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  1. 1

    Revised project request: In-school Population and Family Life Education.

    Yemen. People's Democratic Republic of

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 10 p. (UNFPA Project no. PDY-79-P07)

    The objectives of the In-School Population and Family Life Education Project of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen include the following: to launch a comprehensive population and family life education program to help in speeding population awareness and understanding of the country's demographic situation; to introduce population education into the new curricula at different levels of the school system; to introduce population and family life education into the preservice and inservice teacher training curricula of the higher college of education; to produce 2 university level reference books; to develop resource materials of audiovisual aids for training of key personnel; to prepare special training programs for pioneer teachers and other selected teachers to enable them to train inservice teachers and to produce instructional materials; to train approximately 1000 unity school level teachers and 160 pioneer teachers and 40 audiovisual pioneers in 4 years; to train approximately 1500 preservice teachers and 600 inservice teachers at the higher college of education; and to reinforce the research activities in the Education Research Center in the field of population and family life. The project is under the Ministry of Education's Educational Research Center (ERC) with the General Director of ERC as its national director and the Deputy Director of ERC as national coordinator. The activities of this school project include: curriculum development in university, secondary, and primary schools; production of textbooks, reference books, and audiovisual teaching aids for teachers and students at different levels; and a teacher training program. Teacher training in the regular preservice and inservice teachers training courses in the Higher College of Education will take place over the September 1981 through June 1984 period. The training of 160 pioneer teachers will occur through special courses held during March/April of 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984. The training of 1000 selected teachers in the Ministry of Education training centers will take place during July/August 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984. The government contribution for this project is $273,440. The contribution of the UN Fund for Population Activities is $82,484 for 1980 and $198,858 for 1981. The approximate starting date of the project is October 1980, and the approximate date of completion is 1984.
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  2. 2

    Population in the Arab world: problems and prospects.

    Omran AR

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities; London, England, Croom Helm, 1980. 215 p.

    The Arab population, consisting of 20 states and the people of Palestine, was almost 153 million in 1978 and is expected to reach 300 million by the year 2000. Most Arab countries have a high population growth rate of 3%, a young population structure with about 50% under age 15, a high rate of marriage, early age of marriage, large family size norm, and an agrarian rural community life, along with a high rate of urban expansion. Health patterns are also similar with epidemic diseases leading as causes of mortality and morbidity. But there is uneven distribution of wealth in the region with per capita annual income ranging from US$100 in Somalia to US$12,050 in Kuwait; health care is also more elaborate in the wealthier countries. Fertility rates are high in most countries, with crude birthrates about 45/1000 compared with 32/1000 in the world as a whole and 17/1000 in most developed countries. In many Arab countries up to 30-50% of total investment is involved in population-related activities compared to 15% in European countries. There is also increasing pressure in the educational and health systems with the same amount of professionals dealing with an increasing amount of people. Unplanned and excessive fertility also contributes to health problems for mothers and children with higher morbidity, mortality, and nutrition problems. Physical isolation of communities contributes to difficulties in spreading health care availability. Urban population is growing rapidly, 6%/year in most Arab cities, and at a rate of 10-15% in the cities of Kuwait and Qatar; this rate is not accompanied by sufficient urban planning policies or modernization. A unique population problem in this area is that of the over 2 million Palestinians living in and outside the Middle East who put demographic pressures on the Arab countries. 2 major constraints inhibit efforts to solve the Arab population problem: 1) the difficulty of actually reallocating the people to achieve more even distribution, and 2) cultural and political sensitivities. Since in the Arab countries fertility does not correlate well with social and economic indicators, it is possible that development alone will not reduce the fertility of the Arab countries unless rigorous and effective family planning policies are put into action.
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  3. 3

    Middle East health: the outlook after 30 years of WHO assistance in a changing region.

    Simon J

    Alexandria, World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1980. 133 p.

    An assessment of health progress in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is provided through narration and photographs. The renewed threat of malaria and efforts to control it are discussed. Other traditional diseases of the area examined in today's terms are schistosomiasis, cholera, tuberculosis, trachoma and smallpox. Modern health problems, including cancer, heart diseases, mental disorders and occupational hazards are explored. Environmental problems, or "the fall-outs of technology," are discussed, along with urban sprawl, water shortages, air and marine pollution and desertification. It is stressed that changing times demand changing attitudes towards the environment. Specific areas that need to be addressed, particularly food safety, are pointed out. WHO's work with EMR countries in health manpower development includes planning, educational development and support, and the actual training of individuals. The need for more health personnel is documented. Nursing as a profession in the EMR is discussed, as is its growth; 1 problem in education of nurses is the lack of textbooks in Arabic. The prospects of health for all by the year 2000 are discussed. The importance of using appropriate technology in providing primary health care is stressed. Family health and planning is examined, including child care priorities such as newborn care, the critical weaning period, and immunization. Current biomedical research in the EMR is discussed, including health services research, efforts for diarrhea and streptococcal infection control, drug utilization studies, tropical disease studies and the search for a malaria vaccine. MEDLINE, the regional health literature service, is described. Technical cooperation among the countries of the EMR is discussed. Profiles showing the population, medical manpower and health facilities of each country in the EMR are provided.
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  4. 4

    United Nations population estimates and projections with special reference to the Arab world.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations Economic Commission For Western Asia. 1980 Jun; 18:65-80.

    The United Nations Population Division has been preparing world population estimates and projections by region since 1951, by country since 1958, and by sex and age for each country since 1968. The latest revision of the projections was prepared in 1978. The 2 basic methods of preparing population projections are mathematical and component, and the component methods are most widely used at present, by both national governments and the United Nations. Before projections are prepared, the base data must be evaluated and adjusted. In the UN projections, the assumptions imply that orderly progress will be made and that there will be no catastrophes such as famines and epidemics during the projection period. The projectins are prepared in 4 variants--"medium", "high," "low," and "constant." A major source of uncertainty in populations arises from the problem of estimating future fertility. Changes in fertility affect the age distribution and the total population size more than changes in mortality. At the UN, mortality assumptions are initially made in terms of life expectancy at birth and then in terms of age-sex patterns of probabilities of survival corresponding to different life expectancy levels at birth. Some of the results of the 1978 revision of the medium variant of the estimates and projections are shown in table form. The world total population of 4,033,000,000 in 1975 is projected to reach 6,199,000,000 by the year 2000. Among the major areas and regions of the world, the most rapid population growth for the future is projected for the Arab countries, Africa and Latin America. Of the 2 Arab regions, North Africa and Southwest Asia, Southwest Asia is expected to have the higher rate of growth because of assumed continued immigration. Within the Arab regions, there has been an increasing diversity in the rate of population growth. This divergence is expected to narrow with assumed decreased migration rates during the 1980s.
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