Your search found 21 Results
New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
New York, UNFPA, 1980 May. 64 p.This report reviews and analyzes the type of projects the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been supporting in the field of women, population, and development during the 1969-1979 period. After screening 180 projects for possible review from the almost 2000 projects funded by UNFPA between the 10 year period, 106 were selected because they satisfied the following criteria: they either addressed women specifically or women were the primary project focus. To follow the historical development in UNFPA funding of women's projects as well as to arrive at a descriptive overview, the 106 projects were analyzed in 2 different ways. For overview purposes they were divided into Direct Women's Projects (DWP)--68 items--and Indirect Women's Projects (IWP)--32 items. For the historical perspective, only the 68 DWPs were studied. These were separated into 3 groups: projects funded before the World Conferences on Population and Women in 1974 and 1975; projects funded during the conference years; and projects funded after the conferences. The overview, which included all 106 projects, revealed some noteworthy characteristics of the UNFPA funding process. DWPs were more likely to be designated "Status of Women" (54%) and to be more research oriented, and were more likely to be country specific. IWPs had no "Status of Women" projects, and were more training oriented (37%). From an historical perspective in analyzing only the 68 DWPs, the crucial turning point in UNFPA's funding of Women's Projects was the 2 World Conferences. Following the conferences, women funded projects increased to 47 from the preconference level of 17. This period's most salient feature was its emphasis on raising the awareness of women and communities. During the conference related period, several projects were funded principally to prepare data on women and to provide support services for the conferences. There was a shift to research-action combination projects during the post-conference period.
World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980. Review and evaluation of progress achieved in the implementation of the World Plan of Action: national machinery and legislation.
[New York], UN, 1980. 27 p. (A/CONF.94/11)This report is part of an overall review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered at the national level (1975-1979) in implementing the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year. Focus in the 1st chapter is on national machinery and women's organizations. Legislation is the subject of the 2nd chapter with attention directed to the following: constitutional and legislative guarantees of the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of sex; sanctions and/or remedies to deal with violations; measures to inform women of their rights; effects upon the status of women of variances between civil and customary religious law; nationality; and civil law in the fields of property rights, legal capacity, right to movement, consent to marriage, rights during marriage and at its dissolution, minimum age of marriage, registration of marriages, parental rights and duties, right to retain the family name, provision of penal codes and measures to combat prostitution. The integration of women into national life has been formally accepted by the governments of most countries as a desirable planning objective. To ensure that the commitment to integrate women into national life is actually translated into action, it is essential to have institutional and organizational structures and arrangements to identify problems, formulate requisite policies, monitor the implementation of such policies and coordinate national efforts and initiatives in the area. Governments reported the establishment of different kinds of administrative and institutional machinery to integrate women into national life. The nature of the machinery varies according to the specific socioeconomic and political system of each State along with the degree of support it received from the government.
Resolutions and decision adopted by the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980.
[New York], UN, 1980 Aug 14. 56 p. (A/CONF.94/34/Add.1)The resolutions and decisions adopted by the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women at their July, 1980 meeting addressed the following topics: family planning; improving the situation of disabled women of all ages; migrant women; elderly women and economic security; battered women and family violence; implementation of the World Plan of Action; role of women in preparation of societies for life in peace; data collection on women; drought control in the Sahel; assistance to Lebanese women; political participation of women in the international sphere; refugees and displaced women; International Center for Public Enterprises in Developing Countries (ICPE); International Conference on Sanctions against South Africa; situation of women in Chile and El Salvador; control of illicit drug traffic; strengthening women's positions in the UN; international drinking water supply and sanitation decade; development assistance; elimination of discrimination; extreme poverty; equality in education and training; condemnation of South African aggression against the People's Republic of Angola; assistance to Saharawi women; assistance for the reconstruction of Nicaragua; health and well-being of women of the Pacific; integration of women in development; women and nutritional self-sufficiency; prostitution; apartheid and women in South Africa and Namibia; and the situation in Bolivia.
Programme of action for the second half of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace.
[New YOrk] UN, August 13, 1980. 61 p. (A/CONF.94/34)The 3 objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women, equality, development and peace, were reaffirmed at meetings and conferences subsequent to the Mexico City world conference on the status of women in 1975. Equality is interpreted as meaning not only legal equality, but also equality of rights, responsibilities, and opportunities for the participation of women in development, both as beneficiaries and as active agents. Development is interpreted to mean political, economic, social, cultural, and other dimensions of human life, including physical, moral, intellectual, and cultural development. Improvement of women's status requires action at the national and local levels and within the family. Peace and stability are prereqiesites to development. Peace will not be lasting without development and the elimination of inequalities and discrimination at all levels. Imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism, zionism, racism, racial discrimination, apartheid, hegemonism, and foreign occupation, domination, and oppression must be eliminated. It must be recognized that the attainment of equality of women long disadvantaged may demand compensatory activities to correct accumulated injustices. The joint responsibility of men and women for the welfare of the family in general, and the care of children in particular, must be reaffirmed.
Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, 14 to 30 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., United Nations, 1980. viii, 238 p. (A/CONF.94/35)Add to my documents.
Consultation of regional coordinators of the features services on women and population, UNESCO, Paris, 31 March-3 April 1980.
Paris, France, Unesco, 1980. 49 p.Add to my documents.
Population and global future, statement made at the First Global Conference on the Future: through the '80s, Toronto, Canada, 21 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p. (Speech Series No. 57)The United Nations has always considered population variables to be an integral part of the total development process. UNFPA has developed, in response to national needs, a core program of population assistance which has found universal support and acceptance among the 130 recipient countries and territories. Historically, these are: family planning, population policy formulation and population dynamics. The following emerging trends are foreseeable from country requests and information available to the Fund: 1) migration from rural to urban areas and increased growth in urbanization; 2) an increased proportion of aged which has already created a number of new demands for resources in both developing and developed countries; 3) a move toward enabling women to participate in economic and educational activities; and 4) a need for urgent concern over ecological issues which affect the delicate balance of resources and population.
Women, population and development, statement made at the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 15 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p. (Speech Series No. 56)The World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974 and the World Plan of Action adopted at the Mexico Conference in 1975 had one common goal--the full integration of women in the development process. Women today play a limited role in many national communities. If this role is to be strengthened and expanded, it will be necessary to focus on eliminating discrimination and removing obstacles to their education, training, employment and career advancement. Within this framework, UNFPA has given support to projects in 5 specific areas: 1) education and training in health, nutrition, child care, family planning, and vocational skills; 2) increasing participation of rural women in planning, decision-making and implementation at the community level; 3) income generating activities, such as marketing, social service occupations, and in the legal, educational and political systems; 4) educating women about their social and legal rights; and 5) widening women's access to communication networks. Between 1969 and 1979, approximately US$22 million was provided by UNFPA to projects dealing with the status of women. Projects in areas such as nutrition, maternal and child health services and family planning received more than US$312 million, which constitutes more than 50% of the total UNFPA programs.
Equality of educational opportunities for girls and women. Report of a Meeting of a Consultative Panel for Asia and Oceania 1-8 October 1979.
Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 173 p. (BKS/80/RHM/140-500)A meeting held in Bangkok in October 1979 identified obstacles to be overcome if women and girls are to have equal access to education at all levels in Asia and Oceania, and had as a goal to strengthen collaboration between the UN and other agencies within the framework of the UN Decade for Women. Although no countries studied reported official government discrimination against girls and women in education, all stated that fewer girls participate in educational activities and that a major obstacle is in the attitudes of parents and communities. Dropout and wastage is greater among girls than boys and is very severe in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan; in countries where total enrollment is low there is the greatest difference in the boy/girl ratio. Forces that inhibit girls' schooling include social changes such as new kinds of employment, parents' requirement that girls help in the home or field and desire to spend what little money is available on the boy's schooling, early marriage, shortage of female teachers, and lack of parents' literacy. Programs designed to overcome inequalities are limited. In India, there is a program to provide universal education to all boys and girls between 6-14 years of age, and scholarships exist to train and provide housing for women teachers. Other countries' efforts have met with little success, but special efforts are being made to provide nonformal education for older girls and women to include literacy, numeracy, home managment, child care, health, sanitation, nutrition, and skill development for productive employment. Pakistan's program aims at serving primary level girls whereas those in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, and Pakistan aim at older girls and women. The traditional "Mohalla" girls' education program in Pakistan has recently added, wtih government support, homemaking and other areas of training to its religious curriculum. Suggestions for improvement include: 1) flexible school hours, 2) proximity of day care centers and pre-schools to primary schools, 3) making available opportunities for earning while learning, 4) devise curricula drawn from real life experiences of girls and women, 5) obtain more women teachers, 6) provide boys with learning experiences in "girls'" subjects, 7) reorganize expenditures to benefit girls and women, and 8) encourage nongovernment organizations which enhance female status to deal with educational programs.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 40 p.This report is on the current status of the population education component of the World Bank's population and education projects. Projects are outlined for several countries in several regions of the world: East Asia (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand), East Africa (Lesotho, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya), West Africa (Liberia, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Mali, Mauritania, Togo, Zambia, and others), EMENA region (Egypt, Yemen, Syria, Afghanistan), and Latin America (Haiti, El Salvador, Trinidad, and others). For each project several topics are outlined: objectives, progress-to-date, teacher training, instructional materials, evaluation and research, national seminars, women's development, and future directions of the program. General observations and suggestions are that: 1) World Bank staff are now better aware of the relevance of population education, 2) incorporation of population education elements into curricula and training materials are clearly outlined, 3) technical assistance seems to be necessary to help the regions develop population education components, 4) an integration approach is the most viable alternative for introducing population education into curricula, 5) program planning for population education should be institutionalized, 6) short regional seminars are useful to discuss practical matters about the development and implementation of population education programs, 7) a specialist staff should be established in the World Bank, and 8) review of population education projects is necessary.
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Feb. 64 p. (Headline Series 248)This essay concerns the place of women in the modern world from both an historical and contemporary perspective. Beginning in the 1970s attention was directed towards the importance of women in the social, economic, and political development of nations. Through ancient and medieval times, several alternatives to traditional roles were chosen by women: celibacy, urban craft communes, and hermits. In the 19th century, the emergence of new socioeconomic doctrines concerning women occurred. Between 1880-1900 5 transnational women's organizations were born: World Young Women's Christian Association, World Women's Christian Temperance Union, International Council of Nurses, General Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Inter Council of Women. In England the 1st appeal for votes for women was published in 1825; in the U.S. the women's suffrage movement began in 1848. By 1965, the International Cooperation Year was organized by the United Nations. In 1975 the United Nations Decade for Women was approved (1975-85). Progress made by women up to the 1980s includes: 1) a voluntary fund for the United Nations Decade for Women ($9 million in contributions), 2) establishment of an International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of women in the Dominican Republic, 3) an international convention to outlaw discrimination, 4) increasing aid to women in developing countries, and 5) increasing participation of women in the United Nation's international foreign ministries. Although full statistical documentation of women's status in the world are lacking, several calculations indicate that in 1978, 1/3 of the world's work force were women, women earn less than men, and women's political participation is greater in developing countries than in developed countries. Problems will continue to exist in the future. The women's work force in all developed countries was 42% of the world total in 1950. By 1975 it had fallen to 36% and is expected to shrink to less than 30% by year 2000. American women are no model for emulation by the rest of the world. Women are also paid less now in comparison to the past.
Consultation of regional coordinators of the Features Services on Women and Population, Paris, March 31-April 3, 1980.
Paris, UNESCO, 1980 Apr 18. 49 p. (SS.80/WS.10)UNESCO/UNFPA jointly sponsor studies and programs aimed at the development of women's participation in economic and social processes and improvement of women's status in general. In conjunction with this program, a Features Services on Women and Population was organized in 1978 to increase the flow of news and information on women in the developing world. There are regional Features Services branches in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The Arab countries have been asked to form a branch. At a conference of regional coordinators for the Services, it became evident that, although some of the experiences were common, individual services faced somwhat different problems reflective of the different stages of development each had reached. Certain common difficulties are: 1) a lack of qualified women to write the features; 2) a diversity of languages in the service region; and 3) government censorship. The level of professionalism among women in many of these areas hampers the news services. In addition, women seem hesitant to broach controversial topics. It is also feared that certain of the women writers are using women's issues to further their own careers. It is assumed that the main audience for these articles will be women.
The dynamics of legal change: report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, Miami, Florida, December 8-9, 1980.
New York, IPPF-WHR, . 84 p.The papers included in this report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, held in Miami, Florida during December, were specifically selected and edited in order to offer a perspective on the process of legal change. The authors of the papers covering the following areas of concern identified actors, forms and degree of opposition and presented specific guidelines and suggestions for future action: 1) the dynamics of legal change with special reference to Barbados; 2) revision and reform--an analysis of legal change in Trinidad and Tobago; 3) overcoming obstacles to passing Colombia's Decree No. 367 of 1980; 4) the dynamics of policy change; 5) family planning in the United States; 6) hurdling legal barriers and breaking bottlenecks; 7) guidelines for family planning action in law reform; 8) the role of communication in fostering legal change; and 9) background notes on the United Nations Fund for Population Activities law and population program. The appendices include the panel's terms of reference, the participants, and the meeting agenda. The following were among the recommendations made by the panel members to the Western Hemisphere Regional Executive Committee of the International Planned Parenthood Federation: 1) the regional office should survey the Family Planning Associations in the Western Hemisphere as to whether compilations of laws in areas directly affecting the access to contraception, sex education, and the status of women are readily available to lawyers and other professionals in the family planning field, and to encourage the development and distribution of compilations wherever this is not the case; 2) the Information and Education strategies of Family Planning Associations should incorporate specific program actions designed to foster a supportive climate of public opinion for legal change; and 3) the Western Hemisphere Regional office should provide the necessary technical assistance to Family Planning Associations requesting advice on formulating programs in support of legal change.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, 1980 Dec. 45 p. (Contract AID/otr/147-80-76)Of all of USAID's various projects, income generating programs attract the most interest. Women's income generation includes any self-supporting project where benefits accrue to women participants from sale of items for money, from employment for wages, or increased produce. Projects which include planting trees to increase fuel or fodder supply, conserving soil, using appropriate technology, or eliminating waste, may benefit participants either in income or in acquisition. Poor women in India are paid in precooked food. Selecting the right project for the right group of people is the key to success. Specific considerations include the following: 1) products being supplied to the market; 2) available economic, natural, and skill resources; 3) any social organization which includes the identified group of women; 4) what social welfare needs have the highest priority; and, 5) how can the political structure help or hinder the identified group's economic participation and/or success? An insufficient resource base, market and management skills have been identified by many developers as the weakest aspect in women's projects. For small businesses the most important questions are as follows: what is the market; why is the project needed by the market; what are the steps from obtaining raw materials until the profits are distributed or reinvested; what are the potentials for growth; what is the outside expertise needed; and, how will the outside expertise be obtained and paid?
[Women and development: ideas and strategies of international organizations] Femmes et developpement: idees et strategies des organisations internationales.
Revue Tiers Monde. 1980 Oct-Dec; 21(84):845-62.The International Year of the Woman, which marked the beginning in 1975 of the Decade of the Woman organized by UNESCO, had as its goal the sensibilization of the public to the problems of women, the diffusion of results of studies conducted on women in several countries, and the elaboration of new strategies to improve women's status worldwide. Factors which played a role in advertising worldwide discrimination against women were external to UNESCO, such as the birth of radical feminist movements in the 1960s and the diffusion of new feminist ideas by the mass media, and internal to UNESCO, such as the great number of studies sponsored and financed by UNESCO on the condition of women, and especially of third world women. The revision of strategies within UNESCO is visible in the changing themes of the studies sponsored from 1965 to 1980. Studies done between 1960-70 dealt essentially with the importance of primary, secondary, and university education for women. Studies done between 1970-75 investigated the relation between formal education and actual probability of women's employment. Studies sponsored between 1975-80 investigated the right of women to equal participation in the national economy and development. Unfortunately, the global budget dedicated to women's studies is only of 13.5 million French francs. Ongoing studies examine whether feminist ideas are applicable to third world countries, or if they are to be reviewed according to different societies and cultural environments.
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Oct. 80 p. (Headline Series 251)World population will be facing serious problems in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of 2 population trends which are presently dominating the demographic scene. The number of young people aged 15-30 in developing countries is increasing rapidly and they will be soon asserting themselves politically, economically, and socially. The 2nd trend which exists is the disparity between high population growth in the impoverished developing countries and the lower rates in the affluent industrial countries. This century's population growth has occurred primarily in the developing world and is the result of lower death rates rather than higher birthrates. The situation is attributable to demographic transition; however, the major demographic questions of how quickly birthrates will fall and how wide the gap will be before birthrates follow the classic transition remain unanswered. 3 approaches to help answer these and other demographic questions are: 1) demographic approach; 2) historical approach; and 3) observation of recent events. These various approaches are given attention in this monograph. The consequences of too rapid population growth can be seen in the low food supplies which exist leaving many in developing countries undernourished, in a decline in the quality of life, in the reduction of the potential capacity to produce what is necessary (diminished land resources, pollution of water and air), in the increases in the price of energy and natural resources, in the difficulties in acquiring employment opportunities, and in burgeoning urban growth (which puts a serious strain on housing, transportation, etc.). Family planning was adopted in various countries in the world despite government policies to counter this. While there is recognition of the need for measures to be taken to reduce fertility, the question of how to accomplish this still remains. A brief overview of developing country adoption of family policies is included. What become clear is that family planning programs do make a difference in birthrate reduction and in population growth control. An effective, extensive family planning/population program exists in the People's Republic of China; Indonesia, Colombia, Tunisia, and Mauritius are other countries with successful programs. Various socioeconomic factors influence fertility and they include: literacy and education, urbanization, improvement in the status of women, health, family or community structure, development (modernization), and even the lack of development. Population and development will be greatly affected in the future by the quality and depth of leadership. Government leadership and the private sector, donor agencies, as well as international leadership, especially that of the UNFPA, will be critical. Also included here are discussion questions and reading references for those who are interested.
Draper Fund Report. 1980 Oct; 9:21-3.Women have internalized discriminatory values, both in their self-concept and in their attitude toward men. This is particularly true in the area of reproductive function -- the area which distinguishes women from men. The planned parenthood movement must be concerned with the cultural setting in which the practice of family planning as a human right is to be introduced. There must also be response to women's felt needs which extend beyond those associated with reproduction. Hence, the involvement in women's development programs, into which family planning can be integrated. Another pragmatic approach is to avoid controversial issue and labels such as procreative freedom and to begin with culturally accepted values as the basis for a long-term educational process. The efforts to give family planning legitimacy at all levels of society has been both long and difficult. The urgency of the population problem has been responsible for a change of attitude regarding women's need for contraception and may have delayed recognition of the relationship between family planning and the status of women. Even as late as the 1960's traditional taboos were in full force at the United Nations, and they blocked efforts to place family planning on the agenda of any United Nations body. There continues to be a gap between the situation perceived by policymakers and the reality in the field. The Women's Development Program has shown how to reach women in deprived areas, those groups who are particularly hard to reach with conventional family planning programs.
World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 14-30, 1980.
New York, UN, 1980. 32 p. (A/CONF. 94/9)This report reviews and evaluates efforts at the national level to implement the world Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year and is based on replies of 86 governments to questionnaires prepared by the Advancement of Women Branch in the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs. It contains an analysis of the progress made and obstacles overcome in the field of health. Using as indicators increases in female life expectancy and declines in maternal and infant mortality rates, improvements have occurred in the health status of women. However, wide disparities are seen between high and low socioeconomic groups, between rural and urban women, and between minority groups and the rest of the population. Lack of financial resources is a major obstacle, compounded by inflation. The excessive physical activity of working rural women not only precludes their participation in health programs but also adversely affects their health. Additional problems are inadequate training and supervision of health administrative personnel, a lack of defined policies, and a lack of coordination between agencies. Social, religious, and cultural attitudes that no longer have validity, lack of political commitment, and an inadequate perception of the long-term health benefits of family planning, rather than its demographic aspects, restrict access to family planning for many groups of women.
New York, UNFPA, March 1, 1980. 150 p.The UNFPA (United Nation's Fund for Population Activities) is a major international source of funding in the following areas: basic population data collection and analysis; population policy formulation and implementation; population education; training; applied research; and communication activities. This manual provides guidelines for UNFPA needs assessments and country programme development, and is thus directed to the following users: 1) UNFPA coordinators and their staffs; 2) UNFPA headquarters staff; 3) UNDP Resident Representative and their staffs; 4) national and international consultants employed by UNFPA for assisting in the needs assessment and programme development, and 5) personnel of governmental and nongovernmental organizations in a country. Part 1 presents an overview of the UNFPA programming system which includes needs assessment for population assistance; programme development; and programme inplementation and review. It also discusses the procedures for a needs assessment exercise (initiation of a needs assessment exercise; preparatory phase, including organization of the Mission and information gathering; conduct of the Mission, and Mission Report). Part 2 presents technical guidelines for the needs assessment and identification of major priorities for population assistance in key areas of inquiry, such as: 1) population policies, and population and development planning; 2) basic data collection and analysis; 3) social, economic and demographic research; 4) health and family planning; and 5) women, population and development, as well as population education and communication.
New York, United Nations Institute for Training and Research, 1978. 216 p.This monograph discusses the question of equality of the sexes and the male-female relationship, with emphasis on the effect that increasing the number of women in policy and decision-making in the United Nations (UN) would have on improving the situation of women worldwide. For a number of years, the UN Commission on the Status of Women had stressed the importance of women having political rights, influence and power, and yet the UN itself had paid little attention to women in its policymaking organs and secretariats. Statistics show that the number of posts at the professional and higher levels in the UN system as a whole held by women had remained virtually unchanged in recent years (16.0% in June 1974; 15.8% in December 1975; 16.5% in December 1976). While there had been a slow but perceptible increase in the percentage of women at the professional and higher levels in the UN Secretariat and related offices since 1972 (18.5% in 1972; 20.9% in December 1976), it had not risen again to the 21.7% achieved in 1971. Also, not one of the organizations or agencies in the UN system was headed by a woman, and generally, the higher the level, the fewer the women. For women to be fully integrated into international decision-making, more women, particularly at the senior levels, must be integrated into the: 1) secretariats of the organizations of agencies of the UN system; 2) the Permanent Missions and delegations appointed by member states of the UN; and 3) those parts of national governments having an influence on policy at the international level.