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London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1980. 43 p.Add to my documents.
In: American University of Beirut. Faculty of Health Sciences. Human resources for primary health care in the Middle East. Beirut, Lebanon, American Univeristy of Beirut, 1980. 13-21.During 1979, the International Year of the Child, the World Health Organization (WHO) encouraged efforts to improve the collection of information on health and health related problems faced by underprivileged populations. To focus attention on health care for children, the theme of this year's World Health Day on April 7 was the well being of the child. The slogan, "a healthy child, a sure future," was chosen to promote breastfeeding, oral rehydration, nutrition, education, and immunization against the 6 major childhood diseases included in WHO's expanded immunization program. Currently, less than 10% of children in developing countries receive immunization. WHO and its member countries have committed themselves to providing immunization services for every child in the world by 1990, as part of the goal of "health for all by 2000." WHO recommends that each country appoint a program manager and supporting staff to provide detailed plans of operation for immunization. Emphasis in the planning stage should be on the integration of immunization services within the primary health care network for each country. Diarrheal diseases rank among the 1st 3 leading causes of death in children, taking an estimated 5-18 million lives a year, particularly among children under age 5. Dr. Halfdan Mahler, Director General of WHO, has said that the task of safeguarding the health of children cannot be realized through conventional means. What is required is a "radical new approach" which emphasizes the mobilization of national and international resources, the imaginative use of traditional medicine, and the development of health technologies relevant to local needs. A WHO study in 8 developing countries found that 90% of all child deaths could be avoided by safe water and sanitation. This can be regarded as the core of the problem, which indirectly relates to population dynamics and community attitudes. There also appears to be a link between child deaths and births. Maternal and child health care services are not well established in developing nations. Guidelines, quoted from David Werner's book "The Village Health Worker" are quoted to help bridge the gap in reaching the masses. Community health programs will have to be organized on the basis of local needs and priorities. Local health workers from within the community will have to be selected and trained in the delivery of simple basic health care and be responsible to the community.
Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1980. 86 p. (Health Development in Africa 1)Primary health care has been accepted by the 44 Member States and Territories of the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO); the Health Charter for 1975-2000 was adopted in 1974 with its humanistic approach oriented to satisfying basic needs. Genuine technical cooperation between Member States is essential for health development and can be achieved on the regional level. By 1990 the following steps should be taken: 1) vaccination of all infants under 1 year against measles, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tuberculosis, 2) supply of drinking water to all communities and 3) waging a war on hunger. Health development is seen as a social development policy requiring combined efforts in the fields of education, agriculture, transport, planning, economics, and finance as well as a national strategy which WHO can help to define. A new international economic order must aim at meeting basic needs of the poorest in the population and includes health needs. Basic health services must provide primary health care which includes preventive and curative care, promotional and rehabilitative care, maternal and child health, sanitation, health education, and systematic immunization. Secondary care includes outpatient services with specialized teams; tertiary care provides highly specialized services. These services must be geographically, financially, and culturally accessible to the community. Communication between health workers and community leaders is fundamental in setting up those services and group dynamics can be utilized in promoting change. WHO's 4 health priorities in Africa are: 1) epidemiological surveillance, 2) promotion of environmental health, 3) integrated development of health manpower and services, and 4) health development research promotion. The components of Africa's health care program are: 1) community education, 2) promotion of food supply and nutrition, 3) safe water and sanitation, 4) maternal and child health, 5) immunization, 6) disease prevention, 7) treatment of injuries and diseases and 8) provision of essential drugs. Proper training of personnel is crucial for the success of these steps, along with effective personnel management.
STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1980 Feb; 11(2):72-5.The WHO/UNICEF Meeting on Infant and Young Child Feeding, held in Geneva in October 1979, called for urgent action to improve the health and nutrition of infants and young children. The WHO/UNICEF Statement and Recommendations stressed the need to encourage and support breast feeding and to control the marketing of breastmilk substitutes in both developed and developing countries. The final recommendations concerning marketing and promotion of breastmilk substitutes were a compromise between very strong restrictions on industry proposed by several factions at the meeting and the working group which drafted the proposals on which industry was heavily represented. The recommendations are nevertheless stronger than industry had anticipated, although they are not very specific about how restrictions will be formalized or what mechanisms for monitoring and enforcement will be established. WHO/UNICEF was mandated to organize a process to elaborate an international code of conduct and model of national legislation, based on agreed upon principles. However, the authors believe that while the industry group announced it would abide by the recommendations, it did so in the interest of public relations and will attempt to weaken the final code and has sought to undermine the consumer movement in opposition to their activities in developing countries by assuring the public that the controversy is over.