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  1. 1

    Population and world resources.

    Sinclair G

    Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs. 1980 Apr; (278):161-166.

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  2. 2

    Population in the Arab world: problems and prospects.

    Omran AR

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities; London, England, Croom Helm, 1980. 215 p.

    The Arab population, consisting of 20 states and the people of Palestine, was almost 153 million in 1978 and is expected to reach 300 million by the year 2000. Most Arab countries have a high population growth rate of 3%, a young population structure with about 50% under age 15, a high rate of marriage, early age of marriage, large family size norm, and an agrarian rural community life, along with a high rate of urban expansion. Health patterns are also similar with epidemic diseases leading as causes of mortality and morbidity. But there is uneven distribution of wealth in the region with per capita annual income ranging from US$100 in Somalia to US$12,050 in Kuwait; health care is also more elaborate in the wealthier countries. Fertility rates are high in most countries, with crude birthrates about 45/1000 compared with 32/1000 in the world as a whole and 17/1000 in most developed countries. In many Arab countries up to 30-50% of total investment is involved in population-related activities compared to 15% in European countries. There is also increasing pressure in the educational and health systems with the same amount of professionals dealing with an increasing amount of people. Unplanned and excessive fertility also contributes to health problems for mothers and children with higher morbidity, mortality, and nutrition problems. Physical isolation of communities contributes to difficulties in spreading health care availability. Urban population is growing rapidly, 6%/year in most Arab cities, and at a rate of 10-15% in the cities of Kuwait and Qatar; this rate is not accompanied by sufficient urban planning policies or modernization. A unique population problem in this area is that of the over 2 million Palestinians living in and outside the Middle East who put demographic pressures on the Arab countries. 2 major constraints inhibit efforts to solve the Arab population problem: 1) the difficulty of actually reallocating the people to achieve more even distribution, and 2) cultural and political sensitivities. Since in the Arab countries fertility does not correlate well with social and economic indicators, it is possible that development alone will not reduce the fertility of the Arab countries unless rigorous and effective family planning policies are put into action.
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  3. 3

    Planning for the future with people: programmes for better family living.

    Harrison C

    [Rome], Food and Agriculture Organisation, [1980]. 29 p.

    In this booklet devoted to Kenya, information is presented on the following: the country, its people and development; the demand on services and resources; government population policy and action; the long range objectives of the Programs for Better Family Living (PBFL); activities of the PBFL in Kenya; the Kenya National Family Planning Program over the 1974-79 period; and some background on the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Improving the well being of the population and promoting the welfare of the individual calls for effective utilization of Kenya's natural resources. One of the most effective ways of achieving this is to help families and communities to make better use of existing resources and generate new resources. Since independence in 1963, the government and people have made considerable progress, demonstrated by rising living standards and an expanding economy. Yet, the plans for continued economic growth can be disrupted by a high rate of population growth. In 1973, Kenya's population was estimated at 12.5 million. The rate of population growth was 3.5%, 1 of the highest growth rates in the world. Such population growth creates problems in the areas of health, education, urbanization, employment, and investment and income growth. Recognizing the implications of Kenya's high population growth, in 1966 the government declared that it would pursue policies aimed at reducing the population growth rate through voluntary means. A program of education and motivation in regard to population and family planning was initiated, and family planning services were provided. Education and motivation about family size has been provided within the context of Kenya's maternal and child services. The program emphasizes the benefits in the health of mother and child that accrue from child spacing. The long range objectives of the PBFL are to help raise the level of rural welfare by educating families and communities through fostering an understanding of the relationship between family size and family and community welfare at all levels and improving the coordination of activities at all levels betwen those servicing ministries and nongovernmental organizations. The plan of the family planning program aims at recruiting about 640,000 new family planning acceptors over the 1974-79 period, with the goal of averting some 150,000 births and reducing Kenya's population growth rate to 3.25% by 1978-79.
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  4. 4

    Population and family welfare education for workers: a resource book for trainers.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]; International Labour Office [ILO]. Population and Labour Policies Branch

    Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1980. 64 p.

    The chapters included in this resource book for trainers, prepared for a regional audience, present those topics that are most relevant in an organized sector population/family welfare education program, i.e., a program directed to any group of workers which can be approached through an appropriate organizational channel. This book has been prepared with the trainers of instructors in mind, i.e., for those who are going to help prepare the actual factory level instructors to become efficient in family welfare education. It is most important that trainers and instructors in a family welfare education program appreciate the fact that the program is directed to explaining the relationships between the pressure of the labor supply and the well-being of the worker's family. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters of this volume present the following: objectives of International Labor Organization (ILO) Population/Family Welfare Education Program; population concepts and factors affecting population growth (population concepts and factors affecting population growth); population growth and employment; family welfare, living standards, and population change; communication in population/family welfare education; and methods of contraception. The basic objective of most ILO-designed country population education programs is to facilitate the understanding of population and family welfare factors in so far as they affect the working conditions and quality of life of the workers. The programs are generally designed to encourage active involvement and participation of the regular members of the labor force. Implicit in the objectives is the motivation to the acceptance of family planning as a means of fertility regulation. The implementation of a program at the plant level is generally a combination of work undertaken by a trainer and volunteer motivators. The trainer can present the case for family planning welfare through various mediums, and the motivators follow up by talking to colleagues either individually or in small groups.
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  5. 5

    United Nations population estimates and projections with special reference to the Arab world.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations Economic Commission For Western Asia. 1980 Jun; 18:65-80.

    The United Nations Population Division has been preparing world population estimates and projections by region since 1951, by country since 1958, and by sex and age for each country since 1968. The latest revision of the projections was prepared in 1978. The 2 basic methods of preparing population projections are mathematical and component, and the component methods are most widely used at present, by both national governments and the United Nations. Before projections are prepared, the base data must be evaluated and adjusted. In the UN projections, the assumptions imply that orderly progress will be made and that there will be no catastrophes such as famines and epidemics during the projection period. The projectins are prepared in 4 variants--"medium", "high," "low," and "constant." A major source of uncertainty in populations arises from the problem of estimating future fertility. Changes in fertility affect the age distribution and the total population size more than changes in mortality. At the UN, mortality assumptions are initially made in terms of life expectancy at birth and then in terms of age-sex patterns of probabilities of survival corresponding to different life expectancy levels at birth. Some of the results of the 1978 revision of the medium variant of the estimates and projections are shown in table form. The world total population of 4,033,000,000 in 1975 is projected to reach 6,199,000,000 by the year 2000. Among the major areas and regions of the world, the most rapid population growth for the future is projected for the Arab countries, Africa and Latin America. Of the 2 Arab regions, North Africa and Southwest Asia, Southwest Asia is expected to have the higher rate of growth because of assumed continued immigration. Within the Arab regions, there has been an increasing diversity in the rate of population growth. This divergence is expected to narrow with assumed decreased migration rates during the 1980s.
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  6. 6

    [Morocco: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population] Maroc: rapport de Mission sue l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, June 1980. 111 p. (Report No. 29)

    In December 1979 a mission sponsored by UNFPA visited Morocco in order to evaluate the need for population assistance. Morocco experiences a high population growth rate, a high rate of malnutrition, infant mortality, and illiteracy, and low availability of health care in rural areas. The economy is in crisis, and population growth undermines the efforts toward development. It is suggested that population policy must be introduced along with social and economic development as part of an integrated development plan. The mission recommends exterior aid in cooperation with the government with the inception of the next Development Plan, and in particular the participation of UNFPA in data collection and research. In addition, the government of Morocco is urged to determine which agency is best suited to coordinate development and population activities, and cooperation with outside agencies.
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  7. 7

    Rome: a personal view.

    Johnson S

    Populi. 1980; 7(4):2-8.

    The Conference on Population and the Urban Future, arranged by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and held in Rome, was quite exceptional. The 1st factor worthy of comment is that the choice of Rome itself to hold the Conference was inspired. A 2nd distinguishing factor was that in some respects it was not actually a United Nations Conference at all, for it was not a heavy intergovernmental conference. It seems that this Conference worked and that the Rome declaration will in future years prove useful to politicians, planners, and the populations throughout the world. The declaration clearly points out that it is now not rural urban migration but the excess of births over deaths which contributes the major part of the growth of cities. When the declaration calls upon the United Nations and particularly the UNFPA to help with the implementation of the Conferences recommendations, it is explicitly and implicity endorsing the actions of the United Nations and its subsidiary bodies in the population field, including efforts to control fertility. In sum, the Rome Declaration launched an appeal and did elicit a response. Rome was the 1st step of a process; it helped to move the problems of the cities to center stage of international concern. Over the next 20 years there will be increased understanding of the potential catalytic role of cities in the development process. There is a need to be able to view urbanization as part of the solution as well as part of the problem.
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  8. 8

    World population: the present and future crisis.

    Piotrow PT

    New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Oct. 80 p. (Headline Series 251)

    World population will be facing serious problems in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of 2 population trends which are presently dominating the demographic scene. The number of young people aged 15-30 in developing countries is increasing rapidly and they will be soon asserting themselves politically, economically, and socially. The 2nd trend which exists is the disparity between high population growth in the impoverished developing countries and the lower rates in the affluent industrial countries. This century's population growth has occurred primarily in the developing world and is the result of lower death rates rather than higher birthrates. The situation is attributable to demographic transition; however, the major demographic questions of how quickly birthrates will fall and how wide the gap will be before birthrates follow the classic transition remain unanswered. 3 approaches to help answer these and other demographic questions are: 1) demographic approach; 2) historical approach; and 3) observation of recent events. These various approaches are given attention in this monograph. The consequences of too rapid population growth can be seen in the low food supplies which exist leaving many in developing countries undernourished, in a decline in the quality of life, in the reduction of the potential capacity to produce what is necessary (diminished land resources, pollution of water and air), in the increases in the price of energy and natural resources, in the difficulties in acquiring employment opportunities, and in burgeoning urban growth (which puts a serious strain on housing, transportation, etc.). Family planning was adopted in various countries in the world despite government policies to counter this. While there is recognition of the need for measures to be taken to reduce fertility, the question of how to accomplish this still remains. A brief overview of developing country adoption of family policies is included. What become clear is that family planning programs do make a difference in birthrate reduction and in population growth control. An effective, extensive family planning/population program exists in the People's Republic of China; Indonesia, Colombia, Tunisia, and Mauritius are other countries with successful programs. Various socioeconomic factors influence fertility and they include: literacy and education, urbanization, improvement in the status of women, health, family or community structure, development (modernization), and even the lack of development. Population and development will be greatly affected in the future by the quality and depth of leadership. Government leadership and the private sector, donor agencies, as well as international leadership, especially that of the UNFPA, will be critical. Also included here are discussion questions and reading references for those who are interested.
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  9. 9

    World and regional population growth.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    In: United Nations. Dept. of International and Social Affairs. World population trends and policies: 1979 monitoring report. Vol. 1. Population trends. New York, U.N., 1980. 23-7. (Population Studies; No. 70)

    In 1978 the United Nations Population Division reassessed world population estimates and projections in light of data that became available after the previous assessment of 1973. In this report the 1973 figures and the 1978 figures are compared with respect to base population, growth rate, and projections for the latter half of the 20th century. According to the 1978 assessment the population growth rates projected in 1973 were too high for both developing and developed countries, and the world population growth rate has been declining since the 1960s rather than rising as previously thought. However, the revised estimate of 1975 world population is higher by 65 million than the previous estimate, so the projection for the year 2000 is only slightly lower than before in spite of lower growth rates. The 1973 and 1978 assessments for major areas in developed and developing regions are tabulated and discussed.
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  10. 10

    Progress of work, 1979-1980, of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs in the field of population: report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Population Commission

    New York, UN, 1980 Nov 18. 20 p. (E/CN.9/349)

    A progress report of work performed during the 1979-1980 period by the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs in the field of population is presented. Covered in the report are activities of the Secretariat in the analysis of demographic trends and structure, demographic estimates and projections, fertility and family planning, population and development, population policy, monitoring and review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action. Also included are other continuing activities of the Secretariat. During the period covered by the report, efforts continued to carry out the program adopted by the Commission and the General Assembly. Mortality studies were reinstated along with urbanization studies, the scope of work in international migration was expanded, and new projections were prepared of total population, its sex-age structure, its urban-rural distribution, and the number of households and families. Additional work was carried out on analysis of World Fertility Survey data and of factors affecting acceptance of family planning programs. Also continued was the investigation of the relationships between social and economic factors and the components of demographic change. Under continuous study was the policy implications of the changing world population. Studies in population development and studies analyzing population policies were predominant in this 3rd round of monitoring of population trends and policies.
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  11. 11

    Action by the United Nations to implement the recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974: monitoring of population trends and policies: concise report on monitoring of population trends.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Population Commission

    New York, UN, 1980 Dec 16. 30 p. (E/CN.9/347)

    Included in this document is a concise report presented to the Population Commission on the findings of the 3rd round of monitoring of world population trends as requested by the Economic and Social Council in resolution 1979/33. The findings are summarized in terms of the recent levels and trends of demographic variables and their differentials. Attention is directed to the socioeconomic determinants and consequences of these levels and trends. The relationships between population and development are reviewed. Such aspects are included as economic disparities associated with socio-demographic development and the relations between fertility, mortality and socioeconomic variables in developing countries. There appears to be increasing evidence that a movement towards fertility decline in underway in the developing countries and that the trend towards moderation in the rate of growth of world population is continuing. The annual rate of growth of the world population may decline to 1.5% by the end of the 20th century, from 1.7 at this time and 2.0% over 15 years ago. The decline is small, and its significance lies primarily in its persistence and anticipated acceleration. Otherwise, substantial population increase, primarily in many of the developing countries, will persist and continue to be among the major factors influencing the present and future of humanity. The decline in the birthrate of the developing countries was mostly brought about by declines in China and in several East-Asian, South-Asian and Latin American countries. Besides the initial fertility decline in the developing countries, another primary feature of the present demographic situation is the continuing fertility decline in the developed countries.
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  12. 12

    Population and the 1980s.

    Salas RM

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1980. 10 p. (Speech Series No. 51.)

    The author invokes the media to report on relevant global issues such as population and development in a way that makes them interesting to the public. World fertility trends are discussed; it is pointed out that though fertility is slowly declining, population is still growing, especially in developing countries. Population growth and redistribution is seen as a source of social, political and economic tension. Changing fertility and mortality rates affect population characteristics such as age distribution, which in turn impinge on employment, education, housing and food supplies. Global expenditure on population research and programs is cited as 0.1% that of armament, which is seen as not really a problem-solving investment. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities is described as being nonprescriptive, and not promoting any particular population policy, but rather leaving policy up to the recipient government to decide. In conclusion the author emphasizes that it is the right of each couple to decide on the desired number and spacing of children and to have the information, education and means to do so.
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  13. 13

    [Effects of high population growth rates] [Statement].

    Benedick RE

    [Unpublished] 1980. 28 p.

    This document contains the testimony presented by R. E. Benedick, the Coordinator of Population Affairs of the U.S. Department of State, before the House Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade on February 29, 1980. The Population Affairs Coordinator 1) described how rapid population growth erodes the impact of development programs in developing countries; 2) urged the adoption of U.S. policies to ameliorate the problem; and 3) described the duties and specific activities of the office of the Population Affairs Coordinator. Population growth erodes the impact of development programs by 1) increasing the amount of money spent on consumption goods and reducing the amount of money available for investment; 2) diverting scarce foreign exchange to food imports; 3) increasing the amount that must be allocated to service provision; and 4) enhancing the already existing problems of unemployment, overcrowding, inadequate housing, urbanization, and international migration. Although some progress has been made in reducing fertility rates in Indonesia, Thailand, Colombia, and Mexico, most countries have made little headway in reducing population growth. In order to significantly reduce population growth in the future, high priority must be placed on 1) extending family planning services in rural areas; 2) developing more effective contraceptive methods; 3) improving social and economic conditions so as to facilitate family planning motivation; and 4) encourage the political leaders in developing countries to commit themselves to population growth reduction. In accordance with these priorities, the U.S. should 1) provide more funding support for bilateral family planning program assistance, contraceptive retailing programs, and paramedical training programs; 2) allocate more funds for biomedical and motivational research and less for demographic and social science research; 3) encourage the leaders in developing countries to strengthen population programs; and 4) strengthen USAID commitment to population growth reduction and increase our contribution to UNFPA. The duties of the office of Population Affairs Coordinator are 1) to encourage U. S. diplomatic support of U.S. and international population policies; 2) to serve as a spokesman for U.S. and international population policies; and 3) to utilize all opportunities to implement these policies and to enhance program effectiveness by cooperation with other government and non-government agencies and organizations. The specific activities of the office are also described.
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  14. 14

    Africa faces new population challenges.

    Haupt A

    Intercom. 1980 May; 8(5):1, 12-15.

    Africa's growing population problems and the role of family planning in Africa were described. Population growth in Africa is accelerating more rapidly than in any other region of the world and population pressures on the continent are just beginning to emerge. The current population of Africa is 472 million and constitutes 10% of the world's population. Most countries in Africa are just entering the early phase of the demographic transition. Mortality rates are declining but the birth rates remain high. Africa's growth rate increased from 2% to 3% from 1955-1980. In sub-Saharan Africa vital statistics are not available for many of the countries and population estimates are based on inadequate data. Fertility is high in the region and the average woman has 6-7 children. Population problems in the region are masked to some extent because population density is still relatively low; however, land pressures are beginning to mount as overgrazed, deforested, eroded, and exhausted land areas increase. Per capita food production is declining by 1.4% annaually due in part to the outdated transportation and marketing systems which characterize many of the sub-Saharan countries. In many of these sub-Saharan countries there is a lack of interest in family planning and some governments have pronatalist population policies. Family planning is viewed by some Africans as an attempt on the part of Westerners to suppress the native population. National governments often hesitate to establish family planning programs for fear that these will be interpreted as veiled attempts to reduce the political influence of opposing tribal groups. Most family planning activities in sub-Saharan countries are financially supported by private and international organizations. Major contributors in 1979 were UNFPA, which provided $18 million primarily for the collection of demographic data, and IPPF, which spent $7.5 million on family planning programs. Other organizations providing assistance are 1) the Pathfinders, 2) the Population Council, and 3) the Family Planning International Assistance. USAID provides direct funding and also funds bilateral and regional programs through individual governments.
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