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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980. 146 p.Add to my documents.
Peshawar, Pakistan, Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, 1980.Add to my documents.
General survey of the reports relating to conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 concerning migrant workers. (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III (Part 4B).
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 189 p.In accordance with article 19 of the International Labor Office (ILO) Constitution, the Governing Body decided at its 201st Session (November 1976) to request reports on the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97), and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No 143) from governments which have not ratified them, as well as reports on the Migration for Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949 (No. 86), and the Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). These reports, dealing with the state of law and practice in relation to the standards laid down by the instruments in question, and the reports supplied under article 22 of the Constitution by govenments that have ratified 1 or both of the Conventions, have enabled the Committee of Experts to make a general survey of the situation. Reports have been received from 109 countries either under article 19 of the Constitution of the ILO on Conventions Nos. 97 and 143 and Recommendations Nos. 86 and 151 or under article 22 on the 2 Conventions when they have ratified them. An appendix provides detailed information on the countries that have communicated reports. The plan adopted for this present survey is as follows: preliminary measures of protection--information and assistance and recruitment, introduction, and placement of migrant workers; protection against abusive conditions (migrations in abusive conditions, the illegal employment of migrant workers, and minimum standards of protection); equality of opportunity and treatment and social policy; and certain aspects of the employment, residence, and departure of migrant workers. The vast range of subjects covered illustrates the complexity of the subject of migration for employment. The measures needed for the protection of migrant workers extend beyond their period of actual employment and must cover the initial phase of information, recruitment, travel, and settlement into the country of employment and the regulation of rights arising out of the employment but continuing after its termination. During the period of employment, they go beyond measures dealing exclusively with conditions of work to cover various other aspects of conditions of life which affect the context in which the migrant worker has to work and form the broader framework of the conditions of work and life of migrant workers. Thus, it is possibly understandable that few governments have covered all the subjects dealt with in the instruments in their reports. Convention No. 97 has been ratified to date by 34 countries and Convention 143 has been ratified by 8 States. Problems exist in many member States in affording to migrant workers the guarantees provided for in the instruments.
Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
[Rome], Food and Agriculture Organisation, . 29 p.In this booklet devoted to Kenya, information is presented on the following: the country, its people and development; the demand on services and resources; government population policy and action; the long range objectives of the Programs for Better Family Living (PBFL); activities of the PBFL in Kenya; the Kenya National Family Planning Program over the 1974-79 period; and some background on the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Improving the well being of the population and promoting the welfare of the individual calls for effective utilization of Kenya's natural resources. One of the most effective ways of achieving this is to help families and communities to make better use of existing resources and generate new resources. Since independence in 1963, the government and people have made considerable progress, demonstrated by rising living standards and an expanding economy. Yet, the plans for continued economic growth can be disrupted by a high rate of population growth. In 1973, Kenya's population was estimated at 12.5 million. The rate of population growth was 3.5%, 1 of the highest growth rates in the world. Such population growth creates problems in the areas of health, education, urbanization, employment, and investment and income growth. Recognizing the implications of Kenya's high population growth, in 1966 the government declared that it would pursue policies aimed at reducing the population growth rate through voluntary means. A program of education and motivation in regard to population and family planning was initiated, and family planning services were provided. Education and motivation about family size has been provided within the context of Kenya's maternal and child services. The program emphasizes the benefits in the health of mother and child that accrue from child spacing. The long range objectives of the PBFL are to help raise the level of rural welfare by educating families and communities through fostering an understanding of the relationship between family size and family and community welfare at all levels and improving the coordination of activities at all levels betwen those servicing ministries and nongovernmental organizations. The plan of the family planning program aims at recruiting about 640,000 new family planning acceptors over the 1974-79 period, with the goal of averting some 150,000 births and reducing Kenya's population growth rate to 3.25% by 1978-79.
Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1980. 64 p.The chapters included in this resource book for trainers, prepared for a regional audience, present those topics that are most relevant in an organized sector population/family welfare education program, i.e., a program directed to any group of workers which can be approached through an appropriate organizational channel. This book has been prepared with the trainers of instructors in mind, i.e., for those who are going to help prepare the actual factory level instructors to become efficient in family welfare education. It is most important that trainers and instructors in a family welfare education program appreciate the fact that the program is directed to explaining the relationships between the pressure of the labor supply and the well-being of the worker's family. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters of this volume present the following: objectives of International Labor Organization (ILO) Population/Family Welfare Education Program; population concepts and factors affecting population growth (population concepts and factors affecting population growth); population growth and employment; family welfare, living standards, and population change; communication in population/family welfare education; and methods of contraception. The basic objective of most ILO-designed country population education programs is to facilitate the understanding of population and family welfare factors in so far as they affect the working conditions and quality of life of the workers. The programs are generally designed to encourage active involvement and participation of the regular members of the labor force. Implicit in the objectives is the motivation to the acceptance of family planning as a means of fertility regulation. The implementation of a program at the plant level is generally a combination of work undertaken by a trainer and volunteer motivators. The trainer can present the case for family planning welfare through various mediums, and the motivators follow up by talking to colleagues either individually or in small groups.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 290 p.This Sixth Report on the World Health Situation tries to bring out the main ideas on health and health care issues and how to deal with them that arose during the 1973-1977 period. The primary sources of information used in the preparation of the report were the following: information routinely passed on by Member Governments to the World Health Organization (WHO); country reviews specially submitted by Member Governments for the Sixth Report; information routinely collected by other organizations of the United Nations system; and information for the reference period collected by WHO on an "ad hoc" basis to meet specific policy and program requirements. A background chapter focuses on general considerations, population, food and nutrition, education, social changes, economic trends, employment, poverty, health-related behavioral factors, evaluation of development progress and data needs, and policy issues. Subsequent chapters examine health status differentials, health action, research, and the outlook for the future in terms of demographic prospects, social and economic aspects, health status trends, health manpower supply and demand, and world health policies. Most significant during the 1973-1977 period was the explicit recognition of the view that health development is a reflection of conscious political, social, and economic policy and planning rather than merely an outcome (or by-product) of technology. The goal of "health for all by the year 2000" expresses the political commitment of health services and the agencies responsible for them to a "new Health order." Primary health care is the most important vehicle for achieving this new health order. The most important social trends during the report period are reflected in the still low and in some areas worsening nutritional level of the majority of the population. The overall picture with regard to mortality continues to be mixed, with a few notable cases of marked decline and many of continuing unspectacular decline. The data on morbidity are even less reliable than those on mortality, but it appears that there has been a significant increase or resurgence of certain communicable diseases. There is evidence of decreasing dependence on physicians in some parts of the world and a related strengthening of various paramedical and auxiliary groupings. Some of the important new health programs are to be found in the area of family health. The overall role and importance of primary health care are emphasized in many parts of the report. There are some specific indications of ways in which primary health care activities are being integrated with the more traditional activities of the health sector.
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Oct. 80 p. (Headline Series 251)World population will be facing serious problems in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of 2 population trends which are presently dominating the demographic scene. The number of young people aged 15-30 in developing countries is increasing rapidly and they will be soon asserting themselves politically, economically, and socially. The 2nd trend which exists is the disparity between high population growth in the impoverished developing countries and the lower rates in the affluent industrial countries. This century's population growth has occurred primarily in the developing world and is the result of lower death rates rather than higher birthrates. The situation is attributable to demographic transition; however, the major demographic questions of how quickly birthrates will fall and how wide the gap will be before birthrates follow the classic transition remain unanswered. 3 approaches to help answer these and other demographic questions are: 1) demographic approach; 2) historical approach; and 3) observation of recent events. These various approaches are given attention in this monograph. The consequences of too rapid population growth can be seen in the low food supplies which exist leaving many in developing countries undernourished, in a decline in the quality of life, in the reduction of the potential capacity to produce what is necessary (diminished land resources, pollution of water and air), in the increases in the price of energy and natural resources, in the difficulties in acquiring employment opportunities, and in burgeoning urban growth (which puts a serious strain on housing, transportation, etc.). Family planning was adopted in various countries in the world despite government policies to counter this. While there is recognition of the need for measures to be taken to reduce fertility, the question of how to accomplish this still remains. A brief overview of developing country adoption of family policies is included. What become clear is that family planning programs do make a difference in birthrate reduction and in population growth control. An effective, extensive family planning/population program exists in the People's Republic of China; Indonesia, Colombia, Tunisia, and Mauritius are other countries with successful programs. Various socioeconomic factors influence fertility and they include: literacy and education, urbanization, improvement in the status of women, health, family or community structure, development (modernization), and even the lack of development. Population and development will be greatly affected in the future by the quality and depth of leadership. Government leadership and the private sector, donor agencies, as well as international leadership, especially that of the UNFPA, will be critical. Also included here are discussion questions and reading references for those who are interested.
In: Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF, Sai FT, et al., ed. Lactation, fertility and the working woman. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 39-44.Conventions drafted by the ILO to be submitted to governments of member states concerning maternity protection (maternity leave, health care, the right to resume employment) and provisions for working women to nurse their infants (facilities, paid breaks) are discussed. The number of states ratifying the conventions is reported, and various degrees and sources of protection and provision are described. Arrangements for maternity protection and nursing range from full coverage at community expense (social security), to special agreements made individually with employers, to very little support of any kind. The author deems matters concerning maternity protection and breastfeeding to be important for society as a whole as well as for working mothers and their children.