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  1. 1

    The United Nations at the service of Africa.

    Djermakoye IS

    In: Organisation of African Unity, International Institute for Labour Studies. What kind of Africa by the year 2000? Addis, Adaba, Ethiopia, Organisation of African Unity, 1980. 113-23.

    The UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development is at the disposal of African countries to elaborate and implement jointly in integrated programs of technical cooperation in several sectors. In the area of mineral resources the department has helped governments in the development of the infrastructures needed to exploit natural resources and to expand their exploitation, including undertaking geological studies, laboratory technique training, training development, drafting legislation, and preparation of contracts. The department has also taken part in several studies dealing with energy, including those about oil production and dams, to make a general assessment of all the available sites if the countries so desire. In the Sahel subregion a study was undertaken to look for ways of reinforcing the planning and programming capacity of the states for better regional economic integration of their economy. In the field of research, science, and technology, major resources have been invested such as in the organization of the exchange of scientific information in research. The department has also developed an assistance program in the field of administration and public finance to help countries increase their administrative and financial management capacity for economic and social development; 1 activity is to follow up and examine changes in public administration and finance trends as well as the study of the role of the public sector in national development. Methods have been developed for analyzing administrative problems and setting up new administrative structures. Priority will be given to: 1) the development of human resources capable of implementing programs, and 2) the reinforcement of the appropriate institutions capable of providing the techniques necessary for the development and diffusion of the sciences dealing with population and demography in African countries.
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  2. 2

    Population and development modelling: recommendations and proceedings of the UNFPA/United Nations Technical Working Group Meeting.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1980. 40 p. (Policy Development Studies No. 6)

    This critical review of existing models and the assessment of their practical value for policy making and planning was prepared by a group of experts representing the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and the Population Division of the United Nations Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. The panel assessed the models with regard to their acceptability to the needs of developing countries, taking into consideration conceptual and methodological problems and the availability of appropriate data and technical infrastructure. Models of development that more accurately reflect the role of population change are necessary to improving policies and programs that integrate demographic considerations into national development planning. Attention is directed to the role of models, types of population-development models, the institutional framework, and research priorities. Efforts to develop population-development models need to continue because carefully crafted and properly validated models of this type can be of considerable value in integrating demographic factors into planning and policy formulation. 2 broad classes of population-development models are analytic or research models and models intended for direct application in policy making and planning. Modelling research should proceed along several paths. A promising approach involves the construction of models that integrate socioeconomic and demographic behavior at the family level.
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  3. 3

    Recommendations of the Expert Group Meeting on Population-Development Modelling: report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Population Commission

    New York, UN, 1980 Nov 20. 9 p. (E/CN.9/353)

    This document contains the recommendations of the Expert Group Meeting on Population-Development Modelling organized by the Population Division and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The meeting was held September 24-28, 1979 at Geneva. The Expert Group developed and adopted a set of recommendations for future research and action in the following areas: role of population-development models; types of population-development models; institutional framework; and priorities for future research. These recommendations are presented to the Population Commission for its consideration and appropriate action, within the context of the future work program in population. The Secretary-General recommended a project be launched which would involve the preparation of manuals for several existing comprehensive population development models and certain prototype partial models. The documentation should include purposes of the model, assumptions, data requirements, institutional factors, and computer hardware and software requirements. A second series of manuals should be prepared which would describe the way existing models could be applied to particular areas of concern in development planning. Another project should construct a standardized accounting framework, similar to the national income accounts, which would be appropriate for population development models at the micro level.
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  4. 4

    Progress of work, 1979-1980, of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs in the field of population: report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Population Commission

    New York, UN, 1980 Nov 18. 20 p. (E/CN.9/349)

    A progress report of work performed during the 1979-1980 period by the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs in the field of population is presented. Covered in the report are activities of the Secretariat in the analysis of demographic trends and structure, demographic estimates and projections, fertility and family planning, population and development, population policy, monitoring and review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action. Also included are other continuing activities of the Secretariat. During the period covered by the report, efforts continued to carry out the program adopted by the Commission and the General Assembly. Mortality studies were reinstated along with urbanization studies, the scope of work in international migration was expanded, and new projections were prepared of total population, its sex-age structure, its urban-rural distribution, and the number of households and families. Additional work was carried out on analysis of World Fertility Survey data and of factors affecting acceptance of family planning programs. Also continued was the investigation of the relationships between social and economic factors and the components of demographic change. Under continuous study was the policy implications of the changing world population. Studies in population development and studies analyzing population policies were predominant in this 3rd round of monitoring of population trends and policies.
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  5. 5

    The role of ICDDR, B in research, training and extension of oral rehydration therapy.

    Greenough WB 3d

    Glimpse. 1980 Sep; 2(9):1-2.

    No effective prevention has yet been developed for diarrhea, the most important cause of death and disability in developing countries. Two steps may alleviate the suffering attributed to diarrhea. Through research, the 1st step, effective and inexpensive measures have been developed for application. One is oral rehydration therapy (ORT), a highly effective, inexpensive and technologically simple measure which can abolish death and most of the disability caused by watery diarrhea. The 2nd step is training people to use ORT. ICDDR, B has an important role to play in this process. An effective oral rehydration solution contains an appropriate concentration of salts, water and carrier substances which transport the salts and water into the body. Glucose has been the standard carrier sustance, but certain amino acids are also effective. As both glucose and amino acids are found in many food items, an active research program is needed to test the relative efficacy of food sources which contain glucose and amino acids and which when mixed with salts and water will provide an effective oral rehydration solution. Sucrose-based solutions have also been used to treat watery diarrhea. Fundamental to the ORT is the ability to measure correctly a certain volume of water and to mix a given amount of solutes with the measured amount of water. This is the objective of training and education. By encouraging and assisting research and development of any group with ideas of merit, the ICDDR, B hopes to serve as a catalyst in the rapid spread of effective ORT in the afflicted parts of the world.
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  6. 6

    Report of the second meeting of the Technical Advisory Group, Geneva, WHO, January 28-31, 1980.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1980. 26 p.

    During the meeting of the Technical Advisory Group, the following objectives and strategies of the WHO diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme were endorsed: 1) reduction of diarrheal diseases mortality by means of widespread implementation of oral rehydration therapy, along with guidance on appropriate feeding practices and the strengthening or establishment of adequate epidemiological surveillance mechanisms to evaluate mortality changes, and 2) promotion of maternal and child care and environmental health practices to reduce diarrheal morbidity. By 1983, the Programme hopes to make oral rehydration salts (ORS) accessible to 25% of children under 5 years of age in developing countries. About 70 developing countries were reported to be either planning to develop or were formulating plans of operation for national CDD (Diarrheal Diseases Control) as a primary health care activity. Proposed Programme activities in the areas of country program planning and evaluation, management and technical training, logistic support and information dissemination were endorsed by the Group. The research component of the Programme was also reviewed, and priority areas were recommended for operational and basic research designed to improve strategies for program delivery and develop new tools for prevention and treatment. The Group also strongly endorsed the formation and convening of global and regional Scientific Working Groups or analogous bodies to coordinate and execute the research programme. The current budgetary status of the Programme was also discussed.
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  7. 7

    Diarrheal diseases control program: report on global activities, 1978-1979.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, World Health Organization, 1980. 10 p.

    The activities of the Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program are summarized. In May 1978 the World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Advisory Group on Program Development for CDD recommended 5 strategies for inclusion in the program: 1) clinical management of acute diarrhea with emphasis on oral rehydration; 2) improved maternal and child care practices; 3) improvement of water supplies, sanitation, and food hygiene; 4) epidemiological surveillance; and 5) health education. Globally, the primary activities in the implementation component of the Program have been focused on promoting and supporting the formulation of plans for national CDD programs. There is hardly any developing country that is not using 1 or more of the CDD strategies. Meetings and activities held by various WHO regional offices have helped the development of plans of operation in some 70 countries. In support of national programs, a major effort has been initiated in training. The materials and activities under development include a management training course for country CDD program managers and a CDD program operations manual. Obtaining an adequate supply of prepackaged oral rehydration salts (ORS) has been a major constraint in the development of national CDD programs. Plans for 1980 include continued and increasing support for the development and implementation of national CDD programs and the initiation of larger-scale funding of both applied and basic research.
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  8. 8

    Family planning in Mexico: a profile of the development of policies and programmes.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, [1980]. 46 p.

    Mexican social, economic, and population indicators are discussed and tabulated. In 1972, the government, realizing the magnitude of the nation's population problem, reversed its previous antinatalist policy. The President acknowledged the individual's right to have family planning services available and the government's duty to provide family planning information. The Ministry of Health instituted a program to provide family planning services for that part of the population needing public services. A National Population Council was established to coordinate various public and private services active in the population field. Market research is being undertaken into the feasibility of government sponsored commercial distribution of contraceptives. Sterilization will be an integral part of the governmental family planning services. Acceptor targets and accomplishments and the budget for these governmentally-provided services are presented. A detailed discussion of the history and activities of the IPPF affiliate in Mexico is also presented. Despite the initially unfavorable atmosphere in the mid-1960s, FEPAC (Foundation for the Study of Population) was able to establish a network of family planning clinics. In addition to clinic programs, FEPAC carries out research, training, and education/information activities.
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