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  1. 1

    Women and population: an overview of UNFPA-supported projects with particular reference to women.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. Policy and Technical Division. Women and Youth Section

    New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.

    An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
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  2. 2

    Report of the first meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Viral Diarrhoeas: microbiology, epidemiology, immunology, and vaccine development, Geneva, 1980.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 11 p.

    The main function of the Scientific Working Group was to review existing knowledge, designate areas where research was needed, recommended approaches for such research; and prepare a research plan. The Group's five year work plan for research is described, consisting of 3 priority topics: investigations related to viral diarrheas in general, studies of rotavirus diarrhea (recognized by the Group as the most important public health problem among the viral diarrheas at present), and research to determine the possible role as a cause of diarrhea of other viral agents (Norwalk and Norwalk-like agents, adenoviruses, calcivirus, coronavirus, axtrovirus, and other small round viruses). Needed epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and studies of disease resistance and vaccine development are identified. Identification of institutions to undertake research was discussed; priority was given to locating institutions and individuals within the developing world, or those in developed countries which work closely with developing world groups. An application form was reviewed and approved, and some general principles established. A list of participants in the meeting, and the 1st report of the Rotavirus reagents subgroup are appended.
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  3. 3

    Review of UNFPA's assistance to women, population and development projects 1969-1979.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. Policy and Technical Division. Women and Youth Section

    New York, UNFPA, May 1980. 66 p.

    Review of present status of activities of UNFPA with a view to setting new priorities for support of further UNFPA projects. 106 projects were selected for review, each satisfying the criterion of either addressing women specifically, or having women as the main focus. Of these 68 were selected as being representative of Direct Women's Projects (DWP)--these tended to be research oriented, and included many global projects. 32 were designated Indirect Women's Projects (IWP); these were more training oriented. Both groups were highly likely to be country specific and to have a fair number (29%) of action programs. From a historical perspective, the 2 World Conferences in 1974 and 1975 marked an increase in the number of women funded projects to 47 from a preconference level of 17. The postconference period also emphasized research action, communication and information projects. Part of the thrust during the postconference period was towards involving women more intimately in the national population and development process and to include in its scope the socioeconomic as well as the family status of women. In spite of this progress, the review uncovers the need for development in some areas: 1) basic and applied research on this issue; 2) widening the scope of investigation to include the complex interrelationships of women, population and development; and 3) creation of a data base which ensures easy access to relevant information on projects and findings, for UNFPA as well as agencies, governments and organizations generally.
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  4. 4


    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House

    Bangkok, UNESCO Regional Office, 1980. 14 p. ([Building your population education collection] Booklet 3)

    Provides addresses of national population education projects, of other national organizations engaged in in- or out-of-school population activities in Asia and Oceania, and of international and United Nations agencies engaged in such activities.
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  5. 5

    Guidelines for cholera control.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 14 p.

    This manual was designed to help national health workers, particularly managers of diarrheal disease control programs, to implement cholera control activities within the context of national programs. Recent knowledge of the bacteriology and epidemiology of cholera is presented, followed by a discussion of necessary preparations for cholera control. Case fatality rates of as high as 50% have been reported in unprepared communities, but the rate diminishes to under 3% when proper treatment becomes available. Preparations for cholera control including formation of national epidemic control committee, surveillance activities, health education activities, training in clinical management of acute diarrhea, laboratory services, establishment of mobile control teams, and logistics are described. The epidemic phase of a cholera outbreak requires intensification of ongoing diarrheal disease control activities. Components of the epidemic phase program including early case finding, establishing treatment centers, treatment, epidemiological investigation, laboratory support, control and prevention are discussed. Basic supplies for a mobile control team are listed.
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  6. 6

    Report of the First Meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Bacterial Enteric Infections: Microbiology, Epidemiology, Immunology, and Vaccine Development, Geneva, April 1980.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 17 p.

    The group developed a five year research plan (1980-84). Topics were given priority based on the following group-established criteria: 1) the extent of the problem to be studied; 2) the chance of its early success given the limited funds available; and 3) the availability of good research workers with an interest in the problem. The epidemiology and microbiology of Vibrio cholerae 01 and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are given first priority for study, as are immunology and vaccine development against cholera and ETEC diarrhoea. The immunology study will involve: 1) identification of protective antigens, 2) tests for antibody measurement and 3) measurement of acquired immunity. Methods of stimulating mucosal immunity are given first priority, as is the testing of existing candidate cholera vaccines such as B-subunit cholera vaccine and living vaccines made from non-toxigenic V. cholerae. Other organisms which will be studied are Campylobaster jejuni (which can account for up to 15% of acute diarrhoea cases in some settings), Salmonella, (including S. typhi), Shigella and Yersinia enterocolitica. Once there is a better understanding of the modes of transmission of the bacterial enteric pathogens, a study of specific cost effective methods of interrupting their transmission through environmental intervention is suggested, with emphasis on modifications in water supply and water usage, defecation practices, and personal and domestic hygiene. Identification of institutions to undertake research, and funding distribution, were also considered.
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  7. 7

    Report of the programme heads.

    ASEAN Population Programme Heads / Experts Meeting (4th: 1980: Singapore)

    [Unpublished] 1980. [150] p.

    This meeting of the ASEAN Heads of Population Program (AHPP) convened to to review and consider the earlier Report of the Experts consisting of the following: Phase I ASEAN Population Program; the Pre-Implementation Meeting Report of the Phase II ASEAN Population Program; interrelationships between and among Phase I and II projects; and the rules and procedures for the implementation of the ASEAN/Australia Population Project. It was generally agreed that the implementation of Phase I has stimulated greater cooperation and collaboration among the member countries in the field of family planning and population through important contacts and exchange of expertise. More ASEAN experts and expertise in the population field have resulted. Though it is too early to assess the impact of these projects, experiences gained in their implementation have already been applied to national programs in most countries. Efforts must be made to maximize the utilization of the findings of these projects, including making available financial and other resources to analyze, disseminate and utilize information. A structured mechanism to sustain and maintain a link between researchers and program managers needs to be designed.
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  8. 8

    The evolution of the World Health Organization's special programmes for research and training.

    Lambo TA

    In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 63-70. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)

    While developing countries make a relatively substantial investment in health care, health research is sorely lacking. A WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases was established in 1974-5 in an attempt to harness scientific resources on a global scale. Along with the United Nations Development Program and the World Bank, its objectives are: research and development of new and improved tools for the control of tropical infections and the strengthening of the research capabilities of the affected countries. The Special Program assumes that the developing countries must have a leadership role in research, that they use multidisciplinary scientific working groups (SWG's) and that institutions and scientists from the affected countries must be included in the research. The Special Program focuses on 6 tropical diseases: malaria, schistosomiasis, filariasis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and leprosy. The research activities center on the search for new approaches to the control of disease vectors, simple diagnostic tests, epidemiology, vector control, biomedical and social and economic research applicable to most or all of the 6 diseases. Research proposals are supported on the basis of relevance to the SWG's plans as judged by peers and must be carried out by national institutions and scientists who are from developing countries. WHO is responsible for the program's overall management. 2 charts illustrating the functional structure of the Special Program and the structure of the Joint Coordinating Board are given. The Special Programs, based on specific national needs, with policy and financial decisions made collectively by groups of cooperating governments and agencies appear to work well and could provide the pattern for other research programs.
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  9. 9

    Establishment of a regional network of health literature, library and information services (HELLIS).

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for South-East Asia

    New Delhi, WHO, South East Asia Region, May 1980. 117 p.

    Summary of intercountry consultative meeting of administrators, librarians, and users of health libraries from the Southeast Asia region called to consider the establishment of a network of health libraries and information services in the region. Discussion centers on strengthening of libraries at the national level to provide a base for linkage and permit integration into international information retrieval systems. The major outcome of the meeting was a proposal for the establishment of flexible regional and national networks functioning on the principle of resource sharing and Country focal points. A WHO Regional Coordinating Center would act as liaison between the national level and international organizations. The intended availability of these services to all levels of health personnel, and the equal partnership of all participants in the network are stressed. Assessment of user needs would be a necessary part of the development of the system. Appended to the report is a list of participants, the program, a list of the working papers, the inaugural address of Dr. V.T.H. Gunaratne to the 27 August 1979 meeting, country situation listings, a case study of library facilities in a group of city medical colleges, a student loan scheme, description of MEDLINE services in the region, and a proposed bibliographic control system for the area, as well as a listing of low priced recommended textbooks for students.
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  10. 10

    International population policies, strategies and programmes.

    Gille H

    Unpublished [1980]. Paper prepared for Beijing International Round Table Conference on Demography, 1980, Beijing, 20-27 October 1980. 11 p. (UNFPA Project No. CPR/80/P01; entry no. 0258 (CPR80P010528))

    A review of international population policies, strategies, programmes, and assistance. The development of national policies addressing population size, growth, distribution, and demographic factors is traced. The World Population Plan of Action, adopted by 135 states at the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974, is identified as the most important international population strategy. The general principles on which the plan is based, and its objectives and targets are presented and discussed. Other relevant strategies identified and discussed include the International Development Strategy for the 3rd Development Decade (expected to be adopted by the UN General Assembly) and the WHO-UNICEF declaration of health for all mankind by the year 2000. The increase in population assistance from 125 million in 1970 to 500 million dollars in 1980 is discussed. Over 80 governments have contributed to international population assistance, but most aid comes from less than a dozen countries and is channelled through multilateral organizations such as the UN Fund for Population Activities and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 121 developing countries receive population assistance. Definite effects of this aid cannot be demonstrated, but a significant accomplishment in promoting awareness of population issues is recognized. Traditionally, donors have stressed fertility control as the major objective of their assistance, but recently some donors have revised their policies to emphasize such problems as migration, urbanization, refugees and aging. Priorities for resource allocation for population assistance are discussed.
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  11. 11

    The WHO information system and the interaction between national health information systems.

    Haro AS

    In: McLachlan G, ed. Information systems for health services. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1980. 17-25. (Public Health in Europe; 13)

    The World Health Organization's role is that of a cooperative partner in the national health programs of member states, seeking the most effective use of health resources on the intercountry, regional, or global levels. It is in this context that the interaction and interface among national health information systems, and between national systems and the WHO information system is discussed. The WHO information system makes up-to-date information readily available, thus enabling member states to study their positions in relation to those of other countries now and in the recent past, and to determine how they might be able to improve their positions. Technical information and routine statistics are provided. The programs that provide and disseminate the information are discussed. Nonstatistical publications are listed and discussed. The need for better interfacing and interaction between WHO and member states is emphasized.
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  12. 12


    Schima ME; Lubell I

    In: Schima ME and Lubell I, ed. Voluntary sterilization: a decade of achievement. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Voluntary Sterilization, May 7-10, 1979, Seoul, Korea. New York, Association for Voluntary Sterilization, 1980. 1.

    Introduction to the proceedings of a conference on voluntary sterilization. Reflects on the accomplishments of the decade of the 1970s, remaining problems and issues, and new ones generated by success. Development of innovative solutions to manpower, funding and transportation problems that hinder delivery of sterilization and family planning education to those in need; grand multiparity as an indication for sterilization; legalization of voluntary sterilization; and the need for improved, inexpensive techniques that are deliverable to remote areas were topics of discussion at the conference. Because of continued growth in acceptance of voluntary sterilization it now offers genuine demographic potential.
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  13. 13

    The epidemiological perspective, medical education, and health services.

    Stolley PD

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 183-9.

    Reviews the interrelationships among epidemiology, medical education, and the planning, organization, and provision of health services. Epidemiology can be defined as the application of the scientific method and of biostatistical reasoning to the problems of health and disease in communities. Clinical epidemiology is of value in resolving problems arising from misallocation of manpower, facilities, technology, and service; adoption of unevaluated or inappropriate forms of medical intervention; overemphasis on laboratory and clinical medicine; and inadequate education and training in population-based medicine. Several reasons for the usual lack of success in teaching an epidemiological perspective have been identified. Some epidemiologists have recently made efforts to integrate the teaching of epidemiology with clinical medicine, and it is widely agreed that epidemiology and biostatistics should be included at all stages of the medical curriculum. Epidemiological scrutiny continues to be useful in elucidating the causes and risk factors of communicable and chronic disease, as well as iatrogenic disease and occupational health hazards. The importance of lifestyle and the interplay of behavioral, cultural, and economic factors with production of disease are attracting increasing attention. Increased use of epidemiological skills at all levels of medical care management and service will assist in rational allocation of health resources in developing countries, and possibly help them to resist overemphasis on advanced medical technology. Foundations can play an important role by supporting development of a consortium of clinical epidemiology units in both developing and developed countries.
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  14. 14

    Health as if people mattered.

    Rohde JE

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 132-8.

    A prerequisite for developing effective health systems in developing countries is genuine concern and respect for the individual, and this perspective implies the decentralization of health systems. The greatest need in health care at paresent is for provision of already known technologies to the population; adequate knowledge already exists to achieve a dramatic reduction in deaths and morbidity from the major health problems of mankind. Most diseases are the result of a complex interaction of social, biological, and environmental factors, and financial resources and appropriate technologies to combat them should be infused at levels close to the village or family. The approach of the numerous primary health care pilot projects is based on principles of appropriate scale, flexibility, and responsibility down to the people served. Replicability inheres in the approach itself rather than in the traditional, packaged, centralized-planning topdown system. Most countries possess some type of civil and social infrastructure at the peripheral level that could handle an input of resources for flexible allocation at the village level. Donor agencies can play a critical role in encouraging developing country governments to respond to the demands of redistribution and decentralization, and providing funds for use at the village level and assisting in the necessary back-up system. Donor agencies should define the environmental and social influences on health, develop effective preventive and therapeutic methods, and assist in transfer of this knowledge to the people for implementation.
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  15. 15

    A "matching strategy" for improving health in the developing world.

    Gwatkin DR

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 127-31.

    Argues that the best way of operationalizing existing concern for the effectiveness of program implementation is through a matching strategy designed to identify those people in less developed countries able to contribute effectively to health improvements, and to help them implement the approaches they consider most suitable for their situations. This thesis is derived from the propositions that many health interventions now being implemented have merit, but that evidence fails to indicate the universal superiority of any 1 or 2 approaches. Therefore, health improvement in developing countries can best be served by seeking to match approaches to situations, by starting with the people most directly concerned with implementation of health programs. A matching strategy of this sort could be implemented by an international assistance organization in 5 steps: 1) select about 500 people from the developing world who can influence the health situation in their home countries; 2) expose them to the best available thinking on possible health improvement measures; 3) invite the surviving participants to suggest their own ideas on how to improve health in their home countries; 4) critically scrutinize the resulting ideas; and 5) provide firm support for ideas that emerge intact from the process.
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  16. 16

    Paradoxes in the provision of health care.

    Gill J

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 116-23.

    The quality of the health service delivery systems developed in many newly emerging nations over the past few decades has been limited. Authoritarian regimes are prominent among countries registering greater degrees of success, while health has typically received low priority in free enterprise countries. Given the variety, no 1 approach by international agencies will be suitable for all situations, but some guidelines can be suggested. Agencies should work through the ministries of health, which will be the main avenues for providing health care for the foreseeable future. Funding agencies could contribute to local costs during and after actual program initiation, to allow time for local institutions to assume the maintenance and recurring costs. The present emphasis on primary health care should be balanced by adjustments in the secondary and tertiary sector; curative and preventive services are both needed. Selected vertical programs, especially immunization programs, have a place in the overall provision of health care, but should not be stressed to the detriment of general improvement in the health of the population. Systems are needed in which appropriately trained doctors and auxiliaries can complement each other. If low level personnel are used to provide health care, they should be adequately supported and supervised. Care should be exercised in diverting scarce resources to support for traditional medicine. Key areas for future research in health care include the role and functioning of middle management, logistical support, and intersectoral schemes.
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  17. 17

    Middle East health: the outlook after 30 years of WHO assistance in a changing region.

    Simon J

    Alexandria, World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1980. 133 p.

    An assessment of health progress in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is provided through narration and photographs. The renewed threat of malaria and efforts to control it are discussed. Other traditional diseases of the area examined in today's terms are schistosomiasis, cholera, tuberculosis, trachoma and smallpox. Modern health problems, including cancer, heart diseases, mental disorders and occupational hazards are explored. Environmental problems, or "the fall-outs of technology," are discussed, along with urban sprawl, water shortages, air and marine pollution and desertification. It is stressed that changing times demand changing attitudes towards the environment. Specific areas that need to be addressed, particularly food safety, are pointed out. WHO's work with EMR countries in health manpower development includes planning, educational development and support, and the actual training of individuals. The need for more health personnel is documented. Nursing as a profession in the EMR is discussed, as is its growth; 1 problem in education of nurses is the lack of textbooks in Arabic. The prospects of health for all by the year 2000 are discussed. The importance of using appropriate technology in providing primary health care is stressed. Family health and planning is examined, including child care priorities such as newborn care, the critical weaning period, and immunization. Current biomedical research in the EMR is discussed, including health services research, efforts for diarrhea and streptococcal infection control, drug utilization studies, tropical disease studies and the search for a malaria vaccine. MEDLINE, the regional health literature service, is described. Technical cooperation among the countries of the EMR is discussed. Profiles showing the population, medical manpower and health facilities of each country in the EMR are provided.
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  18. 18

    Report of population activities.

    Great Britain. Overseas Development Administration

    London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, June, 1980. 38 p. (Overseas Development Paper; No. 21)

    Recent trends in world population growth and in governments' attitudes towards population and development are generally discussed. A historical perspective of the British Ministry of Overseas Development (ODA) involvement in population activities is given. Support began in the 1960s and ODA's Population Bureau was established in 1968 to function in an advisory capacity, promote training and research in issues related to population. The scope of the Bureau's work has broadened from clinical aspects of family planning to include demographic, social and economic factors related to population. ODA's assistance for population is outlined. Details of ODA's support of the following types of programs are given: 1) multilateral; 2) bilateral (including data collection and analysis, regional demographic training, formulation of population policies and programs, maternal and child health/family planning, and communications and education); 3) institutional support; 4) voluntary agencies; 5) research. Meetings attended by members of the Population Bureau in 1977-1979 are listed. ODA expenditure on population activities in 1977, 1978 and 1979 are listed by country or institution.
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  19. 19

    Nigeria: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, July 1980. 142 p. (Report; No. 38)

    This report on areas in which Nigeria requires population assistance describes geographic, cultural, demographic, economic, and administrative features of the national setting, presents basic population data, assesses the status of population research in the country, discusses the formulation and implementation of population policies, and describes external assistance received by the country. Nigeria's very high rate of fertility and high but declining mortality yield a high population growth rate. Rural-urban and international migration contribute to differences in regional rates of growth. Exact data on population characteristics and processes are unavailable, and the Mission's recommendations accordingly focus on basic data needs and ways of improving data quality and availability. Closer liaison is needed between data suppliers and data users, and a clearinghouse for population research should be established. Recommendations were also made regarding legal provisions for age at marriage, internal migration and geographic distribution, international migration, labor force, employment, and school enrollment, population education and communication, and the role of women.
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  20. 20

    Health: sector policy paper. 2nd ed.

    World Bank

    Wash., D.C., World Bank, 1980. 87 p.

    Briefly describes health conditions in developing countries, examines some of the most common obstacles to improving them, the underlying sources of these obstacles, and the lessons of experience that will guide World Bank activities in the sector. Changes in the Bank's policy since adoption of a formal health policy in 1974 are outlined. (Author's modified)
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  21. 21

    Informing social change.

    Alan Guttmacher Institute [AGI]

    New York, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1980. 44 p.

    The activities, aims and achievements of the Alan Guttmacher Institute are described in this report of its first decade. The AGI was created to foster research and public education so as to effect changes in public policy that would make fertility-related health care accessible to low income women. The Institute utilizes existing research and generates new data to pinpoint the need for subsidized family planning services in the U.S. The growing acceptance of birth control and significant developments in the area over the AGI's history are detailed, including its own activities. The series of AGI-sponsored publications which disseminate the findings of social and scientific research relating to population and family planning are described and the specific purposes of each are differentiated. Efforts of the AGI to promote equal access to abortion for all women, to keep the field informed so as to mobilize public and congressional efforts on behalf of abortion rights, and to provide reliable information on abortion are discussed. Educational activities concerning the extent and seriousness of the problems of teenage pregnancy are another AGI priority, as is the focussing of attention on limitations of current methods of contraception and the need for increased government support of reproductive research. Future goals of the AGI which build upon past accomplishments and respond to new challenges are detailed.
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  22. 22

    Programmes and services on adolescent fertility and sexuality in ESEAOR.

    Catindig JB

    Concern. 1980 Jul-Sep; (18):1-2.

    The reproductive health needs and behavior of adolescents have been neglected by many health services until recently. The inclusion of adolescent fertility and sexuality in the East and South East Asian and Oceania regions of IPPF initially prompted uneasiness by workers who considered the inclusion of adolescents to be a sensitive issue given prevailing mores. The Singapore seminar/workshop on adolescent fertility and sexuality helped educate family planning workers and executives to the new realities of adolescent life, and many Family Planning Associations in the region made delivery of services to adolescents a major program emphasis. Family life education strategies have improved and IEC efforts are now geared to particular age and sociocultural groups. FPAs have stressed training of dormitory and hostel matrons and supervisors in counseling, adopted policies to "desensitize" the parents of teenage clients, and supported peer group counseling programs in order to deal with adolescent girls without violating the sociocultural norms of the community. The region's developing countries, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand, have large proportions of young people, and their governments welcome the initiatives of FPAs in providing programs and services.
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  23. 23

    Meeting basic needs: an overview.

    ul Haq M; Burki SJ

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Sept. 1980. 28 p. (Poverty and Basic Needs Series.)

    In 1978 the World Bank launched a program of studies to examine the implications for the Bank of undertaking the meeting of basic needs as part of the program for reducing absolute poverty. It is proposed that to reduce poverty the productivity of the poor must be raised, and in order to accomplish this the basic needs such as nutrition, water, sanitation, shelter, and access to public services such as health care and education must be met. The principal concern of these studies is the allocation of resources to most effectively improve the conditions of the poorer segments of a country's population. It was found that in many cases resources were not inadequate, but were used in a way that did not help the condition of the poor, e.g. in one instance a large part of the resources for education was spent on university training rather than on primary education or literacy programs. Another key factor in financing a program was the cost of continuing its operation after it had been instituted: it was recommended that operating costs be carefully reviewed with the consideration that the government will eventually be expected to finance the operation. A list of the published studies that were a part of the program, as well as data tables concerning population, income, and basic needs in 125 countries are appended.
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  24. 24

    World and regional population growth.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    In: United Nations. Dept. of International and Social Affairs. World population trends and policies: 1979 monitoring report. Vol. 1. Population trends. New York, U.N., 1980. 23-7. (Population Studies; No. 70)

    In 1978 the United Nations Population Division reassessed world population estimates and projections in light of data that became available after the previous assessment of 1973. In this report the 1973 figures and the 1978 figures are compared with respect to base population, growth rate, and projections for the latter half of the 20th century. According to the 1978 assessment the population growth rates projected in 1973 were too high for both developing and developed countries, and the world population growth rate has been declining since the 1960s rather than rising as previously thought. However, the revised estimate of 1975 world population is higher by 65 million than the previous estimate, so the projection for the year 2000 is only slightly lower than before in spite of lower growth rates. The 1973 and 1978 assessments for major areas in developed and developing regions are tabulated and discussed.
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  25. 25

    Task force 11: decision-making and policy-making for voluntary sterilization.

    In: Schima ME, Lubell I, eds. Voluntary sterilization: a decade of achievement: proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Voluntary Sterilization, May 7-10, 1979, Seoul, Korea. New York, Association for Voluntary Sterilization, 1980. 76-7.

    The 22 participants in this task force, all senior government officials and ministers, recommended that efforts be made to repeal laws declaring sterilization illegal. Where no law proscribes sterilization it should be assumed that surgical contraception can be a component of family planning programs. Legal restrictions on eligibility for voluntary sterilization should also be lifted. The medical establishment and health professionals were viewed as vital to acceptance of voluntary sterilization by government decision makers. It was recommended that all governments be encouraged to establish national family planning programs with sterilization as a key component, and that recruitment and training be given top priority, preceding or occurring simultaneously with establishment and equipping of facilities. Training should take place within the country. Data collection, evaluation and management information systems were viewed as integral parts of all voluntary sterilization programs. Nongovernmental agencies were seen as initiators and catalysts that prompt governments to incorporate voluntary sterilization services in their family planning programs. Revision of the policies of international donors was recommended, to encourage rather than hamper the development and implementation of voluntary sterilization services.
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