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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1980; (651):1-19.This document reports the discussions of a Scientific Group on Vaccination Against Tuberculosis, cosponsored by the Indian Council of Medical Research and the World Health Organization (WHO), that met in 1980. The objectives of the meeting were to review research on Bacillus Calmete-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, assess the present state of knowledge, and determine how to advance this knowledge. Particular emphasis is placed in this document on the trial of BCG vaccines in South India. In this trial, the tuberculin sensitivity induced by BCG vaccination was highly satisfactory at 2 1/2 months but had waned sharply by 2 1/2 years and the 7 1/2-year follow up revealed a high incidence of tuberculous infection in the study population. It is suggested that the protective effect of BCG may depend on epidemiologic, environmental, and immunologic factors affecting both the host and the infective agent. Studies to test certain hypotheses (e.g., the immune response of the study population was unusual, the vaccines were inadequate, the south Indian variant of M tuberculosis acted as an attenuating immunizing agent, and mycobacteria other than M tuberculosis may have partially immunized the study population) are recommended. A detailed analysis should be made when results from the 10-year follow up of the south Indian study population are available.
The global eradication of smallpox. Final report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 122 p. (History of International Public Health No. 4)The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.
[Supplement on bibliographical services throughout the world in 1978] Supplement sur les services bibliographiques dans le monde en 1978; Suplemento relativo a los servicios bibliograficos en el mundo en 1978.
General Information Programme--Unisist Newsletter. 1980; (Annual Suppl):1-102.Add to my documents.
Intermediating development assistance in health: prospects for organizing a public/private investment portfolio.
Washington, D.C., Family Health, 1980 July 23. 162 p.The objective of this study is to identify and assess the potential role of intermediary organizations in furthering AID health assistance objectives. The 1st section of this report is an introduction to the potential roles of intermediaries through health assistance via the private voluntary community. A background of the private voluntary organizations is discussed along with some of the constraints that may impede their activity, such as competing interests, values and priorities. The following section defines what is and should be an intermediary organization along with examples of certain functions involved; a discussion of the experience of AID in the utilization of intermediaries follows. 3 models of utilization of intermediaries are analyzed according to the rationale involved, strategy, advantages and constraints. The 3rd section attempts to define and identify AID's needs for programming its health assistance in regard to primary health care, water and sanitation, disease control and health planning. A detailed analysis of the potential roles of intermediary organizations is discussed in reference to policy development, project development and design, project implementation, research, training and evaluation. The 4th section identifies the programming strengths and interests among listed private voluntary organizations in the US. The 5th section discusses the potential of intermediaries in health assistance in reference to the options for funding them in health and the constraints to direct AID funding of intermediary organizations. The last section discusses a series of recommendations made in regard to the development and funding of an international effort to marshall private resources in support of health assistance. Problems and constraints, as well as resources and opportunities, for the development of this international effort are further discussed.
World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980. Review and evaluation of progress achieved in the implementation of the World Plan of Action: national machinery and legislation.
[New York], UN, 1980. 27 p. (A/CONF.94/11)This report is part of an overall review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered at the national level (1975-1979) in implementing the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year. Focus in the 1st chapter is on national machinery and women's organizations. Legislation is the subject of the 2nd chapter with attention directed to the following: constitutional and legislative guarantees of the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of sex; sanctions and/or remedies to deal with violations; measures to inform women of their rights; effects upon the status of women of variances between civil and customary religious law; nationality; and civil law in the fields of property rights, legal capacity, right to movement, consent to marriage, rights during marriage and at its dissolution, minimum age of marriage, registration of marriages, parental rights and duties, right to retain the family name, provision of penal codes and measures to combat prostitution. The integration of women into national life has been formally accepted by the governments of most countries as a desirable planning objective. To ensure that the commitment to integrate women into national life is actually translated into action, it is essential to have institutional and organizational structures and arrangements to identify problems, formulate requisite policies, monitor the implementation of such policies and coordinate national efforts and initiatives in the area. Governments reported the establishment of different kinds of administrative and institutional machinery to integrate women into national life. The nature of the machinery varies according to the specific socioeconomic and political system of each State along with the degree of support it received from the government.
PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS. 1980 Sep-Oct; 95(5):422-6.The implications of the eradication of smallpox in the context of epidemiology are presented. Eradication of disease has been conceived since the 1st smallpox vaccination was developed in the 18th century. Since then, attempts to eradicate yellow fever, malaria, yaws and smallpox have been instituted. Most public health professionals have been rightfully skeptical. Indeed, the success with smallpox was fortuitous and achieved only by a narrow margin. It is unlikely that any other disease will be eradicated, lacking the perfect epidemiological characteristics and affordable technology. The key to success with smallpox was the principle of surveillance. This concept has a vigorous developmental history in the discipline of epidemiology, derived from the work of Langmuir and Farr. It involves meticulous data collection, analysis, appropriate action and evaluation. In the case of smallpox, only these techniques permitted the key observations that smallpox vaccination was remarkably durable, and that effective reporting was fundamental for success. The currently popular goal of health for all, through horizontal programs, is contrary to the methods of epidemiology because its objective is vague and meaningless, no specific management structure is envisioned, and no system of surveillance and assessment is in place.
[Unpublished] 1980.  p.This meeting of the ASEAN Heads of Population Program (AHPP) convened to to review and consider the earlier Report of the Experts consisting of the following: Phase I ASEAN Population Program; the Pre-Implementation Meeting Report of the Phase II ASEAN Population Program; interrelationships between and among Phase I and II projects; and the rules and procedures for the implementation of the ASEAN/Australia Population Project. It was generally agreed that the implementation of Phase I has stimulated greater cooperation and collaboration among the member countries in the field of family planning and population through important contacts and exchange of expertise. More ASEAN experts and expertise in the population field have resulted. Though it is too early to assess the impact of these projects, experiences gained in their implementation have already been applied to national programs in most countries. Efforts must be made to maximize the utilization of the findings of these projects, including making available financial and other resources to analyze, disseminate and utilize information. A structured mechanism to sustain and maintain a link between researchers and program managers needs to be designed.
Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1980 Feb 1; 55(5):33-4.At its final meeting in December 1979, the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication concluded that smallpox eradication has been achieved on a worldwide basis and there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The 65th session of the WHO's Executive Board, held on January 25, 1980, endorsed these conclusions and made 19 recommendations covering the areas of vaccination policy, reserve stocks of vaccine, investigation of suspected smallpox cases, laboratories retaining variola virus stocks, human monkeypox, laboratory investigations, documentation of the smallpox eradication program, and WHO headquarters staff. Sufficient freeze-dried smallpox vaccine to vaccinate 200 million people will be maintained by WHO in refrigerated depots in 2 countries. WHO will ensure that appropriate publications are produced describing smallpox and its eradication, with special emphasis on the principles and methods that are applicable to other programs.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Development Programme, Asia and Pacific Programme for Development Training and Communication Planning, 1980. 4 p. (Notes for Project Formulators No. 6; NPF No. 506; UNDP Regional Project RAS/81/111)This paper outlines 4 possible roles that can be performed by an international advisor/consultant. There has been growing skepticism expressed about the effectiveness of such personnel. It is the contention of this paper that this situation in part reflects a lack of understanding on the part of these advisors and consultants as to the role they are to play. When a project work plan calls for the use of an advisor or consultant, these 4 models should be explained to government officials, leading to a definition of what the government actually wants and needs. Then the role required can be carefully explained to candidates during the recruitment process. The purchase of services model implies an expert-for-hire role, with the consultant being called on to perform a specific job such as a feasibility study, the installation of equipment, or the design of a special building. The diagnostic model, also known as the doctor-patient model, calls upon the consultant to diagnose the problem and recommend treatment. Generally this model does not include any transfer of capabilities to the government on how to analyze its own problems in the future. The professional education/training model is focused on the task of human resource development and requires familiarity with training methodology. Finally, the change agent or process consultation model is based on helping the government or agency improve its problem-solving and decision-making capabilities so that reliance on outsiders is eventually decreased. This model is considered most appropriate for longterm advisors. It is noted that it is possible for an advisor to perform the role of more than 1 of these models during the duration of an as assignment.
[Unpublished] .  p. (XA/01472/00)The Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, operational in Nairobi, Kenya in September 1974, and a sub-unit operational since 1977 in Dakar, Senegal, work closely with the population education office in Dakar and with other international, regional, and subregional organizations which are active in population, family planning research, rural development, women, youth, and educational matters. In the years ahead, the Regional Unit will concentrate its efforts on assisting individual member states in addition to activities at regional or subregional levels, which are considered by member states to have a multiplier effect. The Unit's main objectives include: to assist national governments in the development of their communication plans, policies, and projects in support of their population/family planning and overall development programs; to work out with regional and international organizations or agencies a practical and effective system of coordinating communication and education activities in support of population and development communication programs at the national, subregional, and regional levels; to develop regional and national institutions for training, research, and development of appropriate communication materials; and to establish a population communication clearinghouse to serve as an exchange center for population and development communication programs in the region. The immediate objectives are to assist member states in their quest for self sufficiency in the training and development of manpower in the field of population; to provide member states with technical support in the development of their population activities; to promote the exchange of information, experience, materials, and know-how in the region; to develop and evaluate innovative communication approaches, which could improve the performance of national programs; to develop, pretest, produce, and evaluate a variety of prototype educational materials for use at the national level; and to improve the capacity of the Regional Population Communication Unit to assist in providing advisory services to national governments. The Unit's program of activities concentrates on 4 areas at both national and regional levels -- training, research and studies, media development, and technical assistance and advisory services. The activities of the Unit are geared to provide support for existing projects and programs, study tours, regional specialized workshops, and seminars and participation in the training seminars and workshops. Training programs provided by the Unit include seminars, workshops, and conference on development support communication. The training strategy emphasizes training as a continuing activity.
Human rights from humanitarian perspectives: an international comparative appraisal of state laws on and practice of abortion and sterilization as means of family planning.
Nairobi, Kenya, University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, 1980 Mar. 35 p. (Discussion Paper No. 269; KE/01316/00)This study describes and analyzes the evolution and establishment of family planning as an internationally recognized aspect of human rights both at the level of customary social state practices and as a response to international promotion through the UN and agencies. 2 core themes of the study are: the development of a coherent conceptual linkage between family planning and human rights based on humanitarian considerations; and the demonstration of the existence, scope, and limitations of customary practices of family planning, through abortion and sterilization, among a wide spread of states within different levels of technological development, differential political philosophies, and organized religious culture. The 1st major international expression of the need to raise family planning to the status of an international human right was made by 12 heads of state under the Declaration on Population of 10 December 1966, a unilateral declaration later signed by 18 more states. In 1969 the UN General Assembly declared that families should have "the knowledge and means necessary to enable them to exercise their right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children." By formal legal reasoning, the right of family planning became an international right, and only its practice needs to be encouraged and evaluated. The concept and the right of family planning is not an abstract construct that is limited to the distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) alone, and it is not simply confinable to the reduction of population growth rates alone nor is it merely a tool used for the purpose of increasing fertility rates. What it does is to create conditions for rational, premeditated decision making as regards procreation so that childbearing no longer remains the domain of mystical gods to decide for human beings. At another fundamental level it helps to provide mothers an opportunity to realize and maintain health standards they decide. In sum, it facilitates the right to life and human dignity. To measure the extent to which the newly emerged right of family planning, both at international and national levels, have developed and is practiced, attention was directed to the practice of states. Differences emerged among state practices, but a fundamental fact regarding the universality of the practice, especially through abortion and sterilization, has been established. There is noticeable general movement towards reform of laws and practice to make them conform with the realization of the right of family planning, beginning with instances of therapeutic, eugenic, socioeconomic, and other apparent humanitarian dictates. This is particularly favorable to the thesis of this study, i.e., that the practice of states is not useful only for academic reasons, but more fundamentally that state practice indirectly acts as models that influence other state practices and mold the international standards.
Washington, D.C., Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1980. x, 189 p. (Official Document No. 173)The World Health Assembly decided in 1977 that the main social target of the Governments and the WHO in the decades ahead should be "the attainment by all the citizens of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life." Subsequently, the World Health Assembly in 1979 urged the member states to define and implement national, regional, and global strategies for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000. This monograph reprints UN documents dealing with this goal. The 1st document addresses 2 specific issues, the developments in the health sector in the 1971-1980 decade, and strategies for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The 2nd document addresses 8 areas of interest; 1) social and environmental aspects of the region of the Americas; 2) evaluation of the 10-year health plan for the Americas; 3) implications of the goal and the new international economic order for the achievement of the objectives; 4) a method for analyzing strategies and developing a primary health care work plan and indicators for evaluating progress towards the goal; 5) objectives for the health and social sectors; 6) regional baseline targets for priority health conditions; 7) summary of revised regional strategies for attaining the goal; 8) national, intercountry, regional, and global implications of the regional strategies. The 3rd and 4th documents are resolutions 20 and 21 of the 27th meeting of the directing council of the Pan American Health Organization. Resolution 20 addresses regional strategies for attaining the goal. Resolution 21 discusses the ad hoc working group to complement the regional strategies.
New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1980. vii, 82 p.Add to my documents.
[Stockholm, Sweden], ISO, 1980 Oct 1. 4 p. (International Standard ISO 4074/9; Ref. No. ISO 4074/9-1980 (E))This determination of tensile properties of rubber condoms reviews the scope and field of application, principle, apparatus, the preparation of sample specimens, the procedure, expression of results, and the test report. Part 9 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4074 specifies a method for the determination of the tensile properties of rubber condoms. The test is only applicable to condoms having a sufficiently large smooth area no more than 90 mm from the open end from which a test piece 20 mm in width can be obtained. The principle is: cutting of a test piece from a condom and stretching it until it breaks and, following this, measuring of the tensile force and elongation. The apparatus include cuting die, micrometer dial guage, and tensile testing machine. The condom shall be laid flat with its length at right angles to the cutting edges of the die and the test piece shall be obtained by cutting, with 1 stroke of the press, from a region 80 mm from the open end. Only test pieces which have been completely separated at the 1st attempt shall be used. The procedure involves: measure, to the nearest 0.001 mm, the single wall thickness of the test piece at not less than 4 equivalent points around the ring; dust the test piece with talcum powder, lat it flat, and measure, to the nearest millimeter, the distance between the 2 folded edges; place the test piece over the rollers and stretch it until it breaks; and at break, measure the load, to the nearest 0.1 N, and the separation distance (between the centers of the rollers) to the nearest millimeter. The test report shall include: the identification of the sample the number of samples tested; the tensile strength and elongation at break of each test piece; and the date of testing.
General survey of the reports relating to conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 concerning migrant workers. (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III (Part 4B).
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 189 p.In accordance with article 19 of the International Labor Office (ILO) Constitution, the Governing Body decided at its 201st Session (November 1976) to request reports on the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No 143) from governments which have not ratified them, as well as reports on the Migration for Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949 (No. 86), and the Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). These reports, dealing with the state of law and practice in relation to the standards laid down by the instruments in question, and the reports supplied under article 22 of the Constitution by govenments that have ratified 1 or both of the Conventions, have enabled the Committee of Experts to make a general survey of the situation. Reports have been received from 109 countries either under article 19 of the Constitution of the ILO on Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and Recommendations Nos. 86 and 151 or under article 22 on the 2 Conventions when they have ratified them. An appendix provides detailed information on the countries that have communicated reports. The plan adopted for this present survey is as follows: preliminary measures of protection--information and assistance and recruitment, introduction, and placement of migrant workers; protection against abusive conditions (migrations in abusive conditions, the illegal employment of migrant workers, and minimum standards of protection); equality of opportunity and treatment and social policy; and certain aspects of the employment, residence, and departure of migrant workers. The vast range of subjects covered illustrates the complexity of the subject of migration for employment. The measures needed for the protection of migrant workers extend beyond their period of actual employment and must cover the initial phase of information, recruitment, travel, and settlement into the country of employment and the regulation of rights arising out of the employment but continuing after its termination. During the period of employment, they go beyond measures dealing exclusively with conditions of work to cover various other aspects of conditions of life which affect the context in which the migrant worker has to work and form the broader framework of the conditions of work and life of migrant workers. Thus, it is possibly understandable that few governments have covered all the subjects dealt with in the instruments in their reports. Convention No. 97 has been ratified to date by 34 countries and Convention 143 has been ratified by 8 States. Problems exist in many member States in affording to migrant workers the guarantees provided for in the instruments.
Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1980. 64 p.The chapters included in this resource book for trainers, prepared for a regional audience, present those topics that are most relevant in an organized sector population/family welfare education program, i.e., a program directed to any group of workers which can be approached through an appropriate organizational channel. This book has been prepared with the trainers of instructors in mind, i.e., for those who are going to help prepare the actual factory level instructors to become efficient in family welfare education. It is most important that trainers and instructors in a family welfare education program appreciate the fact that the program is directed to explaining the relationships between the pressure of the labor supply and the well-being of the worker's family. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters of this volume present the following: objectives of International Labor Organization (ILO) Population/Family Welfare Education Program; population concepts and factors affecting population growth (population concepts and factors affecting population growth); population growth and employment; family welfare, living standards, and population change; communication in population/family welfare education; and methods of contraception. The basic objective of most ILO-designed country population education programs is to facilitate the understanding of population and family welfare factors in so far as they affect the working conditions and quality of life of the workers. The programs are generally designed to encourage active involvement and participation of the regular members of the labor force. Implicit in the objectives is the motivation to the acceptance of family planning as a means of fertility regulation. The implementation of a program at the plant level is generally a combination of work undertaken by a trainer and volunteer motivators. The trainer can present the case for family planning welfare through various mediums, and the motivators follow up by talking to colleagues either individually or in small groups.
Washington, D.C., IFFLP, 1980 Jun 20. 7 p.There were 3 major IFFLP projects in 1979: 1) the African NFP Instruction Training Project, which consisted of 4 composite tours by 2 IFFLP consultants in 18 African countries over a period of 116 days. During the tours, public and private conferences/meetings, and formal training sessions were held; 2) government sponsored NFP seminars (the U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare: National Institutes of Health and Center for Population Research, and Ministry of Health in Ireland) which focused on some of current NFP field research both in terms of comparative use-effectiveness studies and various curricula and program development efforts; and 3) November 1979 Rome meetings aimed at a formal consultation with the Vatican Church and 5 African guests on the African project, and special information session with Education International, an information consortium among religious congregations in Rome. IFFLP Secretariat activities for 1979 consisted of obtaining a close liaison with the Human Life and NFP Foundation, and managing IFFLP finances. IFFLP finances were partially stabilized through a gradual expansion of sources of revenue and the maintenance of their diversity. In 1979, total revenue from various sources (governments, religious organizations, miscellaneous, membership dues) amounted to U.S. $145,923; expenses were U.S. $130,887, and deficit, $9725. Comapred to previous years' figures (1977 and 1978), there has been a decline in deficit and constriction of expenses. The Secretariat also prepared and/or duplicated a series of various documents (listed) for the IFFLP directors: the documents are available at cost (duplication/postage) to those requesting copies. Plans for 1980 include: 1) continuation/coordination of the African Project; 2) preparation and holding of the second International IFFLP Congress, General Assembly and Trainers' Workshops; 3) renewed systematic liaison with IFFLP membership; 4) sustained and expanded funding efforts for IFFLP programs and Secretariat; and 5) publication of Cali proceedings and expansion of IFFLP Secretariat. The Auditor's Report is also included.