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[Indications for the education of children of permanent migrants, with particular reference to language] Indicazioni per un'educazione dei figli dei migranti permanenti, con particolare riferimento alle lingue.
Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):77-90.Add to my documents.
[Policies of European countries concerning the education of immigrant children] La politica dei paesi europei in materia di formazione scolastica dei figli degli emigrati.
Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):44-60.Add to my documents.
A systematic approach to planning the appropriate technology for primary child care: a necessary step toward realizing Alma-Ata.
In: American University of Beirut. Faculty of Health Sciences. Human resources for primary health care in the Middle East. Beirut, Lebanon, American University of Beirut, 1980. 128-39.Focusing on the essential technologies for the clinical aspect of primary health care (PHC), this discussion argues that it is possible to define them. If PHC is ever to achieve an acceptable standard, these technologies must be available in the languages of all the world's health workers in a systematic form. This objective is both concrete and practicable. A great need exists for appropriate knowledge, and there is an even greater "application gap" in which technologies of proven value are not even known to the people who might use them. There are 2 essential preliminary steps, both of which are largely attainable: to organize the technologies systematically in at least 1 language and to keep the system currently under review so that it is always up to date; and to keep a careful watch on what is available in the languages of the world's health workers and to try to fill as many as possible of the gaps, either by encouraging original writing or by translation. With minor exceptions, the essential technologies for PHC are universally applicable. About 90% of the technologies for primary care are applicable everywhere. PHC is so complex that 2 initial simplifications are required: the level of the worker to be addressed; and to isolate appropriate technology, which is mostly applicable worldwide, from matters of culture and administration, which are highly specific locally. The ultimate objective is for an appropriate technology to be adopted and applied to heal the sick. Technologies can be promoted in at least 6 ways: the appropriate technology must be carefully and completely described step by step; the description of the appropriate technology must be accompanied by sufficient theory to make the necessary action seem reasonable to the workers; the necessary equipment must appear in a government medical store's list and in the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) list; the technology must be accompanied by the necessary evaluation procedures; a group of technologies must be accompanied by its appropriate management targets; and the appropriate technologies must be accompanied by the necessary teaching aids. There are important links between technologies; they mutually support each other. Not only does 1 technology support another, but the various different ways of promoting the same technology support one another. Currently, the emphasis is rightly on providing everyone with access to at least some health care, but the need to measure and increase the quality of that care is already being felt. It is a formidable task to plan these detailed systems of technologies for primary care. The World Health Organization (WHO) could do it by mobilizing the necessary talent globally. Also, WHO, assisted by the bilateral agencies, has the power to define the essential technologies for PHC, to systematize them anonymously, and to encourage its member states to make sure they are available in the languages of all the world's health workers.