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Report of the first meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Viral Diarrhoeas: microbiology, epidemiology, immunology, and vaccine development, Geneva, 1980.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 11 p.The main function of the Scientific Working Group was to review existing knowledge, designate areas where research was needed, recommended approaches for such research; and prepare a research plan. The Group's five year work plan for research is described, consisting of 3 priority topics: investigations related to viral diarrheas in general, studies of rotavirus diarrhea (recognized by the Group as the most important public health problem among the viral diarrheas at present), and research to determine the possible role as a cause of diarrhea of other viral agents (Norwalk and Norwalk-like agents, adenoviruses, calcivirus, coronavirus, axtrovirus, and other small round viruses). Needed epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and studies of disease resistance and vaccine development are identified. Identification of institutions to undertake research was discussed; priority was given to locating institutions and individuals within the developing world, or those in developed countries which work closely with developing world groups. An application form was reviewed and approved, and some general principles established. A list of participants in the meeting, and the 1st report of the Rotavirus reagents subgroup are appended.
Bangkok, UNESCO Regional Office, 1980. 14 p. ([Building your population education collection] Booklet 3)Provides addresses of national population education projects, of other national organizations engaged in in- or out-of-school population activities in Asia and Oceania, and of international and United Nations agencies engaged in such activities.
Recommendation by the Executive Director [of UNFPA] on assistance to the government of China's comprehensive population programme. Agenda item 7 aii, 27th session, Governing Council.
New York, UN, 1980 May 14. 11 p. (DP/FPA/11/Add.22)The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) proposes to fund a 4-year program with $50 million to assist the government of China in implementing its population policies. The contribution of the UNFPA will support the 1st census to be taken since 1964. In addition it will provide assistance in the following areas: demographic training and research; maternal and child health and family planning service delivery and research; training of maternal and child health and family planning personnel; family planning service statistics and program evaluation; human reproduction and contraceptive research; contraceptive production; and population information and education. The program will emphasize the introduction of new technologies and advanced equipment which is not currently available in China, the improvement of technical training and research, and institutional development. The UNFPA intends to seek additional funds for assistance to China through multibilateral resources in order to support the establishment of an Institute of Developmental Biology. The government of China has succeeded in limiting the rate of population growth from 2.34% in 1971 to 1.2% in 1978, but an imbalance remains in the rate of population growth and that of the national economy. The government has long encouraged family planning with the objective of limiting fertility. Increased action has been taken recently to speed up the implementation of the country's population policies. The government has adopted the goal of lowering the population growth rate to under 1% by 1980, to approximately 0.5% by 1985, and to zero population growth by the year 2000. China's family planning policy promotes the following 4 principles: late marriage and childbirth; child spacing; small families; and better health for the entire country. The UNFPA proposes setting aside a program reserve of $6,536,943 to meet other needs that may become apparent as program implementation progresses.
Population. 1980 Aug; 6(8):3.An agreement signed in September 1980 in Beijing by Rafael M. Salas, Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and the government of China will provide for $50 million UNFPA assistance to China's $143 million comprehensive 4-year population program. The program's aim is zero growth by the year 2000. China's population policy has been explained by Madame Chen Muhua, Vice Premier and Head of the Planned Birth's Leadership Group in the State Council. According to Madame Chen, the objective is longterm planning for population growth. She states that the 1st target is to reduce the rate of natural increase to 5/1000 in 1985 from 12.05/1000 in 1978. The main methods to be used to bring about this reduction are the following: 1) the inclusion of "planned birth" work in the daily agenda at all levels of party committees, 2) strengthening propaganda and education, 3) making and enforcing laws by punishment reward system with material rewards for 1 child couples and fines for those who have more than 1 child, 4) training medical personnel and improving medical technology, including contraceptive devices, and 5) creating strong "planned birth" offices. UNFPA's $50 million assistance for the next 4 years will begin with support for the 1981 census. China has requested help in automatic processing of data. Support for this census will cover the cost of advisory personnel, training and equipment (including 21 computers).
People. 1980; 8(3):18-20.In Kenya there are now 10,000 women's groups which are officially registered by the government and thus eligible for assistance from the Women's Bureau. A visit to the local group of 60 women in Kambu provides an example of both the courage and the potential of these groups. Initiated in 1976, the group's 1st effort was to plant coffee trees for each member. The next activity was making pottery and growing vegetables and meeting every Thursday afternoon. In 1979 the group applied to the Women's Bureau for assistance and was given over $1,000 to build a pigsty and buy some pigs. This was followed by a shop built for 6,000 shillings from which to sell the sisal baskets and mats which the group makes. The current objective is to raise about 30,000 shillings for a meeting hall, with a store, office and canteen. Family planning was not at the forefront of this group's activities. Nyeri, 1 of the best developed districts in Kenya, is also the site for the 1 experimental project where family planning information and services have been introduced simultaneously with income generating activities to several women's groups. The objective is 3-fold: to promote family planning by integrating it with other activities from the start of the project; to include voluntary motivational work by members of the groups; and to improve the status of members. 10 groups are involved in the project, part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's worldwide program for Planned Parenthood and World Development. After 1 year of operation, family planning practice had increased markedly, with over 70% of women under 45 using contraceptives in 3 of the villages. There was much evidence showing that many members were actively promoting the family planning idea among their friends and neighbors. The integration of activities has been shown to have increased family planning acceptance. The problem is that with over 5000 requests for help in 1981, The Women's Bureau is only able to provide resources to some 600. At present, the Women's Bureau only has $1 million to spend.
Strengthening rural health service delivery project. First progress review meeting on the Diarrheal Disease Control Study.
Mansura, Egypt, [Westinghouse Health Systems], 1980 Jun 2. 38 p.This is the report on a study into the availability, utilization, effectiveness, and cost of sucrose/salt rehydration mixtures and prepackaged rehydrant solutions of glucose, potassium, and bicarbonate. A WHO-sponsored program was established in Egypt in 1977 to distribute prepackaged electrolytes for use in cases of diarrhea. Results have been unsatisfactory because there is distrust and, consequently, underuse of the product. In addition, it is only available at clinics, which are also underutilized by the population. Therefore, since 1978, the Ministry of Health has been conducting a pilot project to distribute the oral rehydrants through rural health care delivery. This program involves teaching home preparation and administration of a salt/sugar solution to mothers, providing packets through medical personnel at clinics, and intravenous treatment in hospitals in severe cases. A comparative study will be undertaken in 2-3 districts of the pilot project to assess the relative benefits of the home-prepared salt/sugar solutions and the prepackaged oral rehydrants. The methodology of the study, plus specific research outputs expected, are outlined. The 2 preparations will be compared as to effectiveness, availability, safety, acceptability, cost, and principal advantages.
In: Files LA, ed. Research on the management of population programs: an international workshop. Chapel Hill, NC, Univ. of NC, School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Administration and the Carolina Population Center, 1980. 91-108.There are 2 types of government-sponsored national family planning programs, those which operate within narrowly-defined parameters and recognize local constraints and those which, with the support of politicians, aim at all the national population problems. The trend has been toward the 2nd, more comprehensive type of program. Since population programs in most countries began as medically-based family planning programs, they have been cut off from broader affiliations. Once domestic funding increases, the programs will gain autonomy in program direction. The World Bank offers program funds aimed at establishing effective management policies for the national population programs. A 1st step in Bank funding is an assessment of organizational and managerial problems. The Bank also focuses on management and personnel at the micro level. Most Asian programs are felt to be strong and effective; Latin American programs fall slightly behind the Asian programs; programs in Africa lag far behind. Immediate future steps for the programs in each of the continental regions are outlined. A summary of management components in Bank population projects in several selcted countries is presented. A funding summary for these management activities is tabulated.