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  1. 1
    803701

    Joint IGCC/IPPF-ESEAOR Workshop on Optimal Use of Resources for National Population/Family Planning Programs.

    Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee. Secretariat

    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IGCC, [1980]. 81 p.

    There were 2 parts to the Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC)/International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)-ESEAOR workshop on the subject of the "Optimal Use of Resources for National Population/Family Planning Programs" held in Malaysia during September 1980: a dialogue between government and family planning associations and a dialogue on management of foreign aid. Included in this workshop report is the opening address, aide memoire, the agenda, a summary of proceedings, a summary of group sessions, and country papers from Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Nepal, and Thailand. The meeting was attended by participants from 6 IGCC member-countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. With the responsibility of implementing the family planning program as part of its national policy, more and more activities in the delivery of family planning services have been taken over by governments. In this newly created system the family planning associations are called upon to adjust their role to the new situations. Its primary function is now assisting the government in making the program a success, filling the gaps with projects not yet touched by the government, and making use of its resources nationally or internationally obtained. The aid recieved through assistance in Population/Family Planning Programs has taken different forms and amounts and depends upon the stage of the program, the magnitude of the program, the differences in program and history.
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  2. 2
    055333

    Towards effective family planning programming.

    Dondi NN

    Nairobi, Kenya, Family Planning Association of Kenya, 1980. [5], 164 p.

    The proceedings of the Second Management Seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK), held in December 1979, with appendices, are presented. The 1st 3 days consisted of lectures and plenary discussions on topics such as communication strategies, family guidance, youth problems, and contraceptive methods; the last 2 days were group discussions, reports and summary evaluations. 40 participants took part in the evaluation, expressing satisfaction with knowledge gained in communications, family life education, and IPPF organization and skills. They expressed the need to learn more about family counseling, youth problems, population, and integrated approaches. The seminar recommended that FPAK be more innovative to retain volunteers, plan its communication strategy more carefully, train and involve volunteers in programming, study traditional family planning methods, provide family counseling services, fully exploit the media, and use it to clarify misconceptions and introduce community-based distribution.
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  3. 3
    199274

    Family Planning International Assistance annual report, program year 9, 1979-1980.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, N.Y., Family Planning International Assistance, International Division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1980. 157 p.

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  4. 4
    203955

    IPPF in action 1980.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1980. 43 p.

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  5. 5
    022829

    The organisational structure of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF).

    Sozi MK

    In: Dondi NN, ed. Towards effective family planning programming. A report of proceedings of the second management seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya, including recommendations for post-seminar programming possibilities. [Nairobi], Family Planning Association of Kenya [FPAK], 1980. 53-8.

    In 1952 the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was formed to organize family planning associations which existed at that time. Essentially a people's movement, IPPF comprises 4 main groups: volunteers, paid staff, donors, and clients. The purpose of IPPF is to provide services to clients. IPPF is an international nongovernmental and nonpolitical charitable organization and is a federation of 96 family planning associations from 6 regions of the world. Aims and objectives of IPPF include: to promote the education of the population of the world in family planning and responsible parenthood; to preserve and promote the good health of parents, children, and young people through supporting effective family planning services; to educate people about the demographic problems of their own communities; and to stimulate appropriate research in all aspects of human fertility and its regulation and to make widely known the findings of such research. The overall objective of the Africa Region of IPPF is to improve the quality of life through family planning programs and other related problems. IPPF membership is open to family planning associations which will agree to subscribe to the IPPF Constitution and which have no commercial tendencies. There are 3 kinds of membership: full membership, associate membership, and affiliate membership. IPPF Regional Offices have varying structures according to their varying needs and complexities. Policies differ from region to region. The Regional Council is the policymaking body, and it comprises 2 representatives of associations holding full membership, 1 representative from affiliated associations, 1 nonvoting member from affiliated governments, and 5 coopted members. The Council meets at least once a year. The Executive Committee manages the day-to-day affairs of IPPF Africa Region (IPPFAR). IPPFAR has 3 standing committees: finance, medical, and communication. Panels and boards include the Law Panel and the Advisory Board for the Center for African Family Studies. Currently, there is a unified secretariat and the IPPF Secretary General in London has powers over all the Regional Directors.
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  6. 6
    014436

    Overview of international population assistance.

    Gille H

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 10 p.

    At this time the urgent need for a wide spectrum of population activities in developing countries is fully recognized as the legitimate concern of governments and the international community. Technical cooperation and financial assistance are provided to these countries from a large variety of intergovernmental, governmental, and nongovernmental sources of international population assistance. This discussion of international population assistance reviews the following: current levels of population assistance; sources of population assistance; types and areas of assistance; and setting priorities. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to only about US$2 million in 1960 and US$18 million in 1965. It increased rapidly to US$125 million in 1970 and to an estimated net amount, excluding double counting, of around US$450 million in 1970. In 1981 it passed the half billion dollar mark. This marked increase in population assistance is an indication of the growing commitment of many governments and international organizations concerned about collaborating in and contributing to tackling the urgent population problems of the developing world. Nearly 100 governments contributed in 1979 to international population assistance, but the major share comes from less than a dozen countries. The largest contributor, the US, provided US$182 million for population assistance in 1979 amounting to nearly 4% of its total net official development assistance. Over 120 developing countries, or nearly all such countries, received population assistance in some form in 1979. Almost all of them were supported by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) provided support for family planning associations or programs in around 80 developing countries. Almost all donors make their contributions to population assistance in grants, but a few governments also make loans available. Around 72% of total international population assistance is provided in support of family planning activities. The region of Asia and the Pacific received the largest part of the population assistance to countries, namely 50%, followed by Latin America, 19%; Africa, 11%; and the Middle East and Mediterranean, 7%. More and more attention is being devoted to setting priorities in assistance to population programs. This is due, in part, to the fact that the amount of population assistance has not increased sufficiently in recent years to keep up with the growing needs.
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  7. 7
    003398

    Kenya: fueling the women's movement.

    Rowley J

    People. 1980; 8(3):18-20.

    In Kenya there are now 10,000 women's groups which are officially registered by the government and thus eligible for assistance from the Women's Bureau. A visit to the local group of 60 women in Kambu provides an example of both the courage and the potential of these groups. Initiated in 1976, the group's 1st effort was to plant coffee trees for each member. The next activity was making pottery and growing vegetables and meeting every Thursday afternoon. In 1979 the group applied to the Women's Bureau for assistance and was given over $1,000 to build a pigsty and buy some pigs. This was followed by a shop built for 6,000 shillings from which to sell the sisal baskets and mats which the group makes. The current objective is to raise about 30,000 shillings for a meeting hall, with a store, office and canteen. Family planning was not at the forefront of this group's activities. Nyeri, 1 of the best developed districts in Kenya, is also the site for the 1 experimental project where family planning information and services have been introduced simultaneously with income generating activities to several women's groups. The objective is 3-fold: to promote family planning by integrating it with other activities from the start of the project; to include voluntary motivational work by members of the groups; and to improve the status of members. 10 groups are involved in the project, part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's worldwide program for Planned Parenthood and World Development. After 1 year of operation, family planning practice had increased markedly, with over 70% of women under 45 using contraceptives in 3 of the villages. There was much evidence showing that many members were actively promoting the family planning idea among their friends and neighbors. The integration of activities has been shown to have increased family planning acceptance. The problem is that with over 5000 requests for help in 1981, The Women's Bureau is only able to provide resources to some 600. At present, the Women's Bureau only has $1 million to spend.
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  8. 8
    002364

    The dynamics of legal change: report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, Miami, Florida, December 8-9, 1980.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    New York, IPPF-WHR, [1981]. 84 p.

    The papers included in this report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, held in Miami, Florida during December, were specifically selected and edited in order to offer a perspective on the process of legal change. The authors of the papers covering the following areas of concern identified actors, forms and degree of opposition and presented specific guidelines and suggestions for future action: 1) the dynamics of legal change with special reference to Barbados; 2) revision and reform--an analysis of legal change in Trinidad and Tobago; 3) overcoming obstacles to passing Colombia's Decree No. 367 of 1980; 4) the dynamics of policy change; 5) family planning in the United States; 6) hurdling legal barriers and breaking bottlenecks; 7) guidelines for family planning action in law reform; 8) the role of communication in fostering legal change; and 9) background notes on the United Nations Fund for Population Activities law and population program. The appendices include the panel's terms of reference, the participants, and the meeting agenda. The following were among the recommendations made by the panel members to the Western Hemisphere Regional Executive Committee of the International Planned Parenthood Federation: 1) the regional office should survey the Family Planning Associations in the Western Hemisphere as to whether compilations of laws in areas directly affecting the access to contraception, sex education, and the status of women are readily available to lawyers and other professionals in the family planning field, and to encourage the development and distribution of compilations wherever this is not the case; 2) the Information and Education strategies of Family Planning Associations should incorporate specific program actions designed to foster a supportive climate of public opinion for legal change; and 3) the Western Hemisphere Regional office should provide the necessary technical assistance to Family Planning Associations requesting advice on formulating programs in support of legal change.
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  9. 9
    001330

    Two years' experience with minilaparotomy tubal ligation in a freestanding clinic.

    Whitaker KF

    Advances in Planned Parenthood. 1980; 15(3):77-81.

    In 1977 the PPAN (Planned Parenthood Association of Nashville) began providing minilaparotomy sterilization services on an outpatient basis. The experience of 218 women who received sterilizations at the clinic between 1977-1979 indicated that it was feasible and safe to provide this service on an outpatient basis. The historical development of the program, the procedures and instruments used to perform the sterilizations, and the sterilization outcomes for the 218 patients were described. Prior to program initiation, the Medical and Executive Directors of PPAN attended a workshop on outpatient female sterilizations conducted by AVS (Association for Voluntary Sterilization) and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Subsequently a protocol for minilaparotomy sterilization was submitted to the National Medical Office of the Federation by the PPAN. The protocol was approved and the program was implemented. Based on the success of the 1st 18 months of operation PPAN received a grant from AVS to train personnel from other clinics to provide similar services. During the 1st clinic visit patients are thoroughly counseled and given a pelvic examination. During the 2nd visit the patient is given a complete physical examination and laboratory tests, including a pregnancy test, are performed. During the 3rd visit the patient receives additional counseling and the sterilization is then performed. A modified Pomeroy procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Patients were discharged 2 hours after surgery. 96% of the patients returned for suture removal and 50% returned for a later recommended check-up. A follow-up survey indicated that more than 90% of the patients were satisfied with the service. For 4 of the 218 patients the sterilization was not completed. In 2 cases the round ligament was mistaken for the tube and sterilization was not achieved, in 1 case the patient became upset and the procedure was halted, and in another case adhesions prevented ligation. At the time of the operation it was discovered that 2 patients had luteal phase pregnancies. There were no major immediate complications but there were 1) 2 cases of subcutaneous hematomas; 2) 1 brief episode of postoperative thrombophlebitis, 3) 2 cases of wound abscesses; and 4) 3 cases of mild cystitis and endometritis.
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  10. 10
    263801

    Informing social change.

    Alan Guttmacher Institute [AGI]

    New York, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1980. 44 p.

    The activities, aims and achievements of the Alan Guttmacher Institute are described in this report of its first decade. The AGI was created to foster research and public education so as to effect changes in public policy that would make fertility-related health care accessible to low income women. The Institute utilizes existing research and generates new data to pinpoint the need for subsidized family planning services in the U.S. The growing acceptance of birth control and significant developments in the area over the AGI's history are detailed, including its own activities. The series of AGI-sponsored publications which disseminate the findings of social and scientific research relating to population and family planning are described and the specific purposes of each are differentiated. Efforts of the AGI to promote equal access to abortion for all women, to keep the field informed so as to mobilize public and congressional efforts on behalf of abortion rights, and to provide reliable information on abortion are discussed. Educational activities concerning the extent and seriousness of the problems of teenage pregnancy are another AGI priority, as is the focussing of attention on limitations of current methods of contraception and the need for increased government support of reproductive research. Future goals of the AGI which build upon past accomplishments and respond to new challenges are detailed.
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  11. 11
    803792

    A warning to Latin America.

    Trueman P

    In: Santamaria J, Richards P, Gibbon W, eds. The dignity of man and creative love: selected papers from the Congress for the family of the Americas, Guatemala, July 1980. New Haven, Connecticut, Knights of Columbus, 1980. 188-95.

    The USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) has since 1960 promoted abortion worldwide, without concern for the laws, customs, or mores of foreign lands. USAID still promotes the sale and the use of Depo-Provera in Latin America. Depo-Provera, a drug that acts as a contraceptive and abortifacient, is considered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be unsafe for birth control in the U.S. USAID also promotes the sale and the use of the Dalkon Shield type of IUD, which was recalled in the U.S. in 1975 for its hazardous side effects. Moreover, USAID supports abortion research worldwide; for example, there are 3 main USAID funded university research projects in the U.S., beside the London-Based IPPF, and the Boston-based Pathfinder Fund. It is about time that the American people, and the Prolife movement in particular, realize USAID's abortion activities, and act to have Congress pass the Helms Amendment of 1973, which intented to rid USAID of any involvement in abortion related activities.
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  12. 12
    035205

    Programmes and services on adolescent fertility and sexuality in ESEAOR.

    Catindig JB

    Concern. 1980 Jul-Sep; (18):1-2.

    The reproductive health needs and behavior of adolescents have been neglected by many health services until recently. The inclusion of adolescent fertility and sexuality in the East and South East Asian and Oceania regions of IPPF initially prompted uneasiness by workers who considered the inclusion of adolescents to be a sensitive issue given prevailing mores. The Singapore seminar/workshop on adolescent fertility and sexuality helped educate family planning workers and executives to the new realities of adolescent life, and many Family Planning Associations in the region made delivery of services to adolescents a major program emphasis. Family life education strategies have improved and IEC efforts are now geared to particular age and sociocultural groups. FPAs have stressed training of dormitory and hostel matrons and supervisors in counseling, adopted policies to "desensitize" the parents of teenage clients, and supported peer group counseling programs in order to deal with adolescent girls without violating the sociocultural norms of the community. The region's developing countries, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand, have large proportions of young people, and their governments welcome the initiatives of FPAs in providing programs and services.
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  13. 13
    803883

    [The case for Depo-Provera]. [Statement]

    Senanayake P

    [Unpublished] 1980 Sep 9. 16 p.

    In 1978 the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) banned use of Depo-Provera in the U.S., but the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has distributed it in 53 countries since 1971. Although the drug is associated with some side effects, in 6 and a half million women-years of use and monitoring, it has not been associated with any deaths. IPPF supplies approximately half a million doses of Depo-Provera each year. Some of the benefits of Depo-Provera are as follows: reliability; safety for administration in remote or unhygienic locations; cultural acceptability in many parts of the world, e.g., Southeast Asia and Africa; not coitus related nor requiring daily activity by the user; not requiring privacy; and interfering less with lactation than the Pill. An estimated 1 and a half million women worldwide choose Depo-Provera. Compared to the 65 million using the oral pill and 15 million using the IUD, the number is small, but use of injectables is on the rise. Nonapproval of Depo-Provera in the U.S. sometimes restricts its use in other countries. The purchase of Depo-Provera is governed by the prevailing international prices. If the restrictions on the drug were removed and it was available on a large scale, the price would be lowered. There is no perfect contraception. The effects of unlimited pregnancy are well-documented. Women need the greatest possible choice so they can make the best decision in light of their own circumstances.
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  14. 14
    803473

    IPPF 16mm films. [Catalog]

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1980. 10 p.

    This catalog provides information on 22 family planning 16 mm films produced by the International Planned Parenthood Federation and currently available for purchase. The contents of each film is briefly described and information on the cost, length, and language of the film is provided. Topics dealt with in the films include 1) clinic management; 2) community-based distribution programs; 3) contraceptive methods; 4) population growth and the need for family planning; 5) fieldworker techniques; 6) human reproduction; and 7) the changing role of women. Other films depict family planning and health programs and population problems in specific cultural settings.
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  15. 15
    803478

    Producing low cost visual media.

    Bale K

    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1980. 70 p.

    This document provided specific instructions to help family planning personnel produce their own low cost family planning visual aids. The manual provided instructions 1) for making simple drawings, such as stick figures; 2) for enlarging illustrated objects for use on posters and other materials; 3) for lettering; 4) for constructing flannel boards, magnetic boards, and plastigraphs; and 5) for designing and constructing posters and charts. Techniques for making effective use of chalkboards were described in detail. Also provided were instructions for making and using silk screening equipment, for making and using puppets, and for making handmade slides and filmstrips. All of the aids were produced with materials which are readily available in most settings. Many of the techniques were illustrated.
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  16. 16
    011553

    The feasibility of expanding the Egyptian CRS Project.

    Donald M; Seims T

    [Unpublished] 1980. 30 p. (Authorization: Ltr. POP/FPS 11/19/1979; Assgn. No. 582-008)

    The authors assessed the International Planned Parenthood Federation assisted Community Based Family Planning Services Project, also known as the Contraceptive Retail Sales Project (CRS) for Greater Cairo. USAID wanted to determine the feasibility of expanding the project to other urban areas of Egypt, perhaps eventually linking up with family planning service programs and projects being developed in rural areas. The team evaluated such key project elements as product selection, branding, packaging, pricing, marketing research, promotion, distribution, and management. Concurrently, the team held extensive discussions with advertising specialists, commercial distributors, doctors, pharmacists, professors of medicine, government officials, members of the project staff, USAID officials, and the project Board of Directors. The team recommended unanimously that USAID support the Project's consolidation of Greater Cairo activities and the eventual expansion of the project to other urban areas of Egypt. The project has matured enough to warrant support in funding and technical expertise, and in the supply of commodities. The provision of such support would be consistent with the basic rationale for AID involvement with other similar projects. It was recommended that a U.S. contractor, nonresident in Egypt, be engaged to facilitate AID support. Use of the contractor vehicle seemed the only practical choice, given AID staff limitations, the intricate continuing relations with Egyptian Government officials, and the complicated coordination of activities with IPPF, the Egyptian Family Planning Association, and the Project's Board of Directors. The project requires rapid provision of expert technical services. Marketing research, advertising, promotion, volunteer operations, accounting, and management skills are among the types of expertise required. A major contractor responsibility would be to judge when and where to apply resources. The effectiveness of the investment would be greatly diminished if these skills were not applied appropriately. (Author's modified)
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  17. 17
    802089

    Responding to women's needs.

    Hussein A

    Draper Fund Report. 1980 Oct; 9:21-3.

    Women have internalized discriminatory values, both in their self-concept and in their attitude toward men. This is particularly true in the area of reproductive function -- the area which distinguishes women from men. The planned parenthood movement must be concerned with the cultural setting in which the practice of family planning as a human right is to be introduced. There must also be response to women's felt needs which extend beyond those associated with reproduction. Hence, the involvement in women's development programs, into which family planning can be integrated. Another pragmatic approach is to avoid controversial issue and labels such as procreative freedom and to begin with culturally accepted values as the basis for a long-term educational process. The efforts to give family planning legitimacy at all levels of society has been both long and difficult. The urgency of the population problem has been responsible for a change of attitude regarding women's need for contraception and may have delayed recognition of the relationship between family planning and the status of women. Even as late as the 1960's traditional taboos were in full force at the United Nations, and they blocked efforts to place family planning on the agenda of any United Nations body. There continues to be a gap between the situation perceived by policymakers and the reality in the field. The Women's Development Program has shown how to reach women in deprived areas, those groups who are particularly hard to reach with conventional family planning programs.
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  18. 18
    802775

    The Dalkon Shield IUD.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. International Medical Advisory Panel [IMAP]

    IPPF Medical Bulletin. 1980 Dec; 14(6):3.

    The Dalkon Shield IUD was introduced to the list of contraceptives being distributed to developing countries by IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation) in 1973. By 1974, doubts had arisen about the safety of the Dalkon Shield and several cases of maternal mortality and sepsis in Dalkon Shield users had been reported. In 1974, IPPF stopped supplying Dalkon Shields to its affiliates. During the 1973-74 period of distribution, IPPF had distributed approximately 300,000 of the Shields in 41 countries. Almost 1/2 that amount had already been inserted. The position of IPPF's IMAP (International Medical Advisory Panel) on any relationship existing between use of IUDs and pelvic inflammatory disease is as follows as of 1980: 1) infection with actinomycosis makes up only a small component of all the incidents of pelvic inflammatory disease connected with IUDs; 2) the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease is not related to the length of use of an IUD; 3) data do not now support the recommendation that inert devices free from major side effects should be removed; and 4) any woman still wearing a Dalkon Shield should have it removed.
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  19. 19
    263427

    FPA programs in the Western Hemisphere Region of IPPF.

    Journal of Family Welfare. 1980 Jun; 26(4):64-72.

    The November 1979 progress report of the Western Hemisphere region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, which comprises North and South America and the Caribbean, is presented. Problems faced by different Associations within the region, such as the attacks made by conservative elements of the Catholic Church on the IPPF affiliate in Paraguay, attacks on the Chilean and Costa Rican programs which attempted to include voluntary sterilization, the replacement of governments favorable to birth control by indifferent or hostile governments in a number of countries, and violence in Central America, are discussed. Improvements were noted however in Nicaragua, and in Peru the government has been slightly less hostile recently. Associations in most of the region continue their day-to-day activities despite their problems. The particular situations and activities in each of the countries are sketched. Activities of the region as a whole are then described, including observations of the International Year of the Child, encouragement of sex education, and development of the IPPF infrastructure. Future directions of the IPPF Western Hemisphere region and the individual affiliates are suggested.
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  20. 20
    800312
    Peer Reviewed

    Foreign aid for abortion.

    Warwick DP

    HASTINGS CENTER REPORT. 1980 Apr; 10(2):30-7.

    One of the most sensitive subjects in the field of non military foreign assistance is aid for abortion. Consequently, it is very difficult to gather data. Information from interviews was combined with scattered fragments of existing data in the effort to construct a composite picture of the international abortion scene. Apart from any outside intervention, induced abortion is a common practice in developing countries. Abortion is frequent and is a prominent cause of death and illness among women of childbearing age. Foreign aid is a small proportion of the total aid for population activities, and, with the exception of the United Nations agencies, most organizations supplying funds for abortion operate on a clandestine and usually illegal basis. The most common type of foreign aid involves the technique known as uterine aspiration, which goes under various code phases. Abortion can be a profit-making proposition in developing countries. In the United States the politics of abortion have had an overwhelming impact on foreign aid for abortion. As of 1979 only a handful of international donors were involved in direct support of abortion activities in the developing countries; others provided indirect assistance for research, meetings, and information activities. The Agency for International Development (AID) was an ardent supporter of abortion until it was brought to a standstill by the Helms Amendment of 1973. AID was forced to withdraw from most abortion activities. The only agencies operating openly in this field are the World Bank and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. The International Planned Parenthood Federation has been the most outspoken advocate of legal abortion services in developing countries.
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  21. 21
    800930

    Africa faces new population challenges.

    Haupt A

    Intercom. 1980 May; 8(5):1, 12-15.

    Africa's growing population problems and the role of family planning in Africa were described. Population growth in Africa is accelerating more rapidly than in any other region of the world and population pressures on the continent are just beginning to emerge. The current population of Africa is 472 million and constitutes 10% of the world's population. Most countries in Africa are just entering the early phase of the demographic transition. Mortality rates are declining but the birth rates remain high. Africa's growth rate increased from 2% to 3% from 1955-1980. In sub-Saharan Africa vital statistics are not available for many of the countries and population estimates are based on inadequate data. Fertility is high in the region and the average woman has 6-7 children. Population problems in the region are masked to some extent because population density is still relatively low; however, land pressures are beginning to mount as overgrazed, deforested, eroded, and exhausted land areas increase. Per capita food production is declining by 1.4% annaually due in part to the outdated transportation and marketing systems which characterize many of the sub-Saharan countries. In many of these sub-Saharan countries there is a lack of interest in family planning and some governments have pronatalist population policies. Family planning is viewed by some Africans as an attempt on the part of Westerners to suppress the native population. National governments often hesitate to establish family planning programs for fear that these will be interpreted as veiled attempts to reduce the political influence of opposing tribal groups. Most family planning activities in sub-Saharan countries are financially supported by private and international organizations. Major contributors in 1979 were UNFPA, which provided $18 million primarily for the collection of demographic data, and IPPF, which spent $7.5 million on family planning programs. Other organizations providing assistance are 1) the Pathfinders, 2) the Population Council, and 3) the Family Planning International Assistance. USAID provides direct funding and also funds bilateral and regional programs through individual governments.
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  22. 22
    800893

    Sterilization Services at Planned Parenthood of Maryland.

    Trimble FH

    MARYLAND STATE MEDICAL JOURNAL. 1980 May; 29(5):68-9.

    In response to the growing public demand for non-hospital sterilization services, the Planned Parenthood Clinic in Baltimore began providing vasectomy services in April, 1971. Between 1971-1979, 4117 vasectomies were performed at the clinic under local anesthesia. Prior to vasectomy the patient is given a medical exam and a medical history is obtained. The patient is also interviewed by a counselor. Vasectomies are generally performed on Friday afternoons, and follow-up appointments are made until a negative semen analysis is obtained. The clinic has performed 73 minilaparotomies. Patients who wish to have a minilaparotomy must make 4-5 visits to the clinic. During the first visit the patient is seen by a counselor. During the 2nd visit a medical exam is given and a medical history is obtained. Blood, urine, and gonorrhoea tests are performed and a pap smear is obained. The counselor then explains all the risks involved in the procedure and an appointment for the operation is made if the patient wishes to continue. Operative procedures include: 1) inserting a Hulka tenaculum sound; 2) administering a local anesthesia; 3) making a 2-5 cm incision; and 4) performing a Pomeroy ligation. The operation takes 20-30 minutes and the patient is usually discharged 2 hours later. The patient is told to call the physician at any time if she experiences any difficulties and to return for a follow-up visit 2-4 weeks later.
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  23. 23
    800393

    Family planning in Mexico: a profile of the development of policies and programmes.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, [1980]. 46 p.

    Mexican social, economic, and population indicators are discussed and tabulated. In 1972, the government, realizing the magnitude of the nation's population problem, reversed its previous antinatalist policy. The President acknowledged the individual's right to have family planning services available and the government's duty to provide family planning information. The Ministry of Health instituted a program to provide family planning services for that part of the population needing public services. A National Population Council was established to coordinate various public and private services active in the population field. Market research is being undertaken into the feasibility of government sponsored commercial distribution of contraceptives. Sterilization will be an integral part of the governmental family planning services. Acceptor targets and accomplishments and the budget for these governmentally-provided services are presented. A detailed discussion of the history and activities of the IPPF affiliate in Mexico is also presented. Despite the initially unfavorable atmosphere in the mid-1960s, FEPAC (Foundation for the Study of Population) was able to establish a network of family planning clinics. In addition to clinic programs, FEPAC carries out research, training, and education/information activities.
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  24. 24
    800125

    Progress in Colombia.

    PEOPLE. 1980; 7(1):33.

    In 1978 Profamilia, the IPPF affiliate in Colombia, attracted 77,263 new acceptors. Many thousands more obtained supplies through community-based distribution centers run by this nongovernmental family planning association. Government health centers reached 61,000 acceptors. The 1973 census and the 1976 National Fertility Survey indicated that Colombia began its demographic transition in the mid-1960s; the growth rate dropped from 3.3% in 1964 to a little over 2% in 1976. The average number of live births in a woman's lifetime dropped from over 7 in 1960 to 4.6 by 1976, and 3.9 in 1978. Two-thirds of married women did not want another child. 95% knew about contraception. In 1970 the President of Colombia, a country where the Catholic church has special rights, announced the government's aim to extend social and medical assistance to all classes of the country so that every family would have the freedom and responsibility to determine the number of its children. Measures promoting later age at marriage, gradual introduction of education relating to population, family life, and sex, and encouragement of education and expanded roles for women were enacted. Profamilia introduced a community-based distribution system. By 1978 the system had programs in the rural areas, in towns, through a community mail service and commercial outlets.
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  25. 25
    800133

    Islamic Africa endorses family planning.

    Hamand J

    PEOPLE. 1980; 7(1):26-7.

    Participants from 10 West African countries with significant Muslim populations supported family planning at a conference sponsored by IPPF. Cameroon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Upper Volta were represented. Family planning services exist in all the countries except for Cameroon, Guinea, and Upper Volta, although mostly on a limited scale without official backing. The Koran enjoins breast-feeding and abstinence from sexual intercourse for 2 years after a childbirth. Delegates were urged to accept that modern family planning is simply another method of attaining the traditional goal of a well-fed, well-housed family. Islam is a dynamic religion which should support all organizations which promote the improvement of living conditions. The delegation from Guinea argued that family planning is a form of neocolonialist population control. The value of birth-spacing was allowed in special cases. Most delegates were not sympathetic and were more interested in the practical aspects of family planning programs, implementation and results. The aim of family planning is not population reduction but controlled population growth. The recommendation to include family life education in school curricula was made after much soul searching discussion, and moves were made to restrict availability of information to married couples.
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