Your search found 380 Results

  1. 1
    296524

    Crisis in Africa - perspective.

    UN Chronicle. 1984 Mar; 21:[36] p..

    Africa, the Assembly pointed out, contains three quarters of the countries designated as "least developed" and 50 per cent of the world's land-locked nations. There vulnerable States suffer particularly from the effects of the crises, which touch all sectors of the economy--especially food production and agriculture, the backbone of these primarily rural societies. Drought has swept through the savannas, deserts and coastlines of all parts of Africa. Food shortages are rampant throughout at least half of all African countries, affecting millions of Africans. Hundreds of thousands of cattle have died from lack of feed and epidemics of cattle plague. Rivers and streams have vanished and wells have dried up. At least 150 million persons are faced with starvation in the 24 most seriously affected countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Somalia, Swaziland, Togo, United Republic of Tanzania, Upper Volta, Zambia and Zimbabwe. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    296525

    Africa's suffering "unacceptable" Secretary-General declares - Javier Perez de Cuellar.

    UN Chronicle. 1984 Jul; 21:[2] p..

    In a speech on 7 September to the annual conference of the Department of Public Information for Non- Governmental Organizations, Mr. Perez de Cuellar said that "no statistic can convey the real meaning of economic deprivation", adding he had seen first hand how a combination of economic crisis and natural calamity had led to acute and widespread starvation and hunger. It was "unacceptable", he said, "that at a time of economic recovery in the industrial world and of a relatively satisfactory global food situation, millions of African men, women and children should undergo suffering of such magnitude". The international community had to demonstrate its capacity and willingness to help, particularly through the uses of the United Nations system, he added. African leaders were determined to rely primarily on their own efforts and to introduce the necessary changes in their domestic policies to overcome the crisis, he went on. He encouraged them to persevere in these efforts and to strengthen them. "But precisely when they are engaged in this difficult and vast undertaking, the concerted support of the international community should not be denied them." (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    296523

    A call for women engineers and scientists.

    UN Chronicle. 1984 Mar; 21:[3] p..

    A call for more women in the engineering profession and for special incentives to encourage more women to enter the teaching professions in the fields of science and technology was made by the Advisory Committee on Science and Technology for Development at its recent session. The Advisory Committee stressed the need for all women to be informed broadly bout science and technology and urged Governments to adopt appropriate measures to achieve that. Recommendations on the important roles which non-governmental organization (NGOs) and women, among others, should play in promoting science and technology for development were adopted by the Advisory Committee in its report to the Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development, its parent body. The 28-member Committee met in New York from 14 to 21 February. The Committee had before it the recommendations of five ad hoc panels of specialists which examined topics relating to the implementation of the Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development. The Programme was adopted in 1979 by the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    069430

    Evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) of Belize, 26 March to 13 April 1984.

    Belize. Ministry of Health; Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Belize City, Belize, Ministry of Health, 1984. [3], 54 p. (EPI/84/003)

    An evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Belize was conducted by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization at the request of the country's Ministry of Health. The evaluation was undertaken to identify obstacles to program implementation, and subsequently provide national managers and decision makers with viable potential solutions. General background information is provided on Belize, with specific mention made of demographic, ethnic, and linguistic characteristics, the health system, and the EPI program in the country. EPI evaluation methodology and vaccination coverage are presented, followed by detailed examination of study findings and recommendations. Achievements, problems, and recommendations are listed for the areas of planning and organizations, management and administration, training, supervision, resources, logistics and the cold chain, delivery strategies, the information and surveillance system, and promotion and community participation. A 23-page chronogram of recommended activities follows, with the report concluding in acknowledgements and annexes.
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  5. 5
    069067

    Report of the Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development, Castries, Saint Lucia, 30 April - 1 May 1984.

    Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development (1984: Castries)

    [Unpublished] 1984. [3], 53, [37] p.

    The Population and Development Project of the Caribbean region aims to increase the awareness of regional leaders on population issues, explain the consequences of continued demographic trends upon socioeconomic development, present up-to-date medical protocols for family planning services to medical practitioners, and improve family planning service delivery in selected countries. Proceedings from a Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development and presented. Opening remarks of the conference were made by the Minister of Health of Saint Lucia, the Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community, and representatives from the UNFPA and CARICOM. Chairmen for conference sessions were elected, an agenda adopted, and procedural matters settled. An abstract of the regional population policy paper is discussed, followed by consideration of the benefits of population programs for family planning and health, and presentation of the medical steering committee's work. National population task force reports are included for Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Monsterrat, St. Christopher-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, and the Bahamas. Jamaica's experience in formulating and implementing its population policy follows, preceding presentations on migration and adolescent fertility. Concluding sections cover resources for the awareness of population impacts on development, a suggested draft model of national population policy, information on the development law and policy program, a panel discussion of population policy implications, and proposals and recommendations for a plan of action to implement population policy. A list of participants is included among the annexes.
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  6. 6
    049191

    Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]. European Region on Immunization Activities

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)

    Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
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  7. 7
    273179

    Evaluation of the community incentive project NFPCB, summary report.

    University of Indonesia. Faculty of Public Health

    Jakarta, Indonesia, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Public Health, 1984. 6 p. (Book - IA)

    This article is a summary of the results of the Community Incentive Project (CIP) in Indonesia. The CIP is a project to maintain and increase family planning acceptance as well as family planning practice through increasing the income of the acceptors. The fund for the project was originated from the World Bank under a loan agreement for the Indonesian government in 1977. The evaluation of the CIP has been carried out under an agreement between the Faculty of Public Health University of Indonesia and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. The objective of the evaluation is to describe various objects of the project implementation, such as the planning/preparation process, training, loan provision, monitoring and control, recording and reporting, bookkeeping, assistance to the family planning acceptors who received the loan, the participation of the community and other sectors, and the impact of the project on family planning practice.
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  8. 8
    273118

    Action plan.

    International Parliamentary Assembly on Population and Development

    New York, New York, The Global Committee of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1984. 32 p.

    The International Parliamentary Assembly on Population and Development was held in Mexico City, immediately following the United Nations International Conference on Population in 1984. The implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted by the UN conference was discussed by 184 parliamentarians from 60 countries. The result was an action plan, affirming that the ultimate objective of development and population policies would be improvement of the quality of life and well-being of individuals and families; noting the agreement of the UN conference, that population is integral to development; placing population policies in the prerogative of each sovereign country; recognizing the achievements of parliamentarians; and reasserting the importance of parliamentarians in the formulation of policies and enactment of population and development laws. Since the 1979 Colombo, Sri Lanka Parliamentarians conference, achievements have included the holding of regional conferences; establishment of the Global Committee; Asian Forum, and Inter-American Parliamentary Group, and national groups in 40 countries; and encouraging participation of parliamentarians in the 1984 UN conference. As elected representatives of the people, the parliamentarians' role includes insuring population and development issues receive priority attention; alerting constituents to the importance and inter-relationship of population and development; securing a political concensus for action; initiating legislative measures; working for funding allocation; reviewing progress; and collaborating with other parliamentarians as well as diverse international organizations. Parliamentarians should, in future, work also for the improved status of women; the strengthening of primary health care and legislative strenghening of family planning; extending of educational opportunities to all, and assisting in protecting the physical environment, in alleviating the problems of migration, and fostering of community participation. Steering and drafting committee members and participating countries are listed.
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  9. 9
    034367

    Alcohol related problems and their prevention with particular reference to adolescence. Report of the Task Force meeting Geneva, 31 August - 4 September 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Mental Health

    [Unpublished] 1984. 46 p. (MNH/NAT/84.1.)

    Cultural, socioeconomic, and biological factors all influence alcohol use by adolescents and their experience of alcohol-related problems. Although the assessment of these problems presents methodological difficulties, strategies for prevention based on educational and legislative approaches both promise some measure of success. Further research is required to establish adequate data bases and to test the effectiveness of interventions. A number of specific research proposals were developed. These included epidemiological studies, with particular emphasis on longitudinal surveys, biomedical investigations and comparative evaluations of preventive interventions. In view of the increasing concern about alcohol-related problems in many developing countries, it was recommended that priority be given to the development of approaches applicable in such settings. It was also recommended that research projects should be facilitated which rely upon a strong multicentric approach. (author's)
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  10. 10
    273090

    Social studies and population education. Book Three: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
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  11. 11
    273089

    Social studies and population education. Book Two: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
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  12. 12
    273088

    Social studies and population education. Book One: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
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  13. 13
    076824

    China.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation

    London, England, IPPF, 1984. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    Long term problems of population growth in China are indicated by the fact that 65% of the 1,024,950,000 1983 population is under 30 years of age; 50% is under 21. Although family planning was started in the 1950s, it was neglected during the 1960s Cultural Revolution, and did not become a national program until 1971. The one child per family policy, proposed in 1978, has since become the basis for government regulations which are strictly enforced. Family planning messages are conveyed through every possible type of media, and services are made available to the entire population. Various economic incentives and disincentives such as, monthly health care subsidies granted to couples who have only one child until he reaches the age of 14, grain allocations for an only child, and larger private plots, are used to help reward those who obey the family planning policy. All contraceptives are available free of charge: at the end of 1983, 69.5% of fertile couples were using some form of modern contraceptive method. The China Family Planning Association was formed in 1980 with the objective of assisting the government program by motivating people to accept family planning. The Association's 3 year plan for 1985-1987 is: 1) to strengthen family planning publicity; 2) to increase the management and professional skills of the personnel; 3) to strengthen the Association's organization at central and branch level; and 4) to participate in international conferences and other activities.
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  14. 14
    035174

    Coordinating role of national committees on vital and health statistics.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Health Services. Unit for the Development of Health Statistical Services

    In: Improving civil registration, edited by Forrest E. Linder and Iwao M. Moriyama. Bethesda, Maryland, International Institute for Vital Registration and Statistics, [1984]. 235-42.

    Because agencies responsible for vital statistics collection vary substantially among nations, the International Conference for the 6th Decennial Revision of the Inernational Lists of Disease and Causes of Death (Paris, 1948) recommended that all governments establish National Committees on Vital and Health Statistics. To promote international cooperation the conference suggested that: 1) the World Health Assembly establish an Experts Committee on Health Statistics and 2) governments establish national committees for statistical activities coordination to serve as links with the World Health Organization. The 1st International Conference of National Committees on Vital and Health Statistics (London, 1953), with 28 nations attending, introduced 8 objectives to define needs and stimulate statistical studies and encouraged governments that had not yet set up national committees to establish them. 59 countries participated in the 2nd International Conference (Copenhagen, 1973) to evaluate objectives and emphasize the need for national committees in developing countries. This study briefly discusses recent developments and changes within national committees for the African, American, Eastern Mediterranean, European, Southeast Asian, and Western Pacific Regions. Usefulness and productivity of national committees depend on: 1) strong commitment by civil registration, national vital statistics, and national health programs administrators, 2) clear understandings of the National Committee's objectives and limitations, 3) careful selection of Committee members, and 4) the administrative ability of the chairman. National committees have demonstrated their potential for improving statistics collection and usage; each country must find the most effective organization and operation for success.
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  15. 15
    273073

    Report of the third meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Bacterial Enteric Infections: Microbiology, Epidemiology, Immunology, and Vaccine Development.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1984. 17 p. (WHO/CDD/BEI/84.5)

    The scientific topic discussed in detail by the Scientific Working Group (SWG) was recent research advances in the field of cholera. The SWG reviewed new knowlenge in areas such as epidemiology and ecology, phage-typing, pathogenesis, immunization, and related pathogens, and made recommendations for future research. The Diarrhoeal Disease Control Pragramme was continuing to emphasize the implementation of oral rehydration therapy as a means of reducing diarrheal mortality, and research aimed at an improved case-management strategy. The Steering Committee granted support to a number of projects aimed at clarifying the epidemiology of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of bacterial agents of acute diarrhea. Support was provided by the Steering Committee to projects aimed at, or closely related to the development of new vaccines against typhoid fever, cholera, and Shigella dysentery.
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  16. 16
    031138

    WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)

    The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
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  17. 17
    030012

    Report of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development.

    United Nations. Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-60. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The primary objective of the meeting of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development was to identify mechanisms through which poulation characteristics conditioned and were conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the development structure. This called for a systems approach in which all factors were treated simultaneously and in which the closing of loops through feedback effects was of foremost importance. The 1st item of the agenda called for a general discussion of past and future trends in population, resources, environment, and development. The Expert Group emphasized the need for better knowledge of how the trends of the various variables interacted and modified each other and particularly about the role of population within the interrelationships. The discussion of food and nutrition focused on the demographic, economic, social, political, and institutional aspects of meeting the needs for food and nutrition, while the physical aspects were given greater attention in the discussions of resources and environments. At the center of the deliberations were such concerns as poverty, the food versus feed controversy, food self sufficiency, and the role of population growth. The discussion on resources and the environment covered the resource base, environmental degradation, and nonrenewable resources. Attention was directed to the various mechanisms that could expand resource availability as well as those activities that had caused a degradation of the environment. The discussions of social and economic aspects of development involved 4 interrelated topics: income distribution, employment, health and education, and social security. The last items on the agenda addressed the issue of integrated planning and policy formation. Some members of the Expert Group were concerned with immediate problems. Viewing demographic trends as largely exogenous, they gave highest priority to finding the best way to accommodate the needs of growing populations. Others emphasized longrun problems and considered demographic trends as policy instruments for dealing with problems of resources, the environment, and development.
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  18. 18
    205614

    Refugee aid and development: report from the meeting of experts.

    International Catholic Migration Commission

    Icmc Migration News. 1984 Jan-Mar; 33(1):19-24.

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  19. 19
    273061

    Planning, development and health: an approach to training, 2nd ed., rev.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]; Royal Tropical Institute

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984. 323 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 66/PHD 19; ST/ESCAP/286)

    This training manual describes the organization of the courses, the course syllabus, the 1983 course on planning, development and health, the follow-up evaluation of the training courses of 1976-82 and the specialized activities in planning for health and development at ESCAP. Planning for health is viewed as an integral part of overall development planning with the conscious incorporation of clear goals, to help ensure that development programs have a positive impact on the health of the region's poor. ESCAP's training program aims to amplify, in concrete terms, the close relationship between health and development and to build the capability to take an integrated and multisectoral approach to inproving health and accelerating development. The design and implementation of a training program oriented to strengthen capacities in planning, development and health is a function of these 3 terms. The basic frame has remained farily similar to the 1976 course. Training aims at behavior change--to strengthen capacity for action, rather than to accumulate knowledge and information for information's sake. Training objectives must be appraised in terms of relevance, adequacy, effectiveness, efficacy and impact before actual implementation beings. The course is conceived as a unified, multi-sectoral approach to assess the health situation and propose intervention measures aimed at the elimination of the social causes of ill-health and disease of a country. The focus is in the relationships between health and development through systems analysis and relevant planning tools. The aim of the courses is to produce a cadre of planners for health with an innovative and intersectoral outlook, consistent with the dynamic approaches in health, development and planning and with abilities to convince the higher planning structures, rally political support and enlist coummunity involvement with focus on Health for All by the Year 2000. Tables and charts facilitate understanding of concepts involved in this training.
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  20. 20
    273060

    The world population plan of action and the Mexico draft recommendations: analytical comparisons and index.

    United Nations. Department of Internation Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    [Unpublished] 1984 Jul 23. 136 p. (ESA/P/WP/85)

    This document, prepared primarily for use within the UN Secretariat, systematically compares the recommendtions of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) and the Mexico Draft recommendations for the implementation of the WPPA. There are 109 recommendations in the WPPA, and 85 in the Mexico Draft; they are compared using a 2-column format. An index provides cross referencing. Topics covered include the family and the staus of women, population characteristics (addressing, in particular, the implications of the increasing proportion of young persons in populations of developing countries), and the links between morbidity and mortality and family planning. For example, the WPPA notes that "mortality reduction may be a prerequisite to a decline in fertility." In light of this, the Mexico Draft recommends that governments take immediate action to increase infant survival by expanding the use of oral rehydration therapy, immunization, and the promotion of breast feeding. In addition, nutrient supplements and appropriate day-care facilities should be provided for nursing mothers in the labor force. Other areas addressed include the need to promote the development of management in all fields related to population. This need can be met with a worldwide system of institutions designed totrain personnel. Present educational institutions should expand their curricula to include the study of population dynamics and policy. Developing countries should be provided with technical equipment and financial support to improve library facilities, computer services, data-gathring, and analysis. While international cooperation is considered crucial to the implementation of the WPPA, national governments are urged to make the attainment of self-reliance in the management of their population programs a high priorit. In recognition of the diversity of national goals, no recommendations are made regarding a world family-size norm.
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  21. 21
    028826

    News from WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases. Technical Advisory Group

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(5):212-6.

    This article highlights the conclusions and recommendations of the 5th meeting of the Technical Advisory Group of the World Health Organization (WHO) Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program held in March 1984. On the basis of clinical trials supported by the CDD Program, WHO has endorsed use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing trisodium citrate dihydrate in place of sodium bicarbonate. Although the bicarbonate formulation remains highly effective and may continue to be used, the citrate formula results in less stool output and is more stable under tropical climatic conditions. At its meeting, the Technical Advisory Group expressed satisfaction with progress in the health services and research components of the program's activities. By 1983, 72 countries or areas had formulated plans of operation for national CDD programs and 52 had actually implemented programs. Training courses directed at program managers, first-line supervisors, and middle-level health workers are held on a regular basis. 38 developing countries are now producing ORS. Another area of activity has involved development of a management information system to monitor progress toward the target of increased access to and use of oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea in children under 1 year of age. Data from 40 countries indicate that access to ORS was 6-10% in 1982 and usage was 1-4%. There have been reviews of 10 national CDD programs, 7 of which utilized a joint national-external team to collect and analyze information on the management and impact of the CDD program. During 1983, 71 new research projects were funded by the CDD program, bringing the total number of projects supported to 231 (59% in developing countries). Biomedical research has focused on development of more stable and effective ORS; the etiology and epidemiology of acute diarrhea: and development and evaluation of new diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antidiarrheal drugs. In 1982-83, the CDD program received US$1.4 million from WHO and about US$11 million from voluntary contributors. The 1984-85 budget has been set at US$19.7 million.
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  22. 22
    028741
    Peer Reviewed

    Effects of hormonal contraceptives on milk volume and infant growth.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Task Force on Oral Contraceptives

    Contraception. 1984 Dec; 30(6):505-22.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a randomized comparative trail of th effects of hormonal contrception on milk volume and infant growth. The 341 study participants, drawn from 3 obstetric centers in Hungary and Thailand, were 20-35 years of age with 2-4 live births and previous successful experience with breastfeeding. Subjects who chose oral contraception (OC) were randomly allocated to a combined preparation containing 150 mcg levonorgestrel and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (N=86) or to a progestin-only minipill containing 75 mcg dl-norgestrel (N=8). 59 Thai women receiving 150 mg depot medroxyprogesterone (DPMA) intramuscularly every 3 months were also studied. An additional 111 women who were using nonhormonal methods of contraception or no contraception served as controls. Milk volume was determined by breast pump expression. No significant differences in average milk volume were noted between treatment groups at the 6 week baseline visit. However, between the 6th and 24th weeks, average milk volume in the combined OC group declined by 41.9%, which was significantly greater than the declines of 12.0% noted in the progestin-only group, 6.1% among DMPA users, and 16.7% among controls. The lower expressed milk volume among combined OC users did not impair infant growth. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of average infant body weight or rate or weight gain. Users of combined OCs may have compensated for their decreased milk volume by providing more extensive supplementary feeding or more prolonged suckling episodes. These results suggest that the estrogen content of combined OCs adversely affects the capacity of the breast to produce milk; thus, family planning programs should make nonestrogen-containing methods available to breastfeeding mothers. Although no effects on infant growth were noted in this study, the possibility of such efects cannot be excluded in populations where infant growth largely depends on the adequacy of unsupplemente d lactation.
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  23. 23
    027206

    International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.

    World Assembly of Youth

    Maribo, Denmark, WAY, [1984]. 120 p.

    The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
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  24. 24
    273059

    Statement of the International Movement ATD Fourth World, an NGO in consultative status category ii with ECOSOC.

    International Movement ATD Fourth World

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note prepared for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p. (E/CONF.76/NGO/15)

    This appeal on behalf of the world's poorest families seeks: the destruction of misery in order to build peace and ensure dignity; fair distribution of resources; guarantees of freedom and the right to self-determination for all, especially the poorest; the widest possible choices for all in family planning; and regular public evaluation of demographic policies and programs, especially for the most deprived.
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  25. 25
    273055

    Statement by the leader of the Ethiopian Delegation to the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6-13 August, 1984.

    Ethiopia. Delegation to International Conference on Population, 1894

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 6 p.

    Since Ethiopia's land reform act of 1975 and the nationalization of its major industrial and financial institutions, the government has organized society, has raised the level of literacy from 7% to 63%, and has conducted a 1st population and housing census. Now, in a 10-Year Perspective Plan, population policy is identified as a major issue, reflecting the country's concern over its present high rate of population growth--2.9%/year--and its infant mortality rate of 144/1000 live births, with life expectancy at only 46 years. Health care stratgy, including safe drinking water, is another top government priority, as is improving the status of women. Family planning services are offered, and Ethiopia holds that international assistance should reflect national sovereignty rather than being conditional to any particular family planning policy.
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