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  1. 1

    Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the National Family Planning and Sex Education Programme of Costa Rica.

    Demographic Association of Costa Rica

    [Unpublished] 1980 Mar. 89 p.

    This report of the evaluation of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance to Costa Rica's National Family Planning and Sex Education Program covers the following: 1) project dimension and purpose of the evaluation, scope and methodology of the evaluation, composition of the mission, and constraints; 2) background information; 3) 1974-77 family planning/sex education program (overview, immediate objectives, strategy, activities and targets, and institutional framework); 4) planned and actual inputs and rephasing in 1978-79; 5) family planning activities (physical facilities and types of services provided, recruitment of new users, continuation of users within the program, distribution of contraceptive supplies, sterilizations, and indicators of program impact); 6) training and supervision; 7) education, information, and communication (formal and nonformal education, educational activities in the clinics, and the impact of the nonformal educational program); 8) maternal and child health (maternal health indicators, cytological examinations, and infant mortality); 9) program evaluation and research; 10) population policy; 11) program administration; 12) some general conclusions regarding the performance of the program; and 13) the program beyond 1979. UNFPA evaluations are independent, in depth analyses, prepared and conducted by the Office of Evaluation, usually with the assistance of outside consultants. The process of analysis used in the evaluation follows a logical progression, i.e., that which underlines the original program design. Evaluation assessment includes an analysis of inputs and outputs, an investigation of the interrelationship among activities, an indication of the effectiveness of activities in achieving the objectives, and an assessment of duplication of activities or lack of coverage and the effect of this on realization of the objectives. The program was able to expand the coverage of family planning activities but has been unsuccessful in having a population policy established. The number of hospitals, health centers, and rural health posts providing family planning services was tripled in the 1974-77 period. The program could not achieve its targets in number of new users, and it recruited in 1977, only 11% of the total population of the country, against the 20% planned. It has been estimated that between 1973-77 around 231,200 births or 44.4% of those possible had been averted. Training and supervision has been a weak area of the program. A large number of professors have been trained in sex education, but no evaluation has been undertaken of the likely impact of this trained staff at the school level. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program has been successful in taking information and education to the population on family planning/sex education concerns but less successful in motivating the political groups to formulate a population policy.
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  2. 2

    Program report [of the Central America regional seminar-workshop entitled] New Focuses of Family Planning Program Administration: Analysis of Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and Other Program Data, [held in] Antigua, Guatemala, May 25-30, 1980.

    Centre for Population Activities [CEFPA]

    [Washington, D.C., CEFPA, 1980.] 30 p. (Contract AID/pha-c-1187)

    This report 1) presents a summary of the planning process of the seminar-workshop in family planning held in Antigua, Guatemala from May 25-30, 1980; 2) reviews program content and training methodology; and 3) provides feedback on the evaluation of the program and in-country follow-up responses to the workshop. Negotiations were made between the Centre for Population Activities (CEFPA) officials, USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) population/health officials, and family planning officials from each participating country to elicit program suggestions and support. The ensuing communication process facilitated the development of the program in many ways, including: 1) program design, which incorporated in-country family planning program needs, suggested workshop topics, and country-specific requests for workshop objective; 2) participant selection; and 3) USAID mission commitment. The workshop aimed to provide an opportunity for leaders of family planning and related programs to make an intelligent and effective use of data available to them. The training methodology consisted of structured small-group exercises. Program content included: 1) contraceptive prevalence survey case exercise, which aims to identify problem areas and need in the delivery of family planning and maternal child health services as a tool in assessing progress towards family planning goals; 2) other data sources available to family planning program managers, including World Fertility Survey data and program service statistics; 3) program alternatives in the form of mini-workshops on such topics as logistics management, improving clinic efficiency, primary health and family planning, adolescent fertility, and voluntary sterilization; and 4) program planning, which enables participants to interpret data and apply them in the planning process. In evaluating the workshop, a majority of the participants reported that the workshop and their own personal objectives were either completely or almost completely achieved, and they also indicated that more workshops at the regional and national levels should be conducted.
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  3. 3

    The organisational structure of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF).

    Sozi MK

    In: Dondi NN, ed. Towards effective family planning programming. A report of proceedings of the second management seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya, including recommendations for post-seminar programming possibilities. [Nairobi], Family Planning Association of Kenya [FPAK], 1980. 53-8.

    In 1952 the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was formed to organize family planning associations which existed at that time. Essentially a people's movement, IPPF comprises 4 main groups: volunteers, paid staff, donors, and clients. The purpose of IPPF is to provide services to clients. IPPF is an international nongovernmental and nonpolitical charitable organization and is a federation of 96 family planning associations from 6 regions of the world. Aims and objectives of IPPF include: to promote the education of the population of the world in family planning and responsible parenthood; to preserve and promote the good health of parents, children, and young people through supporting effective family planning services; to educate people about the demographic problems of their own communities; and to stimulate appropriate research in all aspects of human fertility and its regulation and to make widely known the findings of such research. The overall objective of the Africa Region of IPPF is to improve the quality of life through family planning programs and other related problems. IPPF membership is open to family planning associations which will agree to subscribe to the IPPF Constitution and which have no commercial tendencies. There are 3 kinds of membership: full membership, associate membership, and affiliate membership. IPPF Regional Offices have varying structures according to their varying needs and complexities. Policies differ from region to region. The Regional Council is the policymaking body, and it comprises 2 representatives of associations holding full membership, 1 representative from affiliated associations, 1 nonvoting member from affiliated governments, and 5 coopted members. The Council meets at least once a year. The Executive Committee manages the day-to-day affairs of IPPF Africa Region (IPPFAR). IPPFAR has 3 standing committees: finance, medical, and communication. Panels and boards include the Law Panel and the Advisory Board for the Center for African Family Studies. Currently, there is a unified secretariat and the IPPF Secretary General in London has powers over all the Regional Directors.
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  4. 4

    Closing address: research on the management of population programs: some thoughts on the future.

    Salas RM

    In: Files LA, ed. Research on the management of population programs: an international workshop. Chapel Hill, NC, Univ. of NC, School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Administration and the Carolina Population Center, 1980. 34-6.

    The evolving role of the UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) was described. the UNFPA, which began operating in 1969, has gradually extended the scope and extent of its funding activities during the past decade in response to the changing needs expressed by developing countries. The fund was initially established to provide family planning assistance in response to the needs expressed by many Asian countries. Gradually, the UNFPA's core program in population was expanded to provide funds for programs in data collection, population policy, population dynamics, and population education, and communications. Recently the UNFPA was asked by the government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam to support a program in population redistribution. Sri Lanka and Yemen also requested support of population redistribution programs. Funding policies of the UNFPA are determined by the Governing Council composed of members from 48 countries. The council will meet in June and support for population redistribution programs will be discussed. In accordance with the demonstrated responsiveness of UNFPA to the expressed needs of the developing countries, the UNFPA welcomes suggestions from the developing nations for ways in which the UNFPA can help promote the effective delivery of population services, enhance the managerial expertise, and encourage self-reliance in program management.
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  5. 5

    Program management and effectiveness: perspectives from the funding agencies.

    Kanagaratnam K

    In: Files LA, ed. Research on the management of population programs: an international workshop. Chapel Hill, NC, Univ. of NC, School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Administration and the Carolina Population Center, 1980. 91-108.

    There are 2 types of government-sponsored national family planning programs, those which operate within narrowly-defined parameters and recognize local constraints and those which, with the support of politicians, aim at all the national population problems. The trend has been toward the 2nd, more comprehensive type of program. Since population programs in most countries began as medically-based family planning programs, they have been cut off from broader affiliations. Once domestic funding increases, the programs will gain autonomy in program direction. The World Bank offers program funds aimed at establishing effective management policies for the national population programs. A 1st step in Bank funding is an assessment of organizational and managerial problems. The Bank also focuses on management and personnel at the micro level. Most Asian programs are felt to be strong and effective; Latin American programs fall slightly behind the Asian programs; programs in Africa lag far behind. Immediate future steps for the programs in each of the continental regions are outlined. A summary of management components in Bank population projects in several selcted countries is presented. A funding summary for these management activities is tabulated.
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