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New York, UNFPA, 1980 May. 64 p.This report reviews and analyzes the type of projects the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been supporting in the field of women, population, and development during the 1969-1979 period. After screening 180 projects for possible review from the almost 2000 projects funded by UNFPA between the 10 year period, 106 were selected because they satisfied the following criteria: they either addressed women specifically or women were the primary project focus. To follow the historical development in UNFPA funding of women's projects as well as to arrive at a descriptive overview, the 106 projects were analyzed in 2 different ways. For overview purposes they were divided into Direct Women's Projects (DWP)--68 items--and Indirect Women's Projects (IWP)--32 items. For the historical perspective, only the 68 DWPs were studied. These were separated into 3 groups: projects funded before the World Conferences on Population and Women in 1974 and 1975; projects funded during the conference years; and projects funded after the conferences. The overview, which included all 106 projects, revealed some noteworthy characteristics of the UNFPA funding process. DWPs were more likely to be designated "Status of Women" (54%) and to be more research oriented, and were more likely to be country specific. IWPs had no "Status of Women" projects, and were more training oriented (37%). From an historical perspective in analyzing only the 68 DWPs, the crucial turning point in UNFPA's funding of Women's Projects was the 2 World Conferences. Following the conferences, women funded projects increased to 47 from the preconference level of 17. This period's most salient feature was its emphasis on raising the awareness of women and communities. During the conference related period, several projects were funded principally to prepare data on women and to provide support services for the conferences. There was a shift to research-action combination projects during the post-conference period.
In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 163-5. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)The Onchocerciasis Control Program in the Volta Basin is aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease so that it is no longer a major risk to public health and an obstacle to socioeconomic development. Aerial spraying of insecticides has been carried out over 7 countries of West Africa where 10 million people live. The economic advantages of the program come from 2 production factors: labor and land. As far as labor is concerned, the program will increase productive capacities by reducing the production losses resulting from vision disorders or blindness in the laborforce, decrease the debilitating effects of the parasite which leaves people more vulnerable to other diseases, and increase ability of farmers to cultivate land near rivers without constant exposure to hundreds of bites a day. The major economic development will come from developing new land. Several reports are cited indicating projected kilometers of new land that would become available. The major concern is the best way to organize the utilization of the new land, taking into account organized and unorganized migration. It is apparent that various areas and countries within the program have different demographic pressures on their land as well as different structures and planning institutions. Considerable resources of men and financial means are required to finance these land development programs and must come from international sources. Some of the costs and cost evaluations are given. A belief in the cooperation among rich and poor countries for a program without boundaries has already demonstrated the cooperative nature of the Onchocerciasis Control Program.
In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 35-9. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress adn Symposium Series; No. 24)Improving access to essential health care is a goal of most developing countries and donors of economic assistance. Many unsuccessful attempts have been made to help the poor through fostering a growth in production and redirecting development activities. Recently a basic needs approach dealing with poor housing, inadequate water supplies and sanitation, lack of educational opportunities, and insufficient health care, has been introduced. The goal is to encourage programs that will directly affect the poorest of the population. The current health care strategy, attempting to ensure universal access to reasonable levels of health, has profound financial implications. Initial investment costs are estimated to be about $20 per person and will probably be overshadowed by recurrent operating expenditures. Further it is believed that investment costs of new health care activities can often be financed through official or private external donors while recurrent costs will have to be met by individual countries. These operating costs are estimated to be in the US$6-15 per capita range, much higher than the US$.60 to US$2.00 range now being spent. However, voluntary organizations and individuals are spending additional funds for health care in such areas as private health care, non-prescription drugs, transportation and indigenous individuals like herbalists. The total level of spending suggests that with a reallocation of resources better care could be financed. Another consideration is that the importation of most drugs and supplies will require a country's ability to participate in a foreign exchange program. The major principles of health care finance should include establishing equity among clients in ability to pay principles, encouraging appropriate usage of health services, prohibiting policy which promotes excessively costly services, and being feasible. Part of an appropriate design of the financing system should include having operating costs born locally as much as possible. Additional specific recommendations for successful health care financing are made.