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Wash., D.C., World Bank, 1980. 87 p.Briefly describes health conditions in developing countries, examines some of the most common obstacles to improving them, the underlying sources of these obstacles, and the lessons of experience that will guide World Bank activities in the sector. Changes in the Bank's policy since adoption of a formal health policy in 1974 are outlined. (Author's modified)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Sept. 1980. 28 p. (Poverty and Basic Needs Series.)In 1978 the World Bank launched a program of studies to examine the implications for the Bank of undertaking the meeting of basic needs as part of the program for reducing absolute poverty. It is proposed that to reduce poverty the productivity of the poor must be raised, and in order to accomplish this the basic needs such as nutrition, water, sanitation, shelter, and access to public services such as health care and education must be met. The principal concern of these studies is the allocation of resources to most effectively improve the conditions of the poorer segments of a country's population. It was found that in many cases resources were not inadequate, but were used in a way that did not help the condition of the poor, e.g. in one instance a large part of the resources for education was spent on university training rather than on primary education or literacy programs. Another key factor in financing a program was the cost of continuing its operation after it had been instituted: it was recommended that operating costs be carefully reviewed with the consideration that the government will eventually be expected to finance the operation. A list of the published studies that were a part of the program, as well as data tables concerning population, income, and basic needs in 125 countries are appended.