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[Washington, D.C.], PAHO, . 36 p. (Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Workshop Module IV)Upon completion of this module devoted to planning immunization activities, the participant will be able to explain the elements involved in planning immunization activities. Specific objectives include: to choose priorities among the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) diseases and vaccines; to choose the priority population groups for EPI: to gather essential information about the community to be provided with immunization services; to be able to make an inventory of resources needed in immunizations; to apply the technique of problem analysis and solution to the immunization program; to define different tactics for immunization activities; to be able to write quantitative objectives; and to estimate vaccine needs for a given population. The module covers: priority among geographic areas and people; location of health facilities in relation to the population to be served; problem analysis and solution; selection of immunization tactics; scheduling vaccination activities; setting quantitative objectives; and planning vaccine distribution.
Washington, D.C., Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1980. x, 189 p. (Official Document No. 173)The World Health Assembly decided in 1977 that the main social target of the Governments and the WHO in the decades ahead should be "the attainment by all the citizens of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life." Subsequently, the World Health Assembly in 1979 urged the member states to define and implement national, regional, and global strategies for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000. This monograph reprints UN documents dealing with this goal. The 1st document addresses 2 specific issues, the developments in the health sector in the 1971-1980 decade, and strategies for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The 2nd document addresses 8 areas of interest; 1) social and environmental aspects of the region of the Americas; 2) evaluation of the 10-year health plan for the Americas; 3) implications of the goal and the new international economic order for the achievement of the objectives; 4) a method for analyzing strategies and developing a primary health care work plan and indicators for evaluating progress towards the goal; 5) objectives for the health and social sectors; 6) regional baseline targets for priority health conditions; 7) summary of revised regional strategies for attaining the goal; 8) national, intercountry, regional, and global implications of the regional strategies. The 3rd and 4th documents are resolutions 20 and 21 of the 27th meeting of the directing council of the Pan American Health Organization. Resolution 20 addresses regional strategies for attaining the goal. Resolution 21 discusses the ad hoc working group to complement the regional strategies.
Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1980. 86 p. (Health Development in Africa 1)Primary health care has been accepted by the 44 Member States and Territories of the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO); the Health Charter for 1975-2000 was adopted in 1974 with its humanistic approach oriented to satisfying basic needs. Genuine technical cooperation between Member States is essential for health development and can be achieved on the regional level. By 1990 the following steps should be taken: 1) vaccination of all infants under 1 year against measles, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tuberculosis, 2) supply of drinking water to all communities and 3) waging a war on hunger. Health development is seen as a social development policy requiring combined efforts in the fields of education, agriculture, transport, planning, economics, and finance as well as a national strategy which WHO can help to define. A new international economic order must aim at meeting basic needs of the poorest in the population and includes health needs. Basic health services must provide primary health care which includes preventive and curative care, promotional and rehabilitative care, maternal and child health, sanitation, health education, and systematic immunization. Secondary care includes outpatient services with specialized teams; tertiary care provides highly specialized services. These services must be geographically, financially, and culturally accessible to the community. Communication between health workers and community leaders is fundamental in setting up those services and group dynamics can be utilized in promoting change. WHO's 4 health priorities in Africa are: 1) epidemiological surveillance, 2) promotion of environmental health, 3) integrated development of health manpower and services, and 4) health development research promotion. The components of Africa's health care program are: 1) community education, 2) promotion of food supply and nutrition, 3) safe water and sanitation, 4) maternal and child health, 5) immunization, 6) disease prevention, 7) treatment of injuries and diseases and 8) provision of essential drugs. Proper training of personnel is crucial for the success of these steps, along with effective personnel management.
Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1980. 16 p. (AFR/EXM/1)In this opening address of the 30th session of the Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. Quenum notes that new program policies already put into action include the substitution of technical cooperation for the idea of assistance, the improvement of managerial processes for health development and the promotion of primary health care to achieve health for all by the year 2000. He asserts that the latter idea is not utopian since regional strategy in Africa, although long-term, has already become a reality and that constant monitoring and evaluation will affect the needed changes. 2 aspects of health planning for Africa which must be kept in mind are unity with present generations and with those of the future. Regarding the correlation between health and politics he states that whereas it is not WHO's place to intrude in a country's government, health policy cannot be developed apart from the society which it is to affect. He asks if WHO must be concerned in the political will voiced by government and their health priorities and replies that it is WHO's duty to respect the political choices of member states of WHO if genuine technical cooperation is to be established peacefully, while concerning itself with social justice. Health must also be considered in developing socioeconomic policy and cannot make a contribution to establishing a new international economic order unless it is firmly integrated into a development process focused on people. Health for all by the year 2000 is a revolutionary idea, the author contends, since it implies radical changes in the delivery of health care involving international solidarity. In many African countries primary health care has gotten off to a good start through administrative reforms or the training of new health development workers, and enthusiasm for such work should not be allowed to dwindle. Knowledge of the primary importance of health should provide the impetus for these projects in order to reach the goal of health for all.