Your search found 3 Results
In: Zatuchni GI, Labbok MH, Sciarra JJ, eds. Research frontiers in fertility regulation. Hagerstown, Maryland, Harper and Row, 1980. 58-63. (PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation)The important characteristics of a contraceptive are as follows: 1) sex of the user; 2) duration of effectiveness; 3) probability and ease of reversibility; 4) timing of use; 5) ability to be used after the suspicion or recognition of conception; 6) mode of applciation; 7) frequency of use; 8) safety and side-effects; 9) contraceptive effectiveness; 10) need for continuing volition or motivation to use the method; and, 11) peer approval. Scientists often underestimate the potential for misuse of even the simplest means of fertility control. One-time methods such as the IUD or sterilization have been found effective in developing countries unable to provide a continuous supply of contraceptives to their population. For the IUD, adequate follow-up care msut be available. Many methods require a sophisticated health care system. To expect physician-dependent delivery of anything but a 1-time only method as a practical approach to family planning is unrealistic. Community workers, auxiliary, and paramedical personnel have been able to reach many couples with Western style methods, e.g. pill distribution. Contraceptives like the condom can be distributed through commercial systems. By procuring contraceptive commodities competitively and in bulk, USAID has negotiated extremely low costs. From 1968-79, over $233 million was spent for these commodities.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 1980 Aug; 1(12):319-21.The World Health Organization (WHO) Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972, supported in part by voluntary contributions from WHO's member states. Objectives are the promotion of research and the building up in developing countries of resources for research in this field. The 5 primary research areas are the following: safety and effectiveness of current birth control methods; improvement of these methods and the development of new techniques; psychosocial aspect of family planning; delivery of family planning care; and diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Some aspects of the Program's work of interest to pharmacologists are reviewed. Attention is directed to injectable contraceptives, entirely new methods, IUDs, and building up a capacity for clinical pharmacology. Only 2 injectable contraceptives are available for widespread use -- depotmedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which has been in use for several years, and norethisterone enanthate, which has been marketed only recently. Since 1973 the Program has been involved in an extensive research program on these 2 injectables. No toxicological reasons have been found for not continuing to use DMPA in family planning programs, but it has been concluded that extensive WHO studies should be pursued for norethisterone enanthate. The safety and use-effectiveness of IUDs have been little assessed in randomized comparative multicentered studies, particularly in developing countries. The Program is developing totally new modalities of birth control, and it has collaborated with industry in developing prostaglandin suppositories for pregnancy termination.
World Health. 1980 Apr; 18-9.International collaborative research, conducted under the sponsorship of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, led to the development of improved IUDs. Scientists from many disciplines and many countries were involved in these research activities. WHO centers in more than 20 countries conducted evaluation studies on different types of IUDs. The studies were designed so as to facilitate comparative analysis. The studies conducted at these centers indicated a need to develop IUDs which would be associated with less bleeding and IUDs which would be more effective. The mechanisms of IUD induced bleeding were examined and several drugs were identified which could be used to reduce the bleeding. The drugs were either given orally or used to impregnate the IUD. Efforts to produce more effective IUDs led to the development of a progesterone releasing IUD. Other WHO supported activities involved the development of new methods for delivering IUD services to the inhabitants of developing countries. Midwives were trained in IUD insertion techniques and their performance was evaluated. The performance level attained by the midwives was as high or higher than that attained by physicians.