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In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-9. (Series 1, Pt. 3)Abstracts are presented of materials that focus on the issue of population education in Asia's labor sector. The materials reveal that the efforts of mobilizing the labor sector to incorporate population education into their non-formal activities have revolved around trianing of workers, labor management, guidance schemes, production of materials, and provision of family planning services. Population education activities are being carried out through trade union movements, vocational and training programs, cooperatives, rural workers and industrial associations of workers reaching all the professional levels--managers or labor administrators to trade union leaders and workers. These efforts are documented in the manuals, guides, reports, books and booklets which have been abstracted. The International Labor Organization has facilitated the organization and consolidation of efforts of introducing population education into the labor sector at both the regional and the national level.
In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 163-5. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)The Onchocerciasis Control Program in the Volta Basin is aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease so that it is no longer a major risk to public health and an obstacle to socioeconomic development. Aerial spraying of insecticides has been carried out over 7 countries of West Africa where 10 million people live. The economic advantages of the program come from 2 production factors: labor and land. As far as labor is concerned, the program will increase productive capacities by reducing the production losses resulting from vision disorders or blindness in the laborforce, decrease the debilitating effects of the parasite which leaves people more vulnerable to other diseases, and increase ability of farmers to cultivate land near rivers without constant exposure to hundreds of bites a day. The major economic development will come from developing new land. Several reports are cited indicating projected kilometers of new land that would become available. The major concern is the best way to organize the utilization of the new land, taking into account organized and unorganized migration. It is apparent that various areas and countries within the program have different demographic pressures on their land as well as different structures and planning institutions. Considerable resources of men and financial means are required to finance these land development programs and must come from international sources. Some of the costs and cost evaluations are given. A belief in the cooperation among rich and poor countries for a program without boundaries has already demonstrated the cooperative nature of the Onchocerciasis Control Program.
Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1980. 64 p.The chapters included in this resource book for trainers, prepared for a regional audience, present those topics that are most relevant in an organized sector population/family welfare education program, i.e., a program directed to any group of workers which can be approached through an appropriate organizational channel. This book has been prepared with the trainers of instructors in mind, i.e., for those who are going to help prepare the actual factory level instructors to become efficient in family welfare education. It is most important that trainers and instructors in a family welfare education program appreciate the fact that the program is directed to explaining the relationships between the pressure of the labor supply and the well-being of the worker's family. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters of this volume present the following: objectives of International Labor Organization (ILO) Population/Family Welfare Education Program; population concepts and factors affecting population growth (population concepts and factors affecting population growth); population growth and employment; family welfare, living standards, and population change; communication in population/family welfare education; and methods of contraception. The basic objective of most ILO-designed country population education programs is to facilitate the understanding of population and family welfare factors in so far as they affect the working conditions and quality of life of the workers. The programs are generally designed to encourage active involvement and participation of the regular members of the labor force. Implicit in the objectives is the motivation to the acceptance of family planning as a means of fertility regulation. The implementation of a program at the plant level is generally a combination of work undertaken by a trainer and volunteer motivators. The trainer can present the case for family planning welfare through various mediums, and the motivators follow up by talking to colleagues either individually or in small groups.
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Feb. 64 p. (Headline Series 248)This essay concerns the place of women in the modern world from both an historical and contemporary perspective. Beginning in the 1970s attention was directed towards the importance of women in the social, economic, and political development of nations. Through ancient and medieval times, several alternatives to traditional roles were chosen by women: celibacy, urban craft communes, and hermits. In the 19th century, the emergence of new socioeconomic doctrines concerning women occurred. Between 1880-1900 5 transnational women's organizations were born: World Young Women's Christian Association, World Women's Christian Temperance Union, International Council of Nurses, General Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Inter Council of Women. In England the 1st appeal for votes for women was published in 1825; in the U.S. the women's suffrage movement began in 1848. By 1965, the International Cooperation Year was organized by the United Nations. In 1975 the United Nations Decade for Women was approved (1975-85). Progress made by women up to the 1980s includes: 1) a voluntary fund for the United Nations Decade for Women ($9 million in contributions), 2) establishment of an International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of women in the Dominican Republic, 3) an international convention to outlaw discrimination, 4) increasing aid to women in developing countries, and 5) increasing participation of women in the United Nation's international foreign ministries. Although full statistical documentation of women's status in the world are lacking, several calculations indicate that in 1978, 1/3 of the world's work force were women, women earn less than men, and women's political participation is greater in developing countries than in developed countries. Problems will continue to exist in the future. The women's work force in all developed countries was 42% of the world total in 1950. By 1975 it had fallen to 36% and is expected to shrink to less than 30% by year 2000. American women are no model for emulation by the rest of the world. Women are also paid less now in comparison to the past.