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The global eradication of smallpox. Final report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 122 p. (History of International Public Health No. 4)The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.
Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
New York, UNFPA, 1980. 169 p.Research plans for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey (WFS) data of the Population Division of the UN are discussed. Introductory notes are on the aim and scope of the project, on the plan itself and on considerations concerning regional analysis. An exhaustive list of possible research topics which would use the WFS data is provided. The research plan is then described in detail. The 2nd section is entitled "Review of Characteristics, Measures and Other Indicators" and is a critical review of information considered for use as variables in the comparative analysis of WFS data. A glossary of variables is included. Both dependent and independent variables are explored. The 3rd section is entitled "Research Objectives, Hypotheses and Minimum Tabulation Plan." It consists of a critical review of the research objectives of each topic of the minimum program agreed on by the UN Working Group on Comparative Analysis of WFS Data. Hypotheses relevant to each topic are examined and a minimum tabulation plan appropriate for testing these hypotheses, which draws on the variables presented in Part 2, is proposed. The final part of this volume is called "A strategy for the comparative analysis of WFS data." A possible multivariate statistical approach to analyzing the WFS data is illustrated. Included are 1) a framework for comparative analysis using the WFS; 2) a discussion of the relationship of this model to the UN Minimum Research Program; 3) comparative analysis of parity by educational attainment by years since 1st marriage; 4) analysis of likelihood of contracepting among women who say they want no more children.
Technical cooperation activities in population of the Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, 1979-80: report of the Secretary-General.
New York, UN, 1980 Nov 25. 22 p. (E/CN.9/350)Presented in this document is an account of the activities carried out by the Population Programs and Project Branch Division of Development Administration of the Department of Technical Cooperation for Development in the field of technical cooperation in population during the July 1978 to June 30, 1980 period. Focus is on the 3 subprograms which make up the core of these activities: 1) support for training in demography and population; 2) support for basic population/demographic data evaluation and analysis; and 3) support for population policy and development planning. Attention is also directed to support to new dimension activities, such as projects on women's participation and role in population and development. These activities are carried out with the financial support of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). This program required much substantive and technical support and monitoring by United Nations Headquarters staff of about 100 to 120 projects annually in nearly 80 countries. The Population Programs and Project Branch Division continued to exercise its primary responsibilities with respect to technical cooperation in population by assisting governments in determining needs, by appraising project proposals and providing technical guidance in the formulation of projects, and by monitoring the implementation of projects. During the 2-year period under review, the United Nations continued to support extensive training in population activities.