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The global eradication of smallpox. Final report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 122 p. (History of International Public Health No. 4)The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.
World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980. Review and evaluation of progress achieved in the implementation of the World Plan of Action: national machinery and legislation.
[New York], UN, 1980. 27 p. (A/CONF.94/11)This report is part of an overall review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered at the national level (1975-1979) in implementing the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year. Focus in the 1st chapter is on national machinery and women's organizations. Legislation is the subject of the 2nd chapter with attention directed to the following: constitutional and legislative guarantees of the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of sex; sanctions and/or remedies to deal with violations; measures to inform women of their rights; effects upon the status of women of variances between civil and customary religious law; nationality; and civil law in the fields of property rights, legal capacity, right to movement, consent to marriage, rights during marriage and at its dissolution, minimum age of marriage, registration of marriages, parental rights and duties, right to retain the family name, provision of penal codes and measures to combat prostitution. The integration of women into national life has been formally accepted by the governments of most countries as a desirable planning objective. To ensure that the commitment to integrate women into national life is actually translated into action, it is essential to have institutional and organizational structures and arrangements to identify problems, formulate requisite policies, monitor the implementation of such policies and coordinate national efforts and initiatives in the area. Governments reported the establishment of different kinds of administrative and institutional machinery to integrate women into national life. The nature of the machinery varies according to the specific socioeconomic and political system of each State along with the degree of support it received from the government.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-14. (Series 1, Pt. 1)Abstracts of 8 national case studies on the out-of-school population education programs in the Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are presented. Provided is the total picture and the framework upon which the population education in the out-of-school sector in these countries are being conducted. The case studies show that the majority of the out-of-school population education programs have developed by means of a process of evolution rather than as a result of strict systematic planning. To some extent this evolution has been facilitated by several governmental and nongovernmental organizations which initiated the integration of population education into their own development oriented programs such as welfare, literacy, agriculture and labor. The objectives and activities for out-of-school population education have become an organic part of the development programs, many of which are family planning oriented. This situation has brought some confusion regarding how to define population education in the out-of-school sector and what its boundaries are.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, . 3 p. (Training for Mid-level Managers; 7M1505879)This course is designed to help mid-level managers of Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI) develop the skills needed to manage immunization activities. The course is designed around the major tasks which must be done to manage an immunization program. Each major task is described and taught in a booklet -- a module. These tasks are: allocate resources; manage the cold chain system; evaluate vaccination coverage; supervise performance; provide training; conduct disease surveillance; and ensure public participation. Each module is separate from the other lessons and can be used in any order. Most modules contain practice exercises. The trainee should complete each exercise and check his/her answers with the instructor.
Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1980 Feb 1; 55(5):33-4.At its final meeting in December 1979, the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication concluded that smallpox eradication has been achieved on a worldwide basis and there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The 65th session of the WHO's Executive Board, held on January 25, 1980, endorsed these conclusions and made 19 recommendations covering the areas of vaccination policy, reserve stocks of vaccine, investigation of suspected smallpox cases, laboratories retaining variola virus stocks, human monkeypox, laboratory investigations, documentation of the smallpox eradication program, and WHO headquarters staff. Sufficient freeze-dried smallpox vaccine to vaccinate 200 million people will be maintained by WHO in refrigerated depots in 2 countries. WHO will ensure that appropriate publications are produced describing smallpox and its eradication, with special emphasis on the principles and methods that are applicable to other programs.
[Unpublished] .  p. (XA/01472/00)The Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, operational in Nairobi, Kenya in September 1974, and a sub-unit operational since 1977 in Dakar, Senegal, work closely with the population education office in Dakar and with other international, regional, and subregional organizations which are active in population, family planning research, rural development, women, youth, and educational matters. In the years ahead, the Regional Unit will concentrate its efforts on assisting individual member states in addition to activities at regional or subregional levels, which are considered by member states to have a multiplier effect. The Unit's main objectives include: to assist national governments in the development of their communication plans, policies, and projects in support of their population/family planning and overall development programs; to work out with regional and international organizations or agencies a practical and effective system of coordinating communication and education activities in support of population and development communication programs at the national, subregional, and regional levels; to develop regional and national institutions for training, research, and development of appropriate communication materials; and to establish a population communication clearinghouse to serve as an exchange center for population and development communication programs in the region. The immediate objectives are to assist member states in their quest for self sufficiency in the training and development of manpower in the field of population; to provide member states with technical support in the development of their population activities; to promote the exchange of information, experience, materials, and know-how in the region; to develop and evaluate innovative communication approaches, which could improve the performance of national programs; to develop, pretest, produce, and evaluate a variety of prototype educational materials for use at the national level; and to improve the capacity of the Regional Population Communication Unit to assist in providing advisory services to national governments. The Unit's program of activities concentrates on 4 areas at both national and regional levels -- training, research and studies, media development, and technical assistance and advisory services. The activities of the Unit are geared to provide support for existing projects and programs, study tours, regional specialized workshops, and seminars and participation in the training seminars and workshops. Training programs provided by the Unit include seminars, workshops, and conference on development support communication. The training strategy emphasizes training as a continuing activity.
New York, N.Y., U.N. Dept. of Public Information, 1980. vii, 133 p.Add to my documents.
Consultation of regional coordinators of the features services on women and population, UNESCO, Paris, 31 March-3 April 1980.
Paris, France, Unesco, 1980. 49 p.Add to my documents.
In: Dondi NN, ed. Towards effective family planning programming. A report of proceedings of the second management seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya, including recommendations for post-seminar programming possibilities. [Nairobi], Family Planning Association of Kenya [FPAK], 1980. 53-8.In 1952 the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was formed to organize family planning associations which existed at that time. Essentially a people's movement, IPPF comprises 4 main groups: volunteers, paid staff, donors, and clients. The purpose of IPPF is to provide services to clients. IPPF is an international nongovernmental and nonpolitical charitable organization and is a federation of 96 family planning associations from 6 regions of the world. Aims and objectives of IPPF include: to promote the education of the population of the world in family planning and responsible parenthood; to preserve and promote the good health of parents, children, and young people through supporting effective family planning services; to educate people about the demographic problems of their own communities; and to stimulate appropriate research in all aspects of human fertility and its regulation and to make widely known the findings of such research. The overall objective of the Africa Region of IPPF is to improve the quality of life through family planning programs and other related problems. IPPF membership is open to family planning associations which will agree to subscribe to the IPPF Constitution and which have no commercial tendencies. There are 3 kinds of membership: full membership, associate membership, and affiliate membership. IPPF Regional Offices have varying structures according to their varying needs and complexities. Policies differ from region to region. The Regional Council is the policymaking body, and it comprises 2 representatives of associations holding full membership, 1 representative from affiliated associations, 1 nonvoting member from affiliated governments, and 5 coopted members. The Council meets at least once a year. The Executive Committee manages the day-to-day affairs of IPPF Africa Region (IPPFAR). IPPFAR has 3 standing committees: finance, medical, and communication. Panels and boards include the Law Panel and the Advisory Board for the Center for African Family Studies. Currently, there is a unified secretariat and the IPPF Secretary General in London has powers over all the Regional Directors.
General survey of the reports relating to conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 concerning migrant workers. (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III (Part 4B).
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 189 p.In accordance with article 19 of the International Labor Office (ILO) Constitution, the Governing Body decided at its 201st Session (November 1976) to request reports on the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No 143) from governments which have not ratified them, as well as reports on the Migration for Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949 (No. 86), and the Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). These reports, dealing with the state of law and practice in relation to the standards laid down by the instruments in question, and the reports supplied under article 22 of the Constitution by govenments that have ratified 1 or both of the Conventions, have enabled the Committee of Experts to make a general survey of the situation. Reports have been received from 109 countries either under article 19 of the Constitution of the ILO on Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and Recommendations Nos. 86 and 151 or under article 22 on the 2 Conventions when they have ratified them. An appendix provides detailed information on the countries that have communicated reports. The plan adopted for this present survey is as follows: preliminary measures of protection--information and assistance and recruitment, introduction, and placement of migrant workers; protection against abusive conditions (migrations in abusive conditions, the illegal employment of migrant workers, and minimum standards of protection); equality of opportunity and treatment and social policy; and certain aspects of the employment, residence, and departure of migrant workers. The vast range of subjects covered illustrates the complexity of the subject of migration for employment. The measures needed for the protection of migrant workers extend beyond their period of actual employment and must cover the initial phase of information, recruitment, travel, and settlement into the country of employment and the regulation of rights arising out of the employment but continuing after its termination. During the period of employment, they go beyond measures dealing exclusively with conditions of work to cover various other aspects of conditions of life which affect the context in which the migrant worker has to work and form the broader framework of the conditions of work and life of migrant workers. Thus, it is possibly understandable that few governments have covered all the subjects dealt with in the instruments in their reports. Convention No. 97 has been ratified to date by 34 countries and Convention 143 has been ratified by 8 States. Problems exist in many member States in affording to migrant workers the guarantees provided for in the instruments.
Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
Conventional health care systems and meeting the essential needs of underserved population groups in developing countries.
In: American University of Beirut. Faculty of Health Sciences. Human resources for primary health care in the Middle East. Beirut, Lebanon, American University of Beirut, 1980. 5-12.Although health is now recognized as a human right, it is questionable whether the right to health is a reality for all people. Many rural and peri-urban areas of developing countries lack any system of organized health care. Only a small proportion of rural communities have access to safe and adequate water supplies, and millions of persons are undernourished. Communicable diseases are widely prevalent, and poor housing conditions exist in many areas. Conventional health services have failed to meet the needs of the underserved populations in rural and peri-urban areas for the following reasons: total coverage of the population has not been provided; the gap in health status between the urban and rural populations has not been closed; ways and means for the participation of the community served has not been provided because the responsibility of the community for its own health care has been ignored; services provided are not relevant to the priority health problems of the majority but are oriented toward the provision of sophisticated care for the minority; the model of health care has usually been copied from developed countries where health problems, population age structure, and resources are totally different; and health workers are not trained to meet priority health needs, nor are they trained in the setting in which the majority are expected to work, i.e., the rural areas and health centers. Faced with the challenge, governments have recognized the need to develop a new approach to improve the state of the health of their people, as revealed by the series of resolutions adopted by the World Health Assembly and by Regional Committees, which are the governing bodies of the World Health Organization (WHO). The alternative approach hopefully will serve as an important mechanism for realizing the main social goal of "health for all by the year 2000," as projected by WHO. The strategy of primary health care (PHC) has been gaining wider recognition in the region and shows particular promise for the extension of health coverage to larger groups of the rural population. PHC has been defined as a "simplified, though essential, health care which is accessible, acceptable and affordable." A more detailed definition was outlined in the "Declaration of Alma-Ata," which was adopted by 140 governments participating in the International Conference on Primary Health Care held during September 1978. A number of countries have begun to train primary health workers who have completed elementary or intermediate general education, followed by a few months of health training. Further and more effective use of traditional health workers is being explored in several countries. In some countries primary care is delivered by health professionals. WHO is collaborating with countries in the planning, formulation, implementation, and evaluation of PHC programs.
[Unpublished] 1980 Dec. 183 p. (ADSS AID/DSPE-C-0053)A general report follows the "Executive Summary" of this evaluation of the World Fertility Survey (WFS). The general report covers the following: previous evaluations, terms of references, and composition and itinerary for the Evaluation Mission; background and objectives of WFS (origin of the program; objectives, priorities, and strategies); organization aspects of the WFS program (headquarters, country participation, operating procedures, survey organization, and coordination); inputs (scope of support to the program, procedures for provision of funds, headquarters costs, costs of country surveys, and complementary support to the program); methodological aspects of the program (sampling procedures; questionnaires, survey procedures, and basic documentation; data processing and archives; and production of the 1st country report); execution of national surveys (nature, character, and significance of WFS assistance; implementation of survey procedures); analysis (evaluative, illustrative, 2nd stage, and comparative analyses); building the national capability (contribution to survey taking capability, contribution to data processing capability, and contribution to analatical capability); dissemination of survey results (national meetings, limits of WFS participation in national dissemination activities, actual and potential audience for WFS survey results, and libraries in the WFS despository system); and use of WFS survey results. Conclusions are reported, recommendations are made, and country reports are included for the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, and the Philippines. The 1st objective of the WFS is to help countries acquire scientific information that will allow them to describe and interpret their populations' fertility, to identify meaningful differentials in patterns of fertility and fertility regulation, and to provide improved data in order to facilitate efforts in economic, social, and health planning. As of July 1980, a total of 36 less developed countries had completed fertility survey fieldwork, and of these 21 had published their First Country Report. The following were among the conclusions reached concerning this 1st objective: the sampling, training, field supervision, editing, and data processing standards set by the WFS for the national executing agencies were higher than those which characterized previous surveys; data processing was the major bottleneck in the participating countries during the surveys; and at all stages of the survey there was a conflict between the time constraints on completing the survey and getting the report out and the desire to rely as much as possible on local personnel. As far as utilization of WFS data, at this stage the Mission was able to evaluate only the short range use of the results.
In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 63-70. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)While developing countries make a relatively substantial investment in health care, health research is sorely lacking. A WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases was established in 1974-5 in an attempt to harness scientific resources on a global scale. Along with the United Nations Development Program and the World Bank, its objectives are: research and development of new and improved tools for the control of tropical infections and the strengthening of the research capabilities of the affected countries. The Special Program assumes that the developing countries must have a leadership role in research, that they use multidisciplinary scientific working groups (SWG's) and that institutions and scientists from the affected countries must be included in the research. The Special Program focuses on 6 tropical diseases: malaria, schistosomiasis, filariasis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and leprosy. The research activities center on the search for new approaches to the control of disease vectors, simple diagnostic tests, epidemiology, vector control, biomedical and social and economic research applicable to most or all of the 6 diseases. Research proposals are supported on the basis of relevance to the SWG's plans as judged by peers and must be carried out by national institutions and scientists who are from developing countries. WHO is responsible for the program's overall management. 2 charts illustrating the functional structure of the Special Program and the structure of the Joint Coordinating Board are given. The Special Programs, based on specific national needs, with policy and financial decisions made collectively by groups of cooperating governments and agencies appear to work well and could provide the pattern for other research programs.
In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 11-7. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)In developing countries systems of "bare-foot doctor" health care are being used. The goal is to provide a health service that is within the reach of each individual and family in the community, is acceptable to participants, that entails their full participation at a cost suitable to the individual and the nation. As opposed to hospital oriented Western medicine, there is usually a health officer from the local community, trained and provided with a dispensary, who returns to the home community. 2 projects in progress which were having negative results, 1 in Zaire and 1 in Senegal, were evaluated. The principles which redirected the programs are discussed. Problems such as mobile centers versus fixed sites for health centers, single aim projects and self-administration of the centers are explored. The acceptance of responsibility by the local public by using funding and resources of its own was judged to run the least risk of failing in the long term. In Senegal a new law on administrative reform was passed which allowed district health committees dealing with about 100,000 people to be set up. With a system of self-financing, more than 500,000 people were treated in 3 years. The fees were modest and 65% of the income from fees was used to keep drug supplies up to date. 3 dangers were identified and overcome: risk of embezzlement by district treasurers, overconsumption of drugs, and stocking excessively expensive products. The basic conditions necessary to provide an efficient network of health services in a rural environment (Zaire) and an urban environment (Senegal) are joint financing of activities through contractual financial participation, local administration, improved medical personnel, standardized medical procedure, and continuous supervision in collaboration with non-professional health workers.
[Unpublished] . 7 p. (UNFPA Project No NEP-80-P08)The population education program in Nepal is summarized. The contribution of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to the project is $544,130 for 1980-1983 and $112,070 for 1984 and 1985. The revised government contribution is $91,558 for 1980, $232,447 for 1981, $126,965 for 1982, and $103,160 for 1983. The long-term project objective is to gear the entire educational system, both formal and nonformal, to the realization of the potential role of education in the country's developmental efforts and the interrelationships between the population situation and different aspects of the quality of life at the micro and macro levels. In the short-term, the objectives are as follows: to develop in the target audience an insight into the interrelationships between population growth and the process of social and economic development at the individual, family, society, national, and international levels; to develop desirable attitudes and behaviors toward population issues; and to institutionalize population education in the formal education system. The Ministry of Education will have the overall responsibility for the implementation of the population education program, which will be implemented by 3 organizations--Curriculum, Textbook, Supervision Development Center; Tribhuvan University Institute of Education and Curriculum Development Center; and Division of Adult Education of the Ministry of Education. 7750 middle and secondary school teachers are to receive in-service training, and 3470 seminars are targeted with key education officials at national and regional levels. The in-service training approaches are both face-to-face and radio programs.
[Unpublished] . 4 p. (UNFPA Project No TTP-80-P05)The immediate objectives of the population education project in the District of Palau (a Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are the following: to identify population related problems through a survey and to find out if such problems are being met by the existing curriculum and materials; to make key leaders aware of population as a key factor for development; to enrich existing school subjects with population education content which are in accordance with the prevailing values of the people of Palau; and to provide a forum for government representatives and traditional chiefs to discuss population related problems at the village level. Activities planned for the project include: a survey in villages on population related problems; a seminar for policy and decision makers in education and related fields; a workshop on the integration of population education into existing subjects; an evaluation and revision workshop; and a village leadership seminar. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities recommends approval of this project in the amount of $20,360 for 1981 and $9640 for 1982.
[Unpublished] . 6 p. (UNFA Project No TTP-80-P04)The immediate objectives of the population education project for the Marshall Islands are the following: to make policy and decision makers aware of the dimensions of population related problems and the importance of population education in dealing with these problems; to develop prototype curricula and instructional materials for schools and for adult education; to introduce key education officials, selected teachers, and adult education teachers to various aspects of population education; to orientate local leaders on the value of population education programs; and to help build up the population education library of selected schools and offices in the Education Ministry. The project activities that are planned include the following: seminars for policy and decision makers, teacher, education officials, and local leaders, a workshop for the development of prototype curricula and sample instructional materials in population education for specialists in elementary, secondary, and adult education; experimental use of the materials developed in schools; evaluation and revision workshops; and acquisition of population education books and instructional materials. A total of $45,000 was requested of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. The proposal was recommended for approval in the amounts of $21,000 for 1981 and $24,000 for 1982. It is indicated that the contribution requested of the government or the Fund should be increased in order to attach full time staff to the project.
Trust Territories of the Pacific. Population education in the Federated States of Micronesia. Project summary.
[Unpublished] . 6 p. (UNFPA Project No TTP-80-P03)The immediate objectives of the population education project in Micronesia are the following: to make decision makers and policy makers in education and related fields at state and national levels aware of the importance of population education for development planning; to provide a forum where leaders in education at state and national levels could formulate short and longterm plans in population education; and to build up the population education library of the Department of Education, the State Bureau of Education, and selected elementary and secondary schools. Activities planned under the project include: state level seminars on population education in all 4 states of Micronesia; and a national seminar on population education at which participants from all 4 states will share their experiences, assess needs, and make recommendations for national action plans for population education. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities recommends approval of this project in the amount of $49,714 for 1981. The implementation of this project is contingent upon the availability of a regional advisor to provide technical backstopping. The contribution of the Government or the Fund should be increased in order to attach full-time staff to the project.
Bangladesh. Population education for the formal education system. Population education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 7 p. (UNFPA Project No BGD/80/P01)Attention in this summary of the population education project in Bangladesh is on the following: funding (United Nations Fund for Population Activities contribution, government contribution, and technical assistance); objectives; institutional framework; linkages with other projects; training; orientation; pattern of in-service training for teachers; materials development; research; evaluation; and future directions. The original UNFPA contribution to the project was U.S.$2,688,220; the government contribution was TK 8,482,700. The longterm objectives included making population control and the family planning program an integral part of total social mobilization and national development. By means of the population education program in the schools, an attempt will be made to produce informed and socially responsible citizens so that their behavior pattern conforms to rational decisions toward population issues in their personal, family, community, and social life. The population education program will be implemented by the Department of Population Education attached to the Ministry of Education. Those who have received in-service training include 50,000 teachers at the primary school levels, 15,750 teachers at the secondary school level, and 1000 teachers at the university level. A face-to-face approach is used in the in-service training. Teachers to be trained include those from the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels as well as teachers of Madrasahs, vocational, commercial, and technical institutions. Accomplishments achieved under the 1st project, completed in June 1980, include the following: development of curricula for grades 4-12; population education introduced in new textbooks of grades 4-5; and training of about 45% of primary school teachers and 28% of secondary school teachers.
[Unpublished] 1980. Presented at the 2nd International Conference of the International Federation of Family Life Promotion, Navan, Ireland, September 24-October 1, 1980. 21 p.Focus in this discussion is on improving the service delivery of natural family planning (NFP) methods. In response to requests from several family planning organizations interested in methods based on periodic abstinence, the World Health Organization (WHO) became involved in evaluating and improving the educational aspects of these methods. The educational component of such methods was viewed from the start as playing a more important role than in other family planning methods. The Task Force identified its purpose in the improvement of service delivery of NFP methods as the development, field testing, and evaluation of educational materials (the FFELP), which would form the core of a standardized curriculum for instructing NFP teachers and user-couples in the use of the ovulation method and the sympto-thermal method. The intention was that the educational materials developed would be for use by nonphysicians ranging from nurses to lay members of the community who are interested in becoming NFP instructors. In December 1975 a consultation of NFP teaching experts and staff members of the WHO Human Reproduction Unit and the Educational Communication Systems Unit took place in Geneva. Their purpose was to plan the development of the learning package. The Learning Package consisted of a guide to teaching, or educational handbook, and four NFP method manuals (fertility awareness, sexuality and responsibility, ovulation method, and sympto-thermal method) each with its own visual aids and progress monitors as well as a glossary and a compendium of goals and objectives. The campaign plan is reviewed. It included the following: organization of the project; selection of test countries and sites and allocation of methods to those sites; selection and training of personnel, trainee teachers, and user couples; evaluation procedures; and site visits by the project director. A description of the learning package is included.
Meeting of Experts on a Regional Network for Scientific and Technological Information in East and South-east Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, 22-26, September 1980. Final report.
Paris, Unesco, 1980 Oct 20. 42 p. (PGI-80/SEA/II/4)The Meeting of Experts on a Regional Network of Scientific and Technological Information for Development in East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok during September 1980. In the opening session the importance of scientific and technological information in development was emphasized, and an account was provided of the various actions previously taken in the region toward the realization of the network. The discussions held at the meeting were based upon document PGI-80/11/2--Regional Network for Scientific and Technological Information for Development in Southeast Asia (Phase 1). Initially, discussion was directed to the longterm and immediate objectives described in the draft document. The term "network" was defined for the purpose of the project as "the complex association of institutions, individuals, and technologies in the field of information coordinated towards the achievement of the stated objectives." In the 2nd part of these report proceedings, the project itself is described. The development objective is to provide improved access within the region to relevant information necessary for strengthening the scientific and technological capability of the countries concerned by means of 1) establishment of an online computer-based information network, with common standards in all participating countries; and 2) establishment of linkages with other relevant regional or international systems. A secondary objective is to promote regional self-reliance in information within a framework of global cooperation. The remainder of the project description focuses on immediate objectives at regional and national levels, special considerations, background and justification, outputs, project activities and inputs.
Washington, D.C., IFFLP, 1980 Jun 20. 7 p.There were 3 major IFFLP projects in 1979: 1) the African NFP Instruction Training Project, which consisted of 4 composite tours by 2 IFFLP consultants in 18 African countries over a period of 116 days. During the tours, public and private conferences/meetings, and formal training sessions were held; 2) government sponsored NFP seminars (the U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare: National Institutes of Health and Center for Population Research, and Ministry of Health in Ireland) which focused on some of current NFP field research both in terms of comparative use-effectiveness studies and various curricula and program development efforts; and 3) November 1979 Rome meetings aimed at a formal consultation with the Vatican Church and 5 African guests on the African project, and special information session with Education International, an information consortium among religious congregations in Rome. IFFLP Secretariat activities for 1979 consisted of obtaining a close liaison with the Human Life and NFP Foundation, and managing IFFLP finances. IFFLP finances were partially stabilized through a gradual expansion of sources of revenue and the maintenance of their diversity. In 1979, total revenue from various sources (governments, religious organizations, miscellaneous, membership dues) amounted to U.S. $145,923; expenses were U.S. $130,887, and deficit, $9725. Comapred to previous years' figures (1977 and 1978), there has been a decline in deficit and constriction of expenses. The Secretariat also prepared and/or duplicated a series of various documents (listed) for the IFFLP directors: the documents are available at cost (duplication/postage) to those requesting copies. Plans for 1980 include: 1) continuation/coordination of the African Project; 2) preparation and holding of the second International IFFLP Congress, General Assembly and Trainers' Workshops; 3) renewed systematic liaison with IFFLP membership; 4) sustained and expanded funding efforts for IFFLP programs and Secretariat; and 5) publication of Cali proceedings and expansion of IFFLP Secretariat. The Auditor's Report is also included.
Population Review. 1980 Jan-Dec; 24(1-2):5-8.The medical system perfectd in India--"Knowledge of the Span of Life"--in many ways foreshadowed the World Health Organization's (WHOs) own definition of health as a "state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing." The goal of "health for all by the year 2000" envisages strengthening of public health programs of developing countries, where most diseases are concomitants of economic backwardness. Yet, it should not be assumed that developed countries are without health problems. They are experiencing the tensions, mental and physical, to which residents of densely populated cities succumb. Once it is recognized that better health is not simply an offshoot of overall economic development, and that major improvements in health are possible in the absence of industrialization, it follows that the patterns of public health and health administration of advanced countries are not necessarily appropriate for developing nations. What must be stressed is the need for a health revolution in developing countries, to wipe out diseases and to make available specialized treatment as well as to provide basic health care and to take preventive measures. Education from the earliest stages needs to include certain elementary information about health, sanitation, cleanliness, the avoidance of contagious diseases, and the preservation of the environment which is closely linked to these. There is a need at this time for a global campaign for eradication of leprosy, prevention of blindness, and greater research to produce an ideal contraceptive. Family planning programs are awaiting a big breakthrough. Without a safe, preferably oral, drug which women and men can take, no amount of government commitment and political determination will bring success.
In: Files LA, ed. Research on the management of population programs: an international workshop. Chapel Hill, NC, Univ. of NC, School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Administration and the Carolina Population Center, 1980. 34-6.The evolving role of the UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) was described. the UNFPA, which began operating in 1969, has gradually extended the scope and extent of its funding activities during the past decade in response to the changing needs expressed by developing countries. The fund was initially established to provide family planning assistance in response to the needs expressed by many Asian countries. Gradually, the UNFPA's core program in population was expanded to provide funds for programs in data collection, population policy, population dynamics, and population education, and communications. Recently the UNFPA was asked by the government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam to support a program in population redistribution. Sri Lanka and Yemen also requested support of population redistribution programs. Funding policies of the UNFPA are determined by the Governing Council composed of members from 48 countries. The council will meet in June and support for population redistribution programs will be discussed. In accordance with the demonstrated responsiveness of UNFPA to the expressed needs of the developing countries, the UNFPA welcomes suggestions from the developing nations for ways in which the UNFPA can help promote the effective delivery of population services, enhance the managerial expertise, and encourage self-reliance in program management.