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In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-17. (Series 1, Pt. 4)The main theme of all the materials that were abstracted and reviewed in the area of population education in literacy is that literacy programs and population education in the non-formal setting must be linked with the real problems and needs of the people if they are to be effective. Highlighted in the abstracts presented are the strategies, guidelines, procedures and the processes used in making population education in literacy programs acceptable to the millions of illiterates, out-of-school youths and adults throughout the Asian region, who are preoccupied with satisfying their immediate needs for food and water. Two successful experimental functional literacy-population education projects carried out by the Adult Education Division of the Ministry of Education in Thailand and the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement are reported. Most of the documents reviewed have been both enhanced and enriched by the extensive work and experiences of the UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania and by the materials of the World Education which are a result of 18 years of practical field work in literacy.
The effectiveness of the ovulation method of natural family planning: a prospective multicentre trial--the Bangalore Centre.
Bangalore, India, WHO, . 5 p.In 1976, a prospective study of the ovulation method was conducted in 5 centres (Bangalore, Auckland, Dublin, Manila, San Miguel) to determine the proportion of women who are capable of recognizing the changes in cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle and also the use-effectiveness of the method in fertility control. 12 subcenters in and around the city of Bangalore were selected. There were 13 teachers, 8 of whom were active throughout the study and were appointed to recruit volunteers for the study. 205 ovulating women with histories of regular menstrual cycles were admitted to the teaching phase of the study. Mean age of the group was 28.6 years. Majority (54%) belonged to the Catholic religion. The rest were Hindus (32%), Protestants (6%), and Muslims. Couples were drawn from both the urban and rural areas and were mostly illiterate or semiliterate. None of the women had used the ovulation method before. 55% of the couples cited religious reasons as the main factor for using the ovulation method. In the cycle following instruction, understanding of the method was evaluated as 'excellent or good' in 96.6% of the cases; in the 2nd and 3rd cycles, the figure rose to 97% with regard to interpretable mucus pattern. Following successful completion of the teaching phase, 191 out of 205 enrolled in the teaching phase entered the effectiveness phase of 13 cycles. Most agreed to go further to 16 cycles and did so successfully. Some women with alcoholic husbands were able to use the method successfully, a commendable result since other family planning workers had difficulty motivating this group. A paradoxical finding which needed further analysis was the more educated the women, the more difficult it was for her to accept the method or to follow it up as required. In the entire study, Pearl rates for method failure ranged from 9.5/100 women years in Auckland, 5.1 in Dublin, 1.1 in Manila, to 0 in Bangalore and San Miguel. The use-effectiveness of the method in Bangalore was 96% in over 7514 cycles of observation. WHO recommended that the ovulation method be used in India.
United Nations/World Health Organization Meeting on Socio-Economic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, Mexico City, 19-25 June 1979.
Population Bulletin. 1980; (13):60-74.The objectives of the United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO) Meeting on Socioeconomic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, held in Mexico City in June 1979, were the following: to review the knowledge of differential mortality and to identify gaps in the understanding of its socioeconomic determinants and consequences; to discuss the methodological and technical problems associated with data collection and analysis; to consider the policy implications of the findings presented and to promote studies on the implications of socioeconomic differentials in mortality on social policy and international development strategies; to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the utilization of the 1980 round of population censuses for in-depth studies of mortality differentials; and to stimulate national and international research on differential mortality. Participants discussed the state of knowledge of socioeconomic differentials and determinants of mortality and described the socioeconomic measures available, the methods of data collection and analysis used, and the findings themselves. A number of characteristics had been employed in the study of differential mortality, and these could be grouped under the following headings: occupation; education; housing; income, wealth; family size; and place of residence. The techniques or methods used to analyze mortality were direct and indirect methods, and these are examined. Inequalities in mortality were found to be closely associated with inequalities in social and economic conditions. Any effort to reduce or remove those inequalities would have to be based on a clear understanding of their causes and interrelationships in order to succeed. Participants indicated a desire to see a resurgence of mortality research, and some research suggestions are outlined.
In: Burns AB, ed. Population/family planning resources: plugging into the 1980s. New York, APLIC-I, 1980. 45-51.Focus is on 1 aspect of the PIACT program -- the need to meet the informational needs of illiterates. PIACT activities concentrate on modifying or adapting contraceptives and their accompanying informational and instructional materials to the cultural and physical characteristics of the people who use them. At this time support is provided to affiliated programs in 8 countries -- Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand. PIACT's 1st project to develop an informational pamphlet for illiterate and semi-literate oral contraceptive (OC) users was initiated in Mexico in 1977. The pamphlet was 8 pages in a comic book format. It used both illustrations and some words. When tested on 240 women in various regions of Mexico, project staff found that those who could read understood the booklet, but those who could not read did not. Since producing the initial OC booklet, the Mexican program has produced a series of instructional pamphlets on the IUD, the postpartum IUD, female sterilization, and the injectable. Several general lessons have emerged from the process of developing materials for illiterates which can be transferred to other countries to facilitate the development of similar materials in different cultural settings. These include the following: 1) the project to develop technical materials for nonreaders should be directed by an individual who has rapport and experience in working with the target population; 2) the target population needs to play an important role in the development of the material; and 3) content must be limited to the most important messages.