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  1. 1

    Women and population: an overview of UNFPA-supported projects with particular reference to women.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. Policy and Technical Division. Women and Youth Section

    New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.

    An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
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  2. 2

    Evaluation. [Training module]

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Geneva, WHO, 1980]. 54 p.

    In this training module, 1 in a series of such modules published by WHO, the student is asked to practice the following selected tasks involved in evaluation of a national program for control of diarrheal diseases. 1) Review a data collection form for clarity, simplicity, and completeness. 2) Plan collection of data for evaluation of a specific subtarget. 3) Prepare a chart showing numbers of diarrhea cases, and identify disease trends. 4) Calculate and compare annual mortality rates in an area. 5) Explore reasons for failure to achieve an expected mortality reduction. 6) Estimate the amount of money saved by providing vs. hospital therapy. This workbook can be used in conjunction with another in this WHO series on the teaching of programs for control of diarrheal diseases in developing countries, where they are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5, "Fictitia PIP/802686 which provides fictitious data on a made up developing country to use in solving workbook problems during this course.
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  3. 3

    The World Fertility Survey: a basis for population and development planning, statement made at the World Fertility Survey Conference, London, England, 7 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 5 p. (Speech Series No. 54)

    The World Fertility Survey (WFS) is the largest social science research survey undertaken to date. From its inception in 1972 the WFS has received the full support of the UN and the UNFPA. This program has not only enhanced considerably our knowledge of fertility levels and fertility regulation practices in developing as well as developed countries but has also provided the UN system with internationally comparable data on human fertility on a large scale for the 1st time. The methodology developed by the WFS has made it possible to collect data on the individual and the household as well as the community. Information has become available not only on fertility levels, trends and patterns but also on fertility preferences and nuptiality as well as knowledge and use of family planning methods. Initial findings document the rather dramatic fertility decline taking place in many developing countries under various socioeconomic and cultural conditions. They also show the magnitude of existing unmet needs for family planning in the developing world which must be continuously brought to the attention of the governments of all countries. A most encouraging effect of the program, however, has been the fact that 21 industrialized countries have carried out, entirely with their own resources, fertility surveys within the WFS framework and in accordance with its recommendations, making it truly an internationally collaborative effort.
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  4. 4

    Further thoughts on the definitions of economic activity and employment status

    Blacker JGC

    Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.

    The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
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  5. 5

    Recommendation by the Executive Director [of UNFPA] on assistance to the government of China's comprehensive population programme. Agenda item 7 aii, 27th session, Governing Council.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, UN, 1980 May 14. 11 p. (DP/FPA/11/Add.22)

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) proposes to fund a 4-year program with $50 million to assist the government of China in implementing its population policies. The contribution of the UNFPA will support the 1st census to be taken since 1964. In addition it will provide assistance in the following areas: demographic training and research; maternal and child health and family planning service delivery and research; training of maternal and child health and family planning personnel; family planning service statistics and program evaluation; human reproduction and contraceptive research; contraceptive production; and population information and education. The program will emphasize the introduction of new technologies and advanced equipment which is not currently available in China, the improvement of technical training and research, and institutional development. The UNFPA intends to seek additional funds for assistance to China through multibilateral resources in order to support the establishment of an Institute of Developmental Biology. The government of China has succeeded in limiting the rate of population growth from 2.34% in 1971 to 1.2% in 1978, but an imbalance remains in the rate of population growth and that of the national economy. The government has long encouraged family planning with the objective of limiting fertility. Increased action has been taken recently to speed up the implementation of the country's population policies. The government has adopted the goal of lowering the population growth rate to under 1% by 1980, to approximately 0.5% by 1985, and to zero population growth by the year 2000. China's family planning policy promotes the following 4 principles: late marriage and childbirth; child spacing; small families; and better health for the entire country. The UNFPA proposes setting aside a program reserve of $6,536,943 to meet other needs that may become apparent as program implementation progresses.
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  6. 6

    Health for all by the year 2000, monitoring: why, when, where.

    Foster SO

    In: International Health Conference (1980 : Washington, D.C.). International health: measuring progress: proceedings, 1980 International Health Conference, June 11-13, 1980. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health, 1980. 39-41.

    In the year 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its member countries will be judged regarding their success in realizing the goal of "Health for All by the Year 2000." This assessment will require 4 types of data: baseline data on health status and priority causes of morbidity and mortality; identification of priority areas for intervention; establishment of quantitative time limited objectives; and establishment of implementation of monitoring systems to measure progress toward objectives. As discussions on monitoring are often confused by different definitions and interpretations, it is important to differentiate measures of service delivery (process indicators) from those that measure impact of services on health (outcome indicators). The Alma-Ata document identifies primary health care (PHC) as the operational strategy to realize Health for All. It envisions action in all of the following areas: education concerning prevailing health problems and methods of prevention of them; promotion of food supply and proper nutrition; adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation; maternal and child health care including family planning and immunizations; prevention and control of endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries; and provision of essential drugs. Monitoring is an active selective measurement of key indicators to measure progress toward specific objectives. WHO has identified certain basic principles for selecting indicators and these are listed. Monitoring is required at all levels, and the most important is probably the local level. Some of the key aspects of local monitoring are reviewed. Unless there is a commitment to effective monitoring, the current talk on "Health for All" will be nothin more than rhetoric.
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  7. 7

    United Nations/World Health Organization Meeting on Socio-Economic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, Mexico City, 19-25 June 1979.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Population Bulletin. 1980; (13):60-74.

    The objectives of the United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO) Meeting on Socioeconomic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, held in Mexico City in June 1979, were the following: to review the knowledge of differential mortality and to identify gaps in the understanding of its socioeconomic determinants and consequences; to discuss the methodological and technical problems associated with data collection and analysis; to consider the policy implications of the findings presented and to promote studies on the implications of socioeconomic differentials in mortality on social policy and international development strategies; to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the utilization of the 1980 round of population censuses for in-depth studies of mortality differentials; and to stimulate national and international research on differential mortality. Participants discussed the state of knowledge of socioeconomic differentials and determinants of mortality and described the socioeconomic measures available, the methods of data collection and analysis used, and the findings themselves. A number of characteristics had been employed in the study of differential mortality, and these could be grouped under the following headings: occupation; education; housing; income, wealth; family size; and place of residence. The techniques or methods used to analyze mortality were direct and indirect methods, and these are examined. Inequalities in mortality were found to be closely associated with inequalities in social and economic conditions. Any effort to reduce or remove those inequalities would have to be based on a clear understanding of their causes and interrelationships in order to succeed. Participants indicated a desire to see a resurgence of mortality research, and some research suggestions are outlined.
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  8. 8

    [Morocco: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population] Maroc: rapport de Mission sue l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, June 1980. 111 p. (Report No. 29)

    In December 1979 a mission sponsored by UNFPA visited Morocco in order to evaluate the need for population assistance. Morocco experiences a high population growth rate, a high rate of malnutrition, infant mortality, and illiteracy, and low availability of health care in rural areas. The economy is in crisis, and population growth undermines the efforts toward development. It is suggested that population policy must be introduced along with social and economic development as part of an integrated development plan. The mission recommends exterior aid in cooperation with the government with the inception of the next Development Plan, and in particular the participation of UNFPA in data collection and research. In addition, the government of Morocco is urged to determine which agency is best suited to coordinate development and population activities, and cooperation with outside agencies.
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  9. 9

    The inequality of death: assessing socioeconomic influences on mortality.

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1980 Jan; 34(1):9-15.

    The need for data on socioeconomic differentials in morality and the difficulties encountered in collecting this type of data are discussed, and mortality research priorities for both developing and developed countries are suggested. Socioeconomic factors have an impact on mortality, and mortality levels vary not only by country, but within each country by social class. In recent years mortality levels have declined in most countries; however, differences in mortality levels between social classes have probably increased. Although data on socioeconomic differentials in mortality is needed to adequately access the health status and health needs of a country, mortality data, especially in developing countries, is limited. In developing countries, vital registration systems must either be established or greatly improved. Until these systems are improved, mortality data will have to be collected mainly by survey techniques. The scope of maternal and infant mortality surveys should be expanded to include data on all types of mortality. National survey capabilities should be improved by establishing training programs for survey personnel. WHO could coordinate and direct these mortality data collection efforts. In developed countries, data collection is generally adequate, and the emphasis should be placed on developing better analytical tools for processing existing data. Despite the lack of mortality data in developing countries, it is known that differences in mortality levels between social classes could be reduced by improving: 1) community based preventive healt,h care systems and 2) sanitary conditions.
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  10. 10

    Use of epidemiology in primary health care.

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1980; 34(1):16-9.

    National programs aimed at implementing the goal of an acceptable level of health care for all by the year 2000 emphasize the strengthening of the roles of health workers at the periphery of the health care system. Epidemiology, i.e., the study of events in a population and the determination of explanations for their occurrence, has always been a basic community health care tool. Front-line health workers on the community level could be given the job of collecting epidemiological facts from their own communities and integrating this knowledge into their health work. Proper use of epidemiological methods will improve the quality and reliability of vital and health care statistics and facilitate improvement in the system by identifying weak spots. In this way, the community itself can participate in the prevention of disease and promotion of health on a local level. Health education, basic sanitation, mother and child health, immunization, promotion of mental health, and provision of essential drugs, are some areas of application for the knowledge to be gathered by epidemiological means. Such a program will also stimulate the community to participate. High-risk groups can be identified for special treatment. In order to promote this program, the national health program will have to provide training for the primary health workers and necessary specialists.
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