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Report of the Expanded Programme on Immunization Global Advisory Group Meeting, 20-23 October 1980, Geneva.
[Unpublished] 1980. 39 p. (EPI/GEN/80/1)This report of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group Meeting, held during October 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland, presents conclusions and recommendations, global and regional overviews, working group discussions, and outlines global advisory group activities for 1981. In terms of global strategies, the EPI confronts dual challenges: to reduce morbidity and mortality by providing immunizations for all children of the world by 1990; and to develop immunization services in consonance with other health services, particularly those directed towards mothers and children, so they can mutually strengthen the approach of primary health care. Increased resources are needed to support the expansion of immunization services and to establish them as permanent elements of the health care system. The Global Advisory Group affirms the importance of setting quantified targets as a basic principle of management and endorses the principle of setting targets for the reduction of the EPI diseases at national, regional, and global levels. The primary focus for the World Health Organization (WHO) in promoting the EPI continues to be the support to national program implementation in all its aspects. The Group reviewed current EPI immunization schedules and policies and concurs in the following: for measles, for most developing countries, the available data support the current recommendations of administering a single dose of vaccine to children as early as possible after the child reaches the age of 9 months; for DPT, children in the 1st year of life should receive a series of 3 DPT doses administered at intervals of at least 1 month; for tetanus toxoid, the control of neonatal and puerperal tetanus by immunizing women of childbearing age, particularly pregnant women, is endorsed; for poliomyelitis, the Group endorses the "Outline for WHO's Research on Poliomyelitis, Polioviruses and Poliomyelitis Vaccines" prepared by the WHO Working Group convened in October 1980, i.e., for oral (live) vaccines, a 3-dose schedule, administered simultaneously with DPT vaccine, is recommended again; and for BCG concurred with the Advisory Committee on Medical Research conclusion that the use of BCG as an anti-tuberculosis measure within the EPI should be continued as at present. The implementation of programs at the national level remains the foremost priority for the EPI. National commitment, evidenced in part by the designation of a national manager, the establishment of realistic targets, and the allocation of adequate resources, is essential if programs are to succeed.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1980; (651):1-19.This document reports the discussions of a Scientific Group on Vaccination Against Tuberculosis, cosponsored by the Indian Council of Medical Research and the World Health Organization (WHO), that met in 1980. The objectives of the meeting were to review research on Bacillus Calmete-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, assess the present state of knowledge, and determine how to advance this knowledge. Particular emphasis is placed in this document on the trial of BCG vaccines in South India. In this trial, the tuberculin sensitivity induced by BCG vaccination was highly satisfactory at 2 1/2 months but had waned sharply by 2 1/2 years and the 7 1/2-year follow up revealed a high incidence of tuberculous infection in the study population. It is suggested that the protective effect of BCG may depend on epidemiologic, environmental, and immunologic factors affecting both the host and the infective agent. Studies to test certain hypotheses (e.g., the immune response of the study population was unusual, the vaccines were inadequate, the south Indian variant of M tuberculosis acted as an attenuating immunizing agent, and mycobacteria other than M tuberculosis may have partially immunized the study population) are recommended. A detailed analysis should be made when results from the 10-year follow up of the south Indian study population are available.
The global eradication of smallpox. Final report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 122 p. (History of International Public Health No. 4)The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.
[Washington, D.C.], PAHO, . 36 p. (Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Workshop Module IV)Upon completion of this module devoted to planning immunization activities, the participant will be able to explain the elements involved in planning immunization activities. Specific objectives include: to choose priorities among the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) diseases and vaccines; to choose the priority population groups for EPI: to gather essential information about the community to be provided with immunization services; to be able to make an inventory of resources needed in immunizations; to apply the technique of problem analysis and solution to the immunization program; to define different tactics for immunization activities; to be able to write quantitative objectives; and to estimate vaccine needs for a given population. The module covers: priority among geographic areas and people; location of health facilities in relation to the population to be served; problem analysis and solution; selection of immunization tactics; scheduling vaccination activities; setting quantitative objectives; and planning vaccine distribution.
[Washington, D.C] PAHO, .  p. (Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Workshop. Module V)At the end of this module, the participant will be able to analyze the various available methods to evaluate immunization activities. Specific objectives include: to use the success or failure in accomplishing program objectives to evaluate Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) performance; to recognize the reduction of cases and deaths caused by the EPI diseases as the ultimate evaluation of the program; to define vaccination coverage; to state the different sources of data on vaccination coverage (including the sample survey); to explain the evaluation of "key" inputs; to explain how evaluation is used in the management of immunization activities; and to explain how supervision contributes to program evaluation. The purpose of evaluation is to manage the EPI activities better. When new problems are identified through evaluation, solutions to these problems are necessary. Ideally, the process of problem identification, problem solution, performance, and evaluation is continuous and leads to increasingly better performance.
[Supplement on bibliographical services throughout the world in 1978] Supplement sur les services bibliographiques dans le monde en 1978; Suplemento relativo a los servicios bibliograficos en el mundo en 1978.
General Information Programme--Unisist Newsletter. 1980; (Annual Suppl):1-102.Add to my documents.
[Directory of United Nations information systems] Repertoire des systems d'information des Nations Unies; Directorio de sistemas de information de las Naciones Unidas.
Geneva, Switz., U.N. Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems, 1980.Add to my documents.
Draft report of meeting; [United Nations Interagency Working Group on Demographic Estimates and Projections, tenth session, 12-14 November 1980, Bangkok].
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, 1980. 18 p.Add to my documents.
Intermediating development assistance in health: prospects for organizing a public/private investment portfolio.
Washington, D.C., Family Health, 1980 July 23. 162 p.The objective of this study is to identify and assess the potential role of intermediary organizations in furthering AID health assistance objectives. The 1st section of this report is an introduction to the potential roles of intermediaries through health assistance via the private voluntary community. A background of the private voluntary organizations is discussed along with some of the constraints that may impede their activity, such as competing interests, values and priorities. The following section defines what is and should be an intermediary organization along with examples of certain functions involved; a discussion of the experience of AID in the utilization of intermediaries follows. 3 models of utilization of intermediaries are analyzed according to the rationale involved, strategy, advantages and constraints. The 3rd section attempts to define and identify AID's needs for programming its health assistance in regard to primary health care, water and sanitation, disease control and health planning. A detailed analysis of the potential roles of intermediary organizations is discussed in reference to policy development, project development and design, project implementation, research, training and evaluation. The 4th section identifies the programming strengths and interests among listed private voluntary organizations in the US. The 5th section discusses the potential of intermediaries in health assistance in reference to the options for funding them in health and the constraints to direct AID funding of intermediary organizations. The last section discusses a series of recommendations made in regard to the development and funding of an international effort to marshall private resources in support of health assistance. Problems and constraints, as well as resources and opportunities, for the development of this international effort are further discussed.
Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the National Family Planning and Sex Education Programme of Costa Rica.
[Unpublished] 1980 Mar. 89 p.This report of the evaluation of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance to Costa Rica's National Family Planning and Sex Education Program covers the following: 1) project dimension and purpose of the evaluation, scope and methodology of the evaluation, composition of the mission, and constraints; 2) background information; 3) 1974-77 family planning/sex education program (overview, immediate objectives, strategy, activities and targets, and institutional framework); 4) planned and actual inputs and rephasing in 1978-79; 5) family planning activities (physical facilities and types of services provided, recruitment of new users, continuation of users within the program, distribution of contraceptive supplies, sterilizations, and indicators of program impact); 6) training and supervision; 7) education, information, and communication (formal and nonformal education, educational activities in the clinics, and the impact of the nonformal educational program); 8) maternal and child health (maternal health indicators, cytological examinations, and infant mortality); 9) program evaluation and research; 10) population policy; 11) program administration; 12) some general conclusions regarding the performance of the program; and 13) the program beyond 1979. UNFPA evaluations are independent, in depth analyses, prepared and conducted by the Office of Evaluation, usually with the assistance of outside consultants. The process of analysis used in the evaluation follows a logical progression, i.e., that which underlines the original program design. Evaluation assessment includes an analysis of inputs and outputs, an investigation of the interrelationship among activities, an indication of the effectiveness of activities in achieving the objectives, and an assessment of duplication of activities or lack of coverage and the effect of this on realization of the objectives. The program was able to expand the coverage of family planning activities but has been unsuccessful in having a population policy established. The number of hospitals, health centers, and rural health posts providing family planning services was tripled in the 1974-77 period. The program could not achieve its targets in number of new users, and it recruited in 1977, only 11% of the total population of the country, against the 20% planned. It has been estimated that between 1973-77 around 231,200 births or 44.4% of those possible had been averted. Training and supervision has been a weak area of the program. A large number of professors have been trained in sex education, but no evaluation has been undertaken of the likely impact of this trained staff at the school level. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program has been successful in taking information and education to the population on family planning/sex education concerns but less successful in motivating the political groups to formulate a population policy.
[Unpublished] . 10 p. (UNFPA Project no. PDY-79-P07)The objectives of the In-School Population and Family Life Education Project of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen include the following: to launch a comprehensive population and family life education program to help in speeding population awareness and understanding of the country's demographic situation; to introduce population education into the new curricula at different levels of the school system; to introduce population and family life education into the preservice and inservice teacher training curricula of the higher college of education; to produce 2 university level reference books; to develop resource materials of audiovisual aids for training of key personnel; to prepare special training programs for pioneer teachers and other selected teachers to enable them to train inservice teachers and to produce instructional materials; to train approximately 1000 unity school level teachers and 160 pioneer teachers and 40 audiovisual pioneers in 4 years; to train approximately 1500 preservice teachers and 600 inservice teachers at the higher college of education; and to reinforce the research activities in the Education Research Center in the field of population and family life. The project is under the Ministry of Education's Educational Research Center (ERC) with the General Director of ERC as its national director and the Deputy Director of ERC as national coordinator. The activities of this school project include: curriculum development in university, secondary, and primary schools; production of textbooks, reference books, and audiovisual teaching aids for teachers and students at different levels; and a teacher training program. Teacher training in the regular preservice and inservice teachers training courses in the Higher College of Education will take place over the September 1981 through June 1984 period. The training of 160 pioneer teachers will occur through special courses held during March/April of 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984. The training of 1000 selected teachers in the Ministry of Education training centers will take place during July/August 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984. The government contribution for this project is $273,440. The contribution of the UN Fund for Population Activities is $82,484 for 1980 and $198,858 for 1981. The approximate starting date of the project is October 1980, and the approximate date of completion is 1984.
People's Republic of China. Population education in the secondary schools and the teacher training of the People's Republic of China. Education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 3 p. (UNFPA Project No CPR-80-P14)This paper outlines the short and long term objectives of a population education project in China, entitled, "Population Education in the Secondary Schools and the Teacher Training of the People's Republic of China." The project is planned for 1980-82 under the administration of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and Unesco. Costs are projected at $500,000 plus 1,349,500 Yuan. Short term objectives include: 1) revising the curriculum of middle schools with the aim of integrating population education, 2) revising existing materials in population education, 3) developing competencies in teaching population education among 8000 middle school teachers through 10 in-service training pedagogical institutes, 4) equipping 10 institutes and 10 middle schools with audiovisual facilities, books, and reference materials, 5) equipping the Compilation Department of the Educational Publishing House with books and audiovisual aids, and 6) assessing the performance of the project and the impact of population education on teachers and students. The long term objective is to contribute to the overall government government population policy objectives of reducing the rate of population growth from 12/1000 to 5/1000 by 1985, and to achieve zero population growth by year 2000.
New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 111 p. (Population Education Programme Service)This report presents the results of a workshop on Innovative Structures and Approaches to Population Education which enabled 12 Asian countries with population education programs to share their experiences. The workshop also enabled countries with emerging population education programs to formulate alternative and innovative structures for more effective implementation of programs. Participants came from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The report contains individual country reports on the current population situation, population education programs, in-school programs, out-of-school programs, and innovative approaches to population education. In most cases, population education is viewed as part of national development plans. In many countries, it is relatively new and often equated with the family planning programs. There is a need for awareness and orientation programs, such as study tours by government officials, seminars, and the use of Unesco Mobile teams. Various strategies for curriculum development that have been used are infusion of population examples, integration of issues into syllabi and textbooks, and adding separate units on population in selected subjects. Training of teachers has included self-learning modules, face-to-face training, and seminars. Research and evaluation on population education has been carried out in 4 countries (e.g. content analysis of textbooks and survey of parent and students). Out-of-school programs, radio and television, national theater, and home visits have increased awareness of population education. Alternative structures and approaches to population education are discussed in terms of program development and implementation, awareness and orientation of key persons and training of teachers, curriculum and material development, and coordination with different agencies/departments and administrative organization.
New York, UNFPA, 1980 May. 64 p.This report reviews and analyzes the type of projects the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been supporting in the field of women, population, and development during the 1969-1979 period. After screening 180 projects for possible review from the almost 2000 projects funded by UNFPA between the 10 year period, 106 were selected because they satisfied the following criteria: they either addressed women specifically or women were the primary project focus. To follow the historical development in UNFPA funding of women's projects as well as to arrive at a descriptive overview, the 106 projects were analyzed in 2 different ways. For overview purposes they were divided into Direct Women's Projects (DWP)--68 items--and Indirect Women's Projects (IWP)--32 items. For the historical perspective, only the 68 DWPs were studied. These were separated into 3 groups: projects funded before the World Conferences on Population and Women in 1974 and 1975; projects funded during the conference years; and projects funded after the conferences. The overview, which included all 106 projects, revealed some noteworthy characteristics of the UNFPA funding process. DWPs were more likely to be designated "Status of Women" (54%) and to be more research oriented, and were more likely to be country specific. IWPs had no "Status of Women" projects, and were more training oriented (37%). From an historical perspective in analyzing only the 68 DWPs, the crucial turning point in UNFPA's funding of Women's Projects was the 2 World Conferences. Following the conferences, women funded projects increased to 47 from the preconference level of 17. This period's most salient feature was its emphasis on raising the awareness of women and communities. During the conference related period, several projects were funded principally to prepare data on women and to provide support services for the conferences. There was a shift to research-action combination projects during the post-conference period.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 19 p. (Series 1, Pt. 7)The population education documents and materials abstracted in this section focusing on curriculum and instructional materials are primarily meant for practitioners--teachers, trainers, extension workers, curriculum and material developers, whose role of disseminating population education concepts via the face-to-face approach is greatly enhanced by the use of the more impersonal forms of communication. The materials were selected to provide practitioners with a recommended list of teaching/learning tools and materials which they can use in their work. These materials come in the form of handbooks, manuals, guidebooks, packages, kits and reports. They cover all aspects of materials development, including the procedures in developing various types of materials and showing how population education concepts can be integrated into the various development themes. They also describe teaching/learning and training methods that are participatory in nature--games and simulations, role playing, problem solving, self-awareness exercises, communications sensitivity, human relations, projective exercises, programmed instructions and value clarification. In addition the abstracts provide a general summary of what curriculum areas can be used as entry points for population education concepts.
World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980. Review and evaluation of progress achieved in the implementation of the World Plan of Action: national machinery and legislation.
[New York], UN, 1980. 27 p. (A/CONF.94/11)This report is part of an overall review and appraisal of progress achieved and obstacles encountered at the national level (1975-1979) in implementing the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year. Focus in the 1st chapter is on national machinery and women's organizations. Legislation is the subject of the 2nd chapter with attention directed to the following: constitutional and legislative guarantees of the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of sex; sanctions and/or remedies to deal with violations; measures to inform women of their rights; effects upon the status of women of variances between civil and customary religious law; nationality; and civil law in the fields of property rights, legal capacity, right to movement, consent to marriage, rights during marriage and at its dissolution, minimum age of marriage, registration of marriages, parental rights and duties, right to retain the family name, provision of penal codes and measures to combat prostitution. The integration of women into national life has been formally accepted by the governments of most countries as a desirable planning objective. To ensure that the commitment to integrate women into national life is actually translated into action, it is essential to have institutional and organizational structures and arrangements to identify problems, formulate requisite policies, monitor the implementation of such policies and coordinate national efforts and initiatives in the area. Governments reported the establishment of different kinds of administrative and institutional machinery to integrate women into national life. The nature of the machinery varies according to the specific socioeconomic and political system of each State along with the degree of support it received from the government.
Report of the first meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Viral Diarrhoeas: microbiology, epidemiology, immunology, and vaccine development, Geneva, 1980.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 11 p.The main function of the Scientific Working Group was to review existing knowledge, designate areas where research was needed, recommended approaches for such research; and prepare a research plan. The Group's five year work plan for research is described, consisting of 3 priority topics: investigations related to viral diarrheas in general, studies of rotavirus diarrhea (recognized by the Group as the most important public health problem among the viral diarrheas at present), and research to determine the possible role as a cause of diarrhea of other viral agents (Norwalk and Norwalk-like agents, adenoviruses, calcivirus, coronavirus, axtrovirus, and other small round viruses). Needed epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and studies of disease resistance and vaccine development are identified. Identification of institutions to undertake research was discussed; priority was given to locating institutions and individuals within the developing world, or those in developed countries which work closely with developing world groups. An application form was reviewed and approved, and some general principles established. A list of participants in the meeting, and the 1st report of the Rotavirus reagents subgroup are appended.
Program report [of the Central America regional seminar-workshop entitled] New Focuses of Family Planning Program Administration: Analysis of Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and Other Program Data, [held in] Antigua, Guatemala, May 25-30, 1980.
[Washington, D.C., CEFPA, 1980.] 30 p. (Contract AID/pha-c-1187)This report 1) presents a summary of the planning process of the seminar-workshop in family planning held in Antigua, Guatemala from May 25-30, 1980; 2) reviews program content and training methodology; and 3) provides feedback on the evaluation of the program and in-country follow-up responses to the workshop. Negotiations were made between the Centre for Population Activities (CEFPA) officials, USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) population/health officials, and family planning officials from each participating country to elicit program suggestions and support. The ensuing communication process facilitated the development of the program in many ways, including: 1) program design, which incorporated in-country family planning program needs, suggested workshop topics, and country-specific requests for workshop objective; 2) participant selection; and 3) USAID mission commitment. The workshop aimed to provide an opportunity for leaders of family planning and related programs to make an intelligent and effective use of data available to them. The training methodology consisted of structured small-group exercises. Program content included: 1) contraceptive prevalence survey case exercise, which aims to identify problem areas and need in the delivery of family planning and maternal child health services as a tool in assessing progress towards family planning goals; 2) other data sources available to family planning program managers, including World Fertility Survey data and program service statistics; 3) program alternatives in the form of mini-workshops on such topics as logistics management, improving clinic efficiency, primary health and family planning, adolescent fertility, and voluntary sterilization; and 4) program planning, which enables participants to interpret data and apply them in the planning process. In evaluating the workshop, a majority of the participants reported that the workshop and their own personal objectives were either completely or almost completely achieved, and they also indicated that more workshops at the regional and national levels should be conducted.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-10. (Series 1, Pt. 6)Abstracts are presented of documents and materials which describe how population education has been introduced in the total rural development programs in various parts of the Asian region. The role that rural development agencies can play in bringing population education to the countryside is shown along with the contribution that population education can make in the overall policy and planning of socioeconomic development. Many of the abstracts summarize the various approaches, strategies and procedures used by rural development programs in incorporating family needs and population-related knowledge which can aid in improving rural life. The primary approach which commonly appeared in all the documents was the use of the existing government structure and the network of available resources and labor force in the community to make population education a part of the rural development programs.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 15 p. (Series 1, Pt. 5)A compendium of abstracts of selected handbooks, case studies and monographs is presented. These abstracts describe how youth programs of various development agencies all over the region have innovatively involved the out-of-school youth in learning population education concepts and practices. A comprehensive inventory of case studies of organizations involved in educating the out-of-school youth on population education concepts in many Asian countries is provided. A variety of alternative strategies and approaches have been tried and tested in many pilot projects. The range of alternatives includes summer camps, vocational and income-generating activities, parents and youth clubs, and youth organizations via the medium of music, sports, education, work and others. A more significant feature of the abstracts is the consolidation of lessons learned from these activities as well as guidelines from these lessons which can be used for planning, designing, implementing and evaluating out-of-school population education programs.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-17. (Series 1, Pt. 4)The main theme of all the materials that were abstracted and reviewed in the area of population education in literacy is that literacy programs and population education in the non-formal setting must be linked with the real problems and needs of the people if they are to be effective. Highlighted in the abstracts presented are the strategies, guidelines, procedures and the processes used in making population education in literacy programs acceptable to the millions of illiterates, out-of-school youths and adults throughout the Asian region, who are preoccupied with satisfying their immediate needs for food and water. Two successful experimental functional literacy-population education projects carried out by the Adult Education Division of the Ministry of Education in Thailand and the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement are reported. Most of the documents reviewed have been both enhanced and enriched by the extensive work and experiences of the UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania and by the materials of the World Education which are a result of 18 years of practical field work in literacy.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-9. (Series 1, Pt. 3)Abstracts are presented of materials that focus on the issue of population education in Asia's labor sector. The materials reveal that the efforts of mobilizing the labor sector to incorporate population education into their non-formal activities have revolved around trianing of workers, labor management, guidance schemes, production of materials, and provision of family planning services. Population education activities are being carried out through trade union movements, vocational and training programs, cooperatives, rural workers and industrial associations of workers reaching all the professional levels--managers or labor administrators to trade union leaders and workers. These efforts are documented in the manuals, guides, reports, books and booklets which have been abstracted. The International Labor Organization has facilitated the organization and consolidation of efforts of introducing population education into the labor sector at both the regional and the national level.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-8. (Series 1, Pt. 2)The abstracts of reports of workshops and meetings presented here reveal the collective efforts of the Food and Agriculture Organization and country organizations in motivating and mobilizing the agricultural sector into integrating population education in its various out-of-school activities, namely, curriculum development, training programs, action-oriented research, and instructional materials development. Enumerated are the various channels used in disseminating population education concepts to reach its various audiences such as cooperatives, small farmer program, inservice staff training, curricula of rural development training institutes, farm and home management courses, vocational courses and others. Along with descriptions of the workshops and conference proceedings, the reports include curriculum materials, syllabi and training courses developed during the workshops.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-14. (Series 1, Pt. 1)Abstracts of 8 national case studies on the out-of-school population education programs in the Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are presented. Provided is the total picture and the framework upon which the population education in the out-of-school sector in these countries are being conducted. The case studies show that the majority of the out-of-school population education programs have developed by means of a process of evolution rather than as a result of strict systematic planning. To some extent this evolution has been facilitated by several governmental and nongovernmental organizations which initiated the integration of population education into their own development oriented programs such as welfare, literacy, agriculture and labor. The objectives and activities for out-of-school population education have become an organic part of the development programs, many of which are family planning oriented. This situation has brought some confusion regarding how to define population education in the out-of-school sector and what its boundaries are.