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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1980; (651):1-19.This document reports the discussions of a Scientific Group on Vaccination Against Tuberculosis, cosponsored by the Indian Council of Medical Research and the World Health Organization (WHO), that met in 1980. The objectives of the meeting were to review research on Bacillus Calmete-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, assess the present state of knowledge, and determine how to advance this knowledge. Particular emphasis is placed in this document on the trial of BCG vaccines in South India. In this trial, the tuberculin sensitivity induced by BCG vaccination was highly satisfactory at 2 1/2 months but had waned sharply by 2 1/2 years and the 7 1/2-year follow up revealed a high incidence of tuberculous infection in the study population. It is suggested that the protective effect of BCG may depend on epidemiologic, environmental, and immunologic factors affecting both the host and the infective agent. Studies to test certain hypotheses (e.g., the immune response of the study population was unusual, the vaccines were inadequate, the south Indian variant of M tuberculosis acted as an attenuating immunizing agent, and mycobacteria other than M tuberculosis may have partially immunized the study population) are recommended. A detailed analysis should be made when results from the 10-year follow up of the south Indian study population are available.
[Directory of United Nations information systems] Repertoire des systems d'information des Nations Unies; Directorio de sistemas de information de las Naciones Unidas.
Geneva, Switz., U.N. Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems, 1980.Add to my documents.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 111 p. (Population Education Programme Service)This report presents the results of a workshop on Innovative Structures and Approaches to Population Education which enabled 12 Asian countries with population education programs to share their experiences. The workshop also enabled countries with emerging population education programs to formulate alternative and innovative structures for more effective implementation of programs. Participants came from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The report contains individual country reports on the current population situation, population education programs, in-school programs, out-of-school programs, and innovative approaches to population education. In most cases, population education is viewed as part of national development plans. In many countries, it is relatively new and often equated with the family planning programs. There is a need for awareness and orientation programs, such as study tours by government officials, seminars, and the use of Unesco Mobile teams. Various strategies for curriculum development that have been used are infusion of population examples, integration of issues into syllabi and textbooks, and adding separate units on population in selected subjects. Training of teachers has included self-learning modules, face-to-face training, and seminars. Research and evaluation on population education has been carried out in 4 countries (e.g. content analysis of textbooks and survey of parent and students). Out-of-school programs, radio and television, national theater, and home visits have increased awareness of population education. Alternative structures and approaches to population education are discussed in terms of program development and implementation, awareness and orientation of key persons and training of teachers, curriculum and material development, and coordination with different agencies/departments and administrative organization.
World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980. Review and evaluation of progress achieved in the implementation of the World Plan of Action: national machinery and legislation.
[New York], UN, 1980. 27 p. (A/CONF.94/11)This report is part of an overall review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered at the national level (1975-1979) in implementing the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year. Focus in the 1st chapter is on national machinery and women's organizations. Legislation is the subject of the 2nd chapter with attention directed to the following: constitutional and legislative guarantees of the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of sex; sanctions and/or remedies to deal with violations; measures to inform women of their rights; effects upon the status of women of variances between civil and customary religious law; nationality; and civil law in the fields of property rights, legal capacity, right to movement, consent to marriage, rights during marriage and at its dissolution, minimum age of marriage, registration of marriages, parental rights and duties, right to retain the family name, provision of penal codes and measures to combat prostitution. The integration of women into national life has been formally accepted by the governments of most countries as a desirable planning objective. To ensure that the commitment to integrate women into national life is actually translated into action, it is essential to have institutional and organizational structures and arrangements to identify problems, formulate requisite policies, monitor the implementation of such policies and coordinate national efforts and initiatives in the area. Governments reported the establishment of different kinds of administrative and institutional machinery to integrate women into national life. The nature of the machinery varies according to the specific socioeconomic and political system of each State along with the degree of support it received from the government.
Bangkok, UNESCO Regional Office, 1980. 14 p. ([Building your population education collection] Booklet 3)Provides addresses of national population education projects, of other national organizations engaged in in- or out-of-school population activities in Asia and Oceania, and of international and United Nations agencies engaged in such activities.
Resolutions and decision adopted by the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980.
[New York], UN, 1980 Aug 14. 56 p. (A/CONF.94/34/Add.1)The resolutions and decisions adopted by the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women at their July, 1980 meeting addressed the following topics: family planning; improving the situation of disabled women of all ages; migrant women; elderly women and economic security; battered women and family violence; implementation of the World Plan of Action; role of women in preparation of societies for life in peace; data collection on women; drought control in the Sahel; assistance to Lebanese women; political participation of women in the international sphere; refugees and displaced women; International Center for Public Enterprises in Developing Countries (ICPE); International Conference on Sanctions against South Africa; situation of women in Chile and El Salvador; control of illicit drug traffic; strengthening women's positions in the UN; international drinking water supply and sanitation decade; development assistance; elimination of discrimination; extreme poverty; equality in education and training; condemnation of South African aggression against the People's Republic of Angola; assistance to Saharawi women; assistance for the reconstruction of Nicaragua; health and well-being of women of the Pacific; integration of women in development; women and nutritional self-sufficiency; prostitution; apartheid and women in South Africa and Namibia; and the situation in Bolivia.
Programme of action for the second half of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace.
[New YOrk] UN, August 13, 1980. 61 p. (A/CONF.94/34)The 3 objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women, equality, development and peace, were reaffirmed at meetings and conferences subsequent to the Mexico City world conference on the status of women in 1975. Equality is interpreted as meaning not only legal equality, but also equality of rights, responsibilities, and opportunities for the participation of women in development, both as beneficiaries and as active agents. Development is interpreted to mean political, economic, social, cultural, and other dimensions of human life, including physical, moral, intellectual, and cultural development. Improvement of women's status requires action at the national and local levels and within the family. Peace and stability are prereqiesites to development. Peace will not be lasting without development and the elimination of inequalities and discrimination at all levels. Imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism, zionism, racism, racial discrimination, apartheid, hegemonism, and foreign occupation, domination, and oppression must be eliminated. It must be recognized that the attainment of equality of women long disadvantaged may demand compensatory activities to correct accumulated injustices. The joint responsibility of men and women for the welfare of the family in general, and the care of children in particular, must be reaffirmed.
PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS. 1980 Sep-Oct; 95(5):422-6.The implications of the eradication of smallpox in the context of epidemiology are presented. Eradication of disease has been conceived since the 1st smallpox vaccination was developed in the 18th century. Since then, attempts to eradicate yellow fever, malaria, yaws and smallpox have been instituted. Most public health professionals have been rightfully skeptical. Indeed, the success with smallpox was fortuitous and achieved only by a narrow margin. It is unlikely that any other disease will be eradicated, lacking the perfect epidemiological characteristics and affordable technology. The key to success with smallpox was the principle of surveillance. This concept has a vigorous developmental history in the discipline of epidemiology, derived from the work of Langmuir and Farr. It involves meticulous data collection, analysis, appropriate action and evaluation. In the case of smallpox, only these techniques permitted the key observations that smallpox vaccination was remarkably durable, and that effective reporting was fundamental for success. The currently popular goal of health for all, through horizontal programs, is contrary to the methods of epidemiology because its objective is vague and meaningless, no specific management structure is envisioned, and no system of surveillance and assessment is in place.
Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1980 Feb 1; 55(5):33-4.At its final meeting in December 1979, the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication concluded that smallpox eradication has been achieved on a worldwide basis and there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The 65th session of the WHO's Executive Board, held on January 25, 1980, endorsed these conclusions and made 19 recommendations covering the areas of vaccination policy, reserve stocks of vaccine, investigation of suspected smallpox cases, laboratories retaining variola virus stocks, human monkeypox, laboratory investigations, documentation of the smallpox eradication program, and WHO headquarters staff. Sufficient freeze-dried smallpox vaccine to vaccinate 200 million people will be maintained by WHO in refrigerated depots in 2 countries. WHO will ensure that appropriate publications are produced describing smallpox and its eradication, with special emphasis on the principles and methods that are applicable to other programs.
[Unpublished] .  p. (XA/01472/00)The Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, operational in Nairobi, Kenya in September 1974, and a sub-unit operational since 1977 in Dakar, Senegal, work closely with the population education office in Dakar and with other international, regional, and subregional organizations which are active in population, family planning research, rural development, women, youth, and educational matters. In the years ahead, the Regional Unit will concentrate its efforts on assisting individual member states in addition to activities at regional or subregional levels, which are considered by member states to have a multiplier effect. The Unit's main objectives include: to assist national governments in the development of their communication plans, policies, and projects in support of their population/family planning and overall development programs; to work out with regional and international organizations or agencies a practical and effective system of coordinating communication and education activities in support of population and development communication programs at the national, subregional, and regional levels; to develop regional and national institutions for training, research, and development of appropriate communication materials; and to establish a population communication clearinghouse to serve as an exchange center for population and development communication programs in the region. The immediate objectives are to assist member states in their quest for self sufficiency in the training and development of manpower in the field of population; to provide member states with technical support in the development of their population activities; to promote the exchange of information, experience, materials, and know-how in the region; to develop and evaluate innovative communication approaches, which could improve the performance of national programs; to develop, pretest, produce, and evaluate a variety of prototype educational materials for use at the national level; and to improve the capacity of the Regional Population Communication Unit to assist in providing advisory services to national governments. The Unit's program of activities concentrates on 4 areas at both national and regional levels -- training, research and studies, media development, and technical assistance and advisory services. The activities of the Unit are geared to provide support for existing projects and programs, study tours, regional specialized workshops, and seminars and participation in the training seminars and workshops. Training programs provided by the Unit include seminars, workshops, and conference on development support communication. The training strategy emphasizes training as a continuing activity.
Human rights from humanitarian perspectives: an international comparative appraisal of state laws on and practice of abortion and sterilization as means of family planning.
Nairobi, Kenya, University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, 1980 Mar. 35 p. (Discussion Paper No. 269; KE/01316/00)This study describes and analyzes the evolution and establishment of family planning as an internationally recognized aspect of human rights both at the level of customary social state practices and as a response to international promotion through the UN and agencies. 2 core themes of the study are: the development of a coherent conceptual linkage between family planning and human rights based on humanitarian considerations; and the demonstration of the existence, scope, and limitations of customary practices of family planning, through abortion and sterilization, among a wide spread of states within different levels of technological development, differential political philosophies, and organized religious culture. The 1st major international expression of the need to raise family planning to the status of an international human right was made by 12 heads of state under the Declaration on Population of 10 December 1966, a unilateral declaration later signed by 18 more states. In 1969 the UN General Assembly declared that families should have "the knowledge and means necessary to enable them to exercise their right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children." By formal legal reasoning, the right of family planning became an international right, and only its practice needs to be encouraged and evaluated. The concept and the right of family planning is not an abstract construct that is limited to the distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) alone, and it is not simply confinable to the reduction of population growth rates alone nor is it merely a tool used for the purpose of increasing fertility rates. What it does is to create conditions for rational, premeditated decision making as regards procreation so that childbearing no longer remains the domain of mystical gods to decide for human beings. At another fundamental level it helps to provide mothers an opportunity to realize and maintain health standards they decide. In sum, it facilitates the right to life and human dignity. To measure the extent to which the newly emerged right of family planning, both at international and national levels, have developed and is practiced, attention was directed to the practice of states. Differences emerged among state practices, but a fundamental fact regarding the universality of the practice, especially through abortion and sterilization, has been established. There is noticeable general movement towards reform of laws and practice to make them conform with the realization of the right of family planning, beginning with instances of therapeutic, eugenic, socioeconomic, and other apparent humanitarian dictates. This is particularly favorable to the thesis of this study, i.e., that the practice of states is not useful only for academic reasons, but more fundamentally that state practice indirectly acts as models that influence other state practices and mold the international standards.
Washington, D.C., Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1980. x, 189 p. (Official Document No. 173)The World Health Assembly decided in 1977 that the main social target of the Governments and the WHO in the decades ahead should be "the attainment by all the citizens of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life." Subsequently, the World Health Assembly in 1979 urged the member states to define and implement national, regional, and global strategies for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000. This monograph reprints UN documents dealing with this goal. The 1st document addresses 2 specific issues, the developments in the health sector in the 1971-1980 decade, and strategies for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The 2nd document addresses 8 areas of interest; 1) social and environmental aspects of the region of the Americas; 2) evaluation of the 10-year health plan for the Americas; 3) implications of the goal and the new international economic order for the achievement of the objectives; 4) a method for analyzing strategies and developing a primary health care work plan and indicators for evaluating progress towards the goal; 5) objectives for the health and social sectors; 6) regional baseline targets for priority health conditions; 7) summary of revised regional strategies for attaining the goal; 8) national, intercountry, regional, and global implications of the regional strategies. The 3rd and 4th documents are resolutions 20 and 21 of the 27th meeting of the directing council of the Pan American Health Organization. Resolution 20 addresses regional strategies for attaining the goal. Resolution 21 discusses the ad hoc working group to complement the regional strategies.
Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, 14 to 30 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., United Nations, 1980. viii, 238 p. (A/CONF.94/35)Add to my documents.
New York, N.Y., U.N. Dept. of Public Information, 1980. vii, 133 p.Add to my documents.
The study of interrelations between population, resources, environment and development: report to the Economic and Social Council.
In: Interrelations: resources, environment, population and development. New York, N.Y., U.N. Dept. of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1980. 79-106.Add to my documents.
Consultation of regional coordinators of the features services on women and population, UNESCO, Paris, 31 March-3 April 1980.
Paris, France, Unesco, 1980. 49 p.Add to my documents.
Population and global future, statement made at the First Global Conference on the Future: through the '80s, Toronto, Canada, 21 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p. (Speech Series No. 57)The United Nations has always considered population variables to be an integral part of the total development process. UNFPA has developed, in response to national needs, a core program of population assistance which has found universal support and acceptance among the 130 recipient countries and territories. Historically, these are: family planning, population policy formulation and population dynamics. The following emerging trends are foreseeable from country requests and information available to the Fund: 1) migration from rural to urban areas and increased growth in urbanization; 2) an increased proportion of aged which has already created a number of new demands for resources in both developing and developed countries; 3) a move toward enabling women to participate in economic and educational activities; and 4) a need for urgent concern over ecological issues which affect the delicate balance of resources and population.
Women, population and development, statement made at the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 15 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p. (Speech Series No. 56)The World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974 and the World Plan of Action adopted at the Mexico Conference in 1975 had one common goal--the full integration of women in the development process. Women today play a limited role in many national communities. If this role is to be strengthened and expanded, it will be necessary to focus on eliminating discrimination and removing obstacles to their education, training, employment and career advancement. Within this framework, UNFPA has given support to projects in 5 specific areas: 1) education and training in health, nutrition, child care, family planning, and vocational skills; 2) increasing participation of rural women in planning, decision-making and implementation at the community level; 3) income generating activities, such as marketing, social service occupations, and in the legal, educational and political systems; 4) educating women about their social and legal rights; and 5) widening women's access to communication networks. Between 1969 and 1979, approximately US$22 million was provided by UNFPA to projects dealing with the status of women. Projects in areas such as nutrition, maternal and child health services and family planning received more than US$312 million, which constitutes more than 50% of the total UNFPA programs.
The expanding nature of the population field, statement made at the International Seminar on Planned Population Distribution for Development: The Hokkaido experience, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 19 May 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 11 p. (Speech Series No. 53)Decisions on overall plans and strategies need to be undertaken and implemented by governments, but it is the individuals whose lives are affected by the plans and strategies who must be given adequate knowledge, information and facilities. In this way, they will be able to make meaningful choices. The UNFPA's mandate is: builiding knowledge, promoting planning, promoting human rights aspects of family planning, extending assistance, and coordinating projects supported by the Fund. UNFPA provides assistance in 8 areas: basic data collection, population dynamics, implementation of policies, family planning communication and education, special programs and multisector activities, and formulation and evaluation of population policies. Each project funded by UNFPA is tailored to meet local or special needs. More and more projects are being implemented by governments themselves. UNFPA is now the largest multilateral funding source of population activities. Although clear signs of fertility decline exist, we should not believe the world's population problem has been solved. The majority of developing nations have found their population distribution patterns unfavorable for achieving socioeconomic development goals. Consequently they are concerned with the redistribution of population in a planned manner. Another type of migration which has become an international issue is the problem of refugees from various countries. Large scale migration of population for political reasons is becoming commonplace in the world today. Another problem is growth in urban areas. Yet another concern is the problem of aging caused by the decline of fertility rates and prolongation of life expectancy. It is necessary to discuss these structural changes in population at all levels so appropriate policies, institutions, training facilities, and programs may be developed to deal effectively with these problems in the future.
The food, population and development equation, statement made at Southeastern Dialogue on the Changing World Economy, Atlanta, Georgia, 25 October 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The 1st type of assistance asked for from developing countries is the collection of basic data. The 2nd type of program is family planning. Countries must formulate their family planning themselves based on assessment of needs. The 3rd area that has evolved is that of population dynamics--the study of demographic variables and their consequences. The 4th area is the field of communication and education to support family planning and population programs. The 5th area is in population policies. Finally, there is the residual category of special activities concerned with youth, women and the aged. Population, therefore, represents a broad core area of 5 to 6 categories. The UNFPA is a voluntary organization which provides assistance only to developing countries. The projections of the UN indicate that, as a result of efforts in population, there is for the 1st time in the history of mankind a decline in the population growth rate of developing countries. Nevertheless, mankind must be prepared for an additional 2 billion people by the turn of the century. Population efforts in the end must aim at the stabilization of total world numbers to enable individuals to develop to their full capacity and to improve the quality of life for all.
In: Organisation of African Unity, International Institute for Labour Studies. What kind of Africa by the year 2000? Addis, Adaba, Ethiopia, Organisation of African Unity, 1980. 113-23.The UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development is at the disposal of African countries to elaborate and implement jointly in integrated programs of technical cooperation in several sectors. In the area of mineral resources the department has helped governments in the development of the infrastructures needed to exploit natural resources and to expand their exploitation, including undertaking geological studies, laboratory technique training, training development, drafting legislation, and preparation of contracts. The department has also taken part in several studies dealing with energy, including those about oil production and dams, to make a general assessment of all the available sites if the countries so desire. In the Sahel subregion a study was undertaken to look for ways of reinforcing the planning and programming capacity of the states for better regional economic integration of their economy. In the field of research, science, and technology, major resources have been invested such as in the organization of the exchange of scientific information in research. The department has also developed an assistance program in the field of administration and public finance to help countries increase their administrative and financial management capacity for economic and social development; 1 activity is to follow up and examine changes in public administration and finance trends as well as the study of the role of the public sector in national development. Methods have been developed for analyzing administrative problems and setting up new administrative structures. Priority will be given to: 1) the development of human resources capable of implementing programs, and 2) the reinforcement of the appropriate institutions capable of providing the techniques necessary for the development and diffusion of the sciences dealing with population and demography in African countries.
Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 1980 Jan-Jun; 3(1-2 Spec No):6-17.Traces the evolution of family planning as a human right under the United Nations system, with special reference to the General Assembly's resolution on population growth and economic development in 1962; the programs and priorities in population fields passed in 1965; the Secretary General's statement regarding the responsibility of the family, as the fundamental unit of society, for determining its size; the international conference in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of human rights, in 1968; the General Assembly declaration on social progress and development in 1969; and the World Population Plan of Action in 1974. The author concludes that the United Nations has taken a clear stand that it is a basic human right for couples to determine the number of their children and the consequent right to access to the relevant information and methods for implementing their decision. The author calls for a General Assembly declaration on human rights aspects of family planning. Such a declaration, while not legally binding on member states, would move the right to family planning toward legal obligation as an instance of "instant" custom, and pave the way to practical application by influencing the attitude of governments. (author's modified)
Geneva, UNRISD, 1980. 180 p. (Report no. 80.3)This volume tells the tell of the quest that took place in the early 1970s for a unified approach to development analysis and planning. The unified approach, a complex idea, was concerned with "style" of development as an integrative concept bringing together economic and social factors, emphasized, among other things: orientation of production towards basic needs, orientation of distribution and services towards the poor majority, incorporation of a social dimension into technological research and innovation, structural change and participative development, and intersectoral coordination in terms of kinds of goods and services as well as amounts. The 1st part of this publication consists of the opening chapters of the project's preliminary report and the substantive findings of an Expert Group convened to discuss that report. An account fo the institutional background to the project and its progress is provided. The report represents the consensus that gradually emerged on the central conceptions and strategic orientations called for in a unified approach. The final report to the Commission for Social Development on the project, which deals, inter alia, with questions of diagnosis, monitoring, indicators, planning and capacitation, is included in an Annex. The volume's 2nd part is a personal assessment that represents the views of 1 individual who was most closely connected with the project, Marshall Wolfe, former Chief of the Social Development Division of the UN Economic Commission for Latin America.
Development of curricular materials integrating population education in nonformal education programmes. Report of a Regional Workshop, Los Banos, Philippines, 3-21 November 1980.
Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 302 p.Unesco organized a series of workshops on the development of curricular and instructional materials integrating population material into nonformal education and development programs. Participants in the workshop would: exchange experiences with regard to the development of curricular materials which integrate population education into nonformal education programs; acquire skills in the processes and methodologies of integrating population education; and develop prototype curriculum and instructional materials for use in nonformal education programs. 2 communities, Pansol and San Antonio, were chosen for in-depth study and participants later developed educational objectives and integrated curricular content, and then designed, produced, experimented and evaluated instructional materials which could be used in different nonformal educational programs. 24 participants from 12 countries comprised the workshop which began on November 3, 1980. In the General Report Section, there is presented an inter-country exchange of experiences on the development of population education curricular materials followed by a portion devoted to the actual development of materials. Group reports make up Section 3 and there are samples of instructional materials. Recommendations are offered by the participants, both for Unesco and for member states; however, the participants felt that the workshop experience was very valuable. A list of participants, workshop schedule, and selected remarks and addresses are included in the appendices.