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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.
Alexandria, World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1980. 133 p.An assessment of health progress in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is provided through narration and photographs. The renewed threat of malaria and efforts to control it are discussed. Other traditional diseases of the area examined in today's terms are schistosomiasis, cholera, tuberculosis, trachoma and smallpox. Modern health problems, including cancer, heart diseases, mental disorders and occupational hazards are explored. Environmental problems, or "the fall-outs of technology," are discussed, along with urban sprawl, water shortages, air and marine pollution and desertification. It is stressed that changing times demand changing attitudes towards the environment. Specific areas that need to be addressed, particularly food safety, are pointed out. WHO's work with EMR countries in health manpower development includes planning, educational development and support, and the actual training of individuals. The need for more health personnel is documented. Nursing as a profession in the EMR is discussed, as is its growth; 1 problem in education of nurses is the lack of textbooks in Arabic. The prospects of health for all by the year 2000 are discussed. The importance of using appropriate technology in providing primary health care is stressed. Family health and planning is examined, including child care priorities such as newborn care, the critical weaning period, and immunization. Current biomedical research in the EMR is discussed, including health services research, efforts for diarrhea and streptococcal infection control, drug utilization studies, tropical disease studies and the search for a malaria vaccine. MEDLINE, the regional health literature service, is described. Technical cooperation among the countries of the EMR is discussed. Profiles showing the population, medical manpower and health facilities of each country in the EMR are provided.
Social Science and Medicine. Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology. 1980 Oct; 14A(5):387-90.The author states that the issues emphasized in J.H. Bryant's paper on WHO's "Health for All By 2000" are American policy and administration, and the WHO, but contends that the real concern is with health today and the "New Health Policy Order" for the next two decades. It is argued that the new policies, which are meant to bring about a dramatic change toward primary health care (PHC) in health priorities in LDCs, will actually fail because of existing social and political structures and health care systems designed to serve the affluent urban population rather than the disadvantaged and rural majority, and because imposed political processes are not likely to be effectively or lastingly implemented. The author examines the implications of international aid, stating that the issue of LDCs' dependence on developed countries is ignored in Bryant's paper and that health improvement in LDCs requires more than simply more resources--it requires internal political will. Political will is seen as the most important factor missing in PHC, and one that can not be imposed by international organizations.
SOCIAL SCIENCE AND MEDICINE. MEDICAL ECONOMICS. 1980 Jun; 14C(2):67-70.Most of the $.50 to $2 per capita devoted to health expenditures in developing countries is spent on acute curative services and technologies in urban areas, despite the predominantly rural location of their populations and the correlation of their health problems with malnutrition, infectious and parasitic diseases, and inability to limit family size. Present trends away from the "trickle down" approach and toward a strategy of involving the poor majority more directly in development and assuring that they benefit directly from growth and development, and increasing recognition of the interdependence of economic development, nutrition and health, population growth, social patterns, and political instability, are conceptual developments which promise an increased and more effective effort in international health. The major international funding agencies are revising their policies in the direction of supporting "growth from below" and meeting "basic human needs." A major challenge to such efforts is the identification of policy options within development sectors including health that will achieve the goal of providing greater benefits for the poorest strata.