a vital registration system. Because complete registration is so difficult to achieve, some countries--India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, for example--operate sample registration systems, which are mostly dual-method surveys, continuous registration systems coupled with periodic household surveys. Demographic survey data relies largely on indirect methods for estimating infant and child mortality. This type of survey underestimates childbearing at older ages and overestimates childbearing at younger ages. Tables 1 and 2 list information on mortality collected in the 1970 and 1980 censuses of countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region by whether information was collected on children born alive, children living, the date of birth of the last child, and whether that child is still living. Table 3 lists the UN recommendations on data to be collected in death registration.
[Unpublished] . Paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration in Asia, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and Population Center Foundation, 6-12 November 1984, Manila, Philippines. 37 p.This paper briefly reviews the evidence on international migration flows relative to countries of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region. The Pacific countries covered include Australia, New Zealand, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Tuvalu. Asian countries covered include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Democratic Kampuchea, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Although the data available for each country varies greatly, most countries attempt to estimate numbers of international migration and refugees.
New York, New York, FPIA, 1984. 258 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) over the past 13 years, with emphasis on calendar year 1984. A brief overview provides data on 1984 project assistance of all types, followed by greater detail in 3 regional reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America, a report of interregional projects, program management information, and fiscal information. Each regional report contains an overview, a table showing the value and composition of FPIA assistance by calendar year for 1972-84, and discussions of project assistance, commodity assistance, special grants, and invitational travel. A series of tables in each regional report provides data on the number of active projects by country and calendar year; the number of projects, grants, and modifications awarded by year, classification of current projects in the region; the dollar value and quantities of commodities shipped in 1984 and cumulatively, quantities of selected commodities shipped by calendar year, and commodity assistance to nonproject countries. Country reports within the regional reports provide information on project and commodity assistance for 26 countries in Africa, 17 in Asia and the Pacific, and 12 in Latin America. FPIA programming reached a new high of $18.0 million in project and commodity assistance in 1984, with 118 projects in 37 countries receiving $7.2 million in direct support and 240 agencies in 73 countries receiving $10.6 million in commodity shipments. The cumulative value of FPIA assistance since 1972 totals over $120 million. 1984 project and commodity assistance respectively totalled $2,526,609 and $3,359,158 for Africa, $1,518,908 and $2,645,485 for Asia and the Pacific, and $3,008,663 and $4,560,958 for Latin America, in addition to $184,385 and $12,568 for interregional assistance. The total volume of FPIA assistance between 1972-84 was $19,796,746 for Africa, $46,345,512 for Latin America, $49,354,682 for Asia and the Pacific, and $4,505,798 for interregional assistance. Between 1972-84, FPIA has provided totals of $558,426 for special grants, $784,138 for invitational travel, $57,978,856 for commodity assistance, and $60,681,288 for project assistance. 36% of cumulative commodity assistance has been for condoms, 42% for pills, 8% for other contraceptives, 10% for medical equipment and supplies, 3% for IEC, and 1% for other things. 41% of FPIA assistance has gone to Asia and the Pacific, 39% to Latin America, 16% to Africa, and 4% to interregional programs.
Implementation of action area four ("Meeting the Needs of Young People") of the IPPF three year plan 1985-87.
[Unpublished] 1984 Dec. 11,  p. (PC/3.85/4)The objective of this paper is to assist the Central Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in monitoring the implementation of the IPPF 1985-87 plan. Baseline information is provided on all 1985 youth projects proposed by grant receiving family planning associations (FPAs) in their 1985-87 Three Year Plans. Detailed analysis was confined to the 67 FPA 1985-87 Three Year Plans received at the International Office by September 1984. This number covers most of the Associations in the region; the exception is the Western Hemisphere where several of their plans arrived in London too late to be included in the analysis. For nongrant receiving Associations, summary information was extracted from regional bureau sources and a list of youth activities in these countries is shown in an appendix. A summary of 1985 youth activities supported by the IPPF Secretariat at both regional and international level is shown in a 2nd appendix. To provide the necessary background to an analysis of 1985 youth projects, all strategies proposed by FPAs in their 1985-87 Plans were examined. A total of 360 strategies were classified according to their main purpose. A further classification into 14 categories was then used to demonstrate their relationship to the IPPFs 1985-87 Action Areas. Information about the purpose of youth projects, the types of activity carried out, and whether the project was new or ongoing was also extracted from the FPA Plans. For the 67 FPAs whose Three Year Plans were reviewed, a total of 360 strategies were proposed for the 1985-87 period. The largest number of strategies were concerned with providing family planning services; male involvement was the least mentioned. A total of 34 FPAs specifically mentioned young people in their list of strategies. A further 17 FPAs proposed youth projects but did not as yet devote a special youth strategy for them. Taking into account all regions, a total of 51 Associations in 1985 intended to spend almost $2 million implementing 169 youth projects. The projects fell into 4 main types: family life and population education; training; increasing awareness of issues affecting young people; and family planning services. The number of new youth projects in 1985 varies from region to region, the highest number being in Africa. FPAs still have much to do to meet the new objective of involving parents and the community in preparing young people for responsible sexuality and family life.
Working paper/Strategies for meeting basic socio-economic needs in the context of achieving the goals of population policies and programmes.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 253-66. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58.)The developing countries in the Economic ans Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region present widely different development levels. 13 countries have low incomes with per capita incomes from US $80--US $370. 8 are middle income countries with incomes from US $590--US $3830. Most of the population lives in the low income countries. These populations 1) are rural, 2) have low life expectancy, 3) have high fertility, 4) have low nutrition, and 5) are illiterate. Most people do not have their basic needs met, and they live in countries with very unequal structures of income distribution. The lower 40% of the population in these countries will not be able to reach minimum levels of satisfaction for their basic needs without a development effort that is both qualitatively and quantitatively different. The middle income countries generally have declining population growth rates, higher literacy, adequate nutrition, and a life expectancy above 60. Many of the poorest countries had increasing birth rates during the 1970s. Most of the poorest countries will have a labor force that continues to be largely agricultural and rural. Countries in Southeast and East Asia, including China, have a high economic growth potential. South Asia's per capita incomes will still remain below US $200 in the year 2000. The satisfaction of basic needs remains one of the main criteria of development; this includes health, education, food, clothing, housing, and drinking water. The key elements in countries who have improved their satisfaction of basic needs are literacy rates, women's status, equal improvement for men and women, free health care, free education, and income redistribution. A basic strategy would 1) concentrate health care on maternal and child health, sanitation, and public health; 2) give educational priority to universal primary education; and 3) improve the productivity of small holdings and concentrate on staple foods.
Alternative population projections and the food and agriculture economy of the developing countries in ESCAP.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 75-82. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58.)UN projections for the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region indicate that its population size could grow to between 3095 and 3330 million by the year 2000. From the point of view of feeding this larger population, the region cannot be regarded as a single unit because 1) the countries have different growth rates, 2) very substantial improvements in food are necessary in some countries to eliminate undernutrition, and 3) past population growth trends may not continue. China, unlike the other countries in the region, will very likely become 100% self-sufficient in food and still provide a substantial increase in per capita consumption. The middle income countries show even higher per capita gains in consumption but have a population growth rate of 2.4%; their growth rates are expected to remain quite high in the next 2 decades. If trends in overall economic growth and food consumption continue, these countries could gain per capita food supplies so that serious undernutrition will not be present, under both high and low population growth variants, but the low growth variant will stop further declines in cereals self-sufficiency. The low income countries present a mixed picture. In some of them a continuation of trends would produce gains in per capita food supplies that will help reduce undernutrition. In others, both nutrition and food consumption will probably deteriorate.
Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, 1984. 358 p.This report of the 1983 regional training workshop in Suva, Fiji, is the result of a UN Fund for Population Activities funded population education project for 6 countries in the Pacific region; its intent is to train more people to assume some of the work of developing instructional materials in population education for the Pacific region. The main objectives of the workshop were to: 1) provide opportunities for sharing of country experiences in the development of in school and out of school instructional materials in population education, 2) prepare guidelines for the development of in school and out of school prototype curricula and sample instructional materials, 3) develop draft prototype curricula and sample instructional materials, and 4) plan for the follow-up of national training workshops. A brief summary of population education for the 11 participating countries is included. These countries are: 1) Cook Islands, 2) Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), 3) Fiji, 4) Kiribati, 5) Marshall Islands, 6) Palau, 7) Papua New Guinea, 8) Solomon Islands, 9) Tonga, 10) Vanuatu, and 11) Western Samoa. Group reports include survey questionnaires used and population statistics. The in school group made no attempt to standardize their format. Therefore 8 instructional units were created for teachers' guides: 1) demography: the scientific study of population, 2) human growth and development, 3) migration and urbanization in the Pacific, 4) land tenure, social structure, and population, 5) population and environment, 6) population and development, 7) population, health and nutrition, and 8) population and the quality of life. Each unit includes objectives, strategies, materials, and activities. Exercises, student workbooks, maps, questionnaires, pictures, and diagrams are also used to help demonstrate problem situations. The workshop contained a good mixture of activities and resources, human and material, but the basic ingredient in the training process was active involvement by the participants. The workshop was a success based on comments made by participants, the relevant materials produced, and the future follow up activities planned.
Demography India. 1984 Jan-Dec; 13(1-2):153-67.The threshold hypothesis shares with transition theory the basic assumption that a decline in fertility is interrelated with a decline in mortality and change in the social, economic, and cultural conditions of the population. However, threshold theory fails to formulate a causal chain between fertility and the other variables and its application at the aggregate country level is limited by intracountry heterogeneity in cultural and social variables. Problematic is the fixing of the timing for a country of a decline in fertility to be inferred from the fact that some indicators of development have reached the threshold zone while others have not. This paper attempts to develope a combined index for socioeconomic development on the basis of data from 12 countries of the ESCAP region of South East Asia. Variables included were life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, adult female literacy, percentages of females economically active, GNP per capita, and percentage urban population. In 1970, 3 of the countries analyzed had a crude birth rate below 25, 6 countries had a rate between 25-40, and 3 had a rate above 40. The lowest value of the index recorded for countries of low fertility (crude birth rate below 25) and the highest value recorded for countries of high fertility (above 40) are taken as the threshold zones for the overall index. The number of countries in the threshold range increased from 5 in 1970 to 8 in 1975. With the increase in the index value, a reduction in the fertility level was noted. In contrast, where socioeconomic development was slow, fertility showed little change. Policy makers could use this system to assess which indicator could be pushed through to raise the overall index of development so as to effect a decline in fertility.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 351-8. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program within the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) offers an ideal framework for pilot projects to study, at a microscale, the complicated interrelationships that exist between an area's population problems and its developmental and environmental problems. An underlying reason for initiating the MAB was the evidence that the pressures of population growth and movement and the demands of development had placed stress on human/environment relationships. A 1st pilot project was carried out in Fiji on population-resources-environment interrelations during 1974-77. The main objectives were to reduce gaps in existing knowledge, to elaborate a set of reference information and guidelines for planners, decision makers and research workers, and to develop further the methodological tools needed for tackling problems in this area. In light of the Fiji experience, the collaboration of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and UNESCO has continued with the implementation of a 2nd-stage project on population, development, and environment interactions in the eastern Caribbean (1979-81). The 2 MAB pilot projects can be regarded as 2 successful efforts which advanced knowledge and methodology in general, but the task of building up a vast program of similar studies covering an array representative of the major environmental and development conditions in the 3rd world still needs to be tackled. Planning for a longer range future provides for action which may not be justifiable in the context of short-term planning. Such action includes the allocation of heavy initial investments to build up the infrastructure necessary for ensuring a sustainable energy system or to provide for ecological stability and the husbanding of natural resources to ensure the sustainable productive capacity of renewable resources. It is necessary to develop integrative approaches and to consider sociocultural factors in development planning. Considerations of a conceptual and methodological nature are identified.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:80-1.A strategy, developed by the Women's Programme of the Social Development Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to promote women's participation in the development process, is described. Although recommendations of international conferences invariably call for the inclusion of women in all levels of development planning, efforts to involve women in planning at the national level have met with little success. Even if women received sufficient training and education to qualify them as planners, their impact on development planning would be minimal due to deficiencies within the national planning process. Top planning units in most Asian and Pacific countries are composed of highly trained expatriots who lack an understanding of the needs of the population in general and of women in particular. The strategy developed by the Women's Programme is based on expanding the role of women in development planning at the local level and gradually sensitizing the planning hierarchy to women's needs and to women's abilities. This awareness building can be facilitated by developing links between government agencies and women's organizations. Application of this strategy revealed that it was much more difficult to build awareness among government officials and planners then to involve women in development at the local level. The planning process is constantly subject to personnel and policy changes because of changing political situations, and planners remain isolated from the public. At the community level, women's efforts to promote development are highly successful. Programs developed by women tend to benefit the entire community, and women's roles in these activities are highly visible. These successful efforts will contribute toward building an awareness of women's capacities to promote development. Conditions which are conducive to local level involvement of women include the political will to promote participation, the provision of appropriate training to prepare community members for participation, and the existence of an adequate infrastructure and sufficient resources to carry out programs.
In: Population distribution, migration and development. New York, N.Y., Dept. of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, 1984. 484-505.Add to my documents.
Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.
New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
Australian Society. 1984 Jun 1; 3(6):27-8.An estimated 15 million infants, largely from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, died in 1983. Many countries in the Third World have infant mortality rates of 150-200/1000 live births. UNICEF has outlines 7 steps that could significantly reduce the infant mortality rate: 1) use of growth monitoring charts, 2) oral rehydration therapy, 3) breastfeeding for at least 1 year, 4) a massive immunization campaign, 5) food supplementation for pregnant women and children at risk, 6) a family spacing education campaign, and 7) extension of female education. 2 other measures not emphasized by UNICEF but important for the health and survival of children are a government system of welfare for the care of the aged to partially solve the need for children and the equal valuation of male and female children. Concerned Australians are urged to spread the word about the UNICEF report, provide funds, and influence the Australian government to offer help through UNICEF to developing countries. Technically qualified people can go to Third World countries and work for better conditions. It should be noted, however, that Australia has its own Third World sector. The Aboriginal population is severely disadvantaged in terms of all the major indicators of quality of life. The infant mortality rate among Aboriginals is 25/1000 live births, which is 2.5 times the Australian national average. Life expectancy at birth is 53 years, or 20 years less than the national average. 80% of Aboriginals have no educational qualifications, and 80% are unemployed. Aboriginal households have less than 60% the average income available to non-Aboriginal households and the housing of the majority of the Aboriginal population is substandard.
ESCAP/POPIN Expert Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Networks, 20-23 June 1984, Bangkok, Thailand.
Population Headliners. 1984 Jul; (112 Suppl):1-6.An overview of current population information programs at the regional, national, and global level was presented at a meeting of the Expert Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Networks. On the global level, the decentralized Population Information Network (POPIN) was established, consisting of population libraries, clearinghouses, information systems, and documentation centers. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Regional Population Information Centre (PIC) has actively promoted the standardization of methodologies for the collection and processing of data, the use of compatible terminology, adoption of classification systems, computer-assisted data and information handling, and improved programs of publication and infomration dissemination, within and among national centers. Among the national PICs, 83% are attached to the primary national family planning/fertility control unit and 17% are attached to demographic data, research, and analysis units. Lack of access to specialized information handling equipment such as microcomputers, word processors, and computer terminals remains a problem for PICs. Recommendations were made by the Expert Working Group to improve the functions of PICs: 1) the mandate and resoponsibilities of the PIC should be explicilty stated; 2) PICs should collect, process, and disseminate population information in the most effective format to workers in the population feild; 3) PICs should be given flexibility in the performance of activitites by their governing bodies; 4) short-term training should be provided in computerization and dissemination of information; 5) research and evaluation mechanisms for PIC activities should be developed; 6) PIC staff should prepare policy briefs for decision makers; 7) access to parent organizations should be given to nongovernment PICs; 8) study tours to foreign PICs should be organized for PIC staff; and 9) on-the-job training in indexing and abstracting should be provided. Networking among PICs can be further facilitated by written acquisition policies, automation of bibliographic information, common classification systems, and exchange of ideas and experience between various systems.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984; 13(2):22-4.This article presents a representative cross-section of the 85 draft recommendations for specific action by world governments and the international community flowing from the World Population Plan of Action. These recommendations will be a focus of deliberations at the International Conference on Population. The 17 recommendations summarized in this article are thoe most relevant to the population situation in Asia and the Pacific. The recommendations are intended to operationalize the Plan of Action and address specific issues that have acquired special significance either because of their increased relevance for the next decade or insufficient attention in the past decade. Overall, the document presents the position that national and internation policies must aim to redirect a larger share of the world's resources to the very poor if desired fertility and mortality levels are to be achieved. An integrated approach, based on understanding of the interreelationships between population, resources, environment, and ddevelopment, is urged. In addition, population and development policies shoud be mutually reinforcing, with particular attention to the family and community levels. Specific areas in which educational attainment of women, control of infectious and contagious diseases, and family planning.