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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1980; (651):1-19.This document reports the discussions of a Scientific Group on Vaccination Against Tuberculosis, cosponsored by the Indian Council of Medical Research and the World Health Organization (WHO), that met in 1980. The objectives of the meeting were to review research on Bacillus Calmete-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, assess the present state of knowledge, and determine how to advance this knowledge. Particular emphasis is placed in this document on the trial of BCG vaccines in South India. In this trial, the tuberculin sensitivity induced by BCG vaccination was highly satisfactory at 2 1/2 months but had waned sharply by 2 1/2 years and the 7 1/2-year follow up revealed a high incidence of tuberculous infection in the study population. It is suggested that the protective effect of BCG may depend on epidemiologic, environmental, and immunologic factors affecting both the host and the infective agent. Studies to test certain hypotheses (e.g., the immune response of the study population was unusual, the vaccines were inadequate, the south Indian variant of M tuberculosis acted as an attenuating immunizing agent, and mycobacteria other than M tuberculosis may have partially immunized the study population) are recommended. A detailed analysis should be made when results from the 10-year follow up of the south Indian study population are available.
The global eradication of smallpox. Final report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 122 p. (History of International Public Health No. 4)The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.
People's Republic of China. Population education in the secondary schools and the teacher training of the People's Republic of China. Education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 3 p. (UNFPA Project No CPR-80-P14)This paper outlines the short and long term objectives of a population education project in China, entitled, "Population Education in the Secondary Schools and the Teacher Training of the People's Republic of China." The project is planned for 1980-82 under the administration of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and Unesco. Costs are projected at $500,000 plus 1,349,500 Yuan. Short term objectives include: 1) revising the curriculum of middle schools with the aim of integrating population education, 2) revising existing materials in population education, 3) developing competencies in teaching population education among 8000 middle school teachers through 10 in-service training pedagogical institutes, 4) equipping 10 institutes and 10 middle schools with audiovisual facilities, books, and reference materials, 5) equipping the Compilation Department of the Educational Publishing House with books and audiovisual aids, and 6) assessing the performance of the project and the impact of population education on teachers and students. The long term objective is to contribute to the overall government government population policy objectives of reducing the rate of population growth from 12/1000 to 5/1000 by 1985, and to achieve zero population growth by year 2000.
New York, UNFPA, 1980 Jul. 77 p.An overview of the examples of project types funded by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are presented along with a list of approved projects on women, population development, and a partial list of pending projects with particular reference to women. In choosing these examples of the UNFPA supported projects, the primary objective was to provide the reader with an indication of the wide range of project activities supported by the Fund. The following projects are reviewed: maternal and child health care and family planning; special programs for women; basic population data collection; population dynamics; formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; implementation of policies and programs; communication and education; and related population and development activities in the 1980's. The UNFPA is increasingly working to include women in the development and strengthening of maternal and child health family planning systems--their management and evaluation, and including the development and application of fertility regulation methods. It is helping countries find ways and means for the reeducation of men and women on the importance of shared responsibility and authority in family planning decisions. Examples of approved maternal and child health care and family planning projects in Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Somalia, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are briefly described. To ensure increased participation of women and their contribution to population/development related activities, the Fund created a new category of special programs for women. Programs in this category are generally classified as "status of women."
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 111 p. (Population Education Programme Service)This report presents the results of a workshop on Innovative Structures and Approaches to Population Education which enabled 12 Asian countries with population education programs to share their experiences. The workshop also enabled countries with emerging population education programs to formulate alternative and innovative structures for more effective implementation of programs. Participants came from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The report contains individual country reports on the current population situation, population education programs, in-school programs, out-of-school programs, and innovative approaches to population education. In most cases, population education is viewed as part of national development plans. In many countries, it is relatively new and often equated with the family planning programs. There is a need for awareness and orientation programs, such as study tours by government officials, seminars, and the use of Unesco Mobile teams. Various strategies for curriculum development that have been used are infusion of population examples, integration of issues into syllabi and textbooks, and adding separate units on population in selected subjects. Training of teachers has included self-learning modules, face-to-face training, and seminars. Research and evaluation on population education has been carried out in 4 countries (e.g. content analysis of textbooks and survey of parent and students). Out-of-school programs, radio and television, national theater, and home visits have increased awareness of population education. Alternative structures and approaches to population education are discussed in terms of program development and implementation, awareness and orientation of key persons and training of teachers, curriculum and material development, and coordination with different agencies/departments and administrative organization.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 19 p. (Series 1, Pt. 7)The population education documents and materials abstracted in this section focusing on curriculum and instructional materials are primarily meant for practitioners--teachers, trainers, extension workers, curriculum and material developers, whose role of disseminating population education concepts via the face-to-face approach is greatly enhanced by the use of the more impersonal forms of communication. The materials were selected to provide practitioners with a recommended list of teaching/learning tools and materials which they can use in their work. These materials come in the form of handbooks, manuals, guidebooks, packages, kits and reports. They cover all aspects of materials development, including the procedures in developing various types of materials and showing how population education concepts can be integrated into the various development themes. They also describe teaching/learning and training methods that are participatory in nature--games and simulations, role playing, problem solving, self-awareness exercises, communications sensitivity, human relations, projective exercises, programmed instructions and value clarification. In addition the abstracts provide a general summary of what curriculum areas can be used as entry points for population education concepts.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-10. (Series 1, Pt. 6)Abstracts are presented of documents and materials which describe how population education has been introduced in the total rural development programs in various parts of the Asian region. The role that rural development agencies can play in bringing population education to the countryside is shown along with the contribution that population education can make in the overall policy and planning of socioeconomic development. Many of the abstracts summarize the various approaches, strategies and procedures used by rural development programs in incorporating family needs and population-related knowledge which can aid in improving rural life. The primary approach which commonly appeared in all the documents was the use of the existing government structure and the network of available resources and labor force in the community to make population education a part of the rural development programs.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 15 p. (Series 1, Pt. 5)A compendium of abstracts of selected handbooks, case studies and monographs is presented. These abstracts describe how youth programs of various development agencies all over the region have innovatively involved the out-of-school youth in learning population education concepts and practices. A comprehensive inventory of case studies of organizations involved in educating the out-of-school youth on population education concepts in many Asian countries is provided. A variety of alternative strategies and approaches have been tried and tested in many pilot projects. The range of alternatives includes summer camps, vocational and income-generating activities, parents and youth clubs, and youth organizations via the medium of music, sports, education, work and others. A more significant feature of the abstracts is the consolidation of lessons learned from these activities as well as guidelines from these lessons which can be used for planning, designing, implementing and evaluating out-of-school population education programs.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-17. (Series 1, Pt. 4)The main theme of all the materials that were abstracted and reviewed in the area of population education in literacy is that literacy programs and population education in the non-formal setting must be linked with the real problems and needs of the people if they are to be effective. Highlighted in the abstracts presented are the strategies, guidelines, procedures and the processes used in making population education in literacy programs acceptable to the millions of illiterates, out-of-school youths and adults throughout the Asian region, who are preoccupied with satisfying their immediate needs for food and water. Two successful experimental functional literacy-population education projects carried out by the Adult Education Division of the Ministry of Education in Thailand and the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement are reported. Most of the documents reviewed have been both enhanced and enriched by the extensive work and experiences of the UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania and by the materials of the World Education which are a result of 18 years of practical field work in literacy.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-9. (Series 1, Pt. 3)Abstracts are presented of materials that focus on the issue of population education in Asia's labor sector. The materials reveal that the efforts of mobilizing the labor sector to incorporate population education into their non-formal activities have revolved around trianing of workers, labor management, guidance schemes, production of materials, and provision of family planning services. Population education activities are being carried out through trade union movements, vocational and training programs, cooperatives, rural workers and industrial associations of workers reaching all the professional levels--managers or labor administrators to trade union leaders and workers. These efforts are documented in the manuals, guides, reports, books and booklets which have been abstracted. The International Labor Organization has facilitated the organization and consolidation of efforts of introducing population education into the labor sector at both the regional and the national level.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-8. (Series 1, Pt. 2)The abstracts of reports of workshops and meetings presented here reveal the collective efforts of the Food and Agriculture Organization and country organizations in motivating and mobilizing the agricultural sector into integrating population education in its various out-of-school activities, namely, curriculum development, training programs, action-oriented research, and instructional materials development. Enumerated are the various channels used in disseminating population education concepts to reach its various audiences such as cooperatives, small farmer program, inservice staff training, curricula of rural development training institutes, farm and home management courses, vocational courses and others. Along with descriptions of the workshops and conference proceedings, the reports include curriculum materials, syllabi and training courses developed during the workshops.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-14. (Series 1, Pt. 1)Abstracts of 8 national case studies on the out-of-school population education programs in the Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are presented. Provided is the total picture and the framework upon which the population education in the out-of-school sector in these countries are being conducted. The case studies show that the majority of the out-of-school population education programs have developed by means of a process of evolution rather than as a result of strict systematic planning. To some extent this evolution has been facilitated by several governmental and nongovernmental organizations which initiated the integration of population education into their own development oriented programs such as welfare, literacy, agriculture and labor. The objectives and activities for out-of-school population education have become an organic part of the development programs, many of which are family planning oriented. This situation has brought some confusion regarding how to define population education in the out-of-school sector and what its boundaries are.
Joint IGCC/IPPF-ESEAOR Workshop on Optimal Use of Resources for National Population/Family Planning Programs.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IGCC, . 81 p.There were 2 parts to the Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC)/International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)-ESEAOR workshop on the subject of the "Optimal Use of Resources for National Population/Family Planning Programs" held in Malaysia during September 1980: a dialogue between government and family planning associations and a dialogue on management of foreign aid. Included in this workshop report is the opening address, aide memoire, the agenda, a summary of proceedings, a summary of group sessions, and country papers from Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Nepal, and Thailand. The meeting was attended by participants from 6 IGCC member-countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. With the responsibility of implementing the family planning program as part of its national policy, more and more activities in the delivery of family planning services have been taken over by governments. In this newly created system the family planning associations are called upon to adjust their role to the new situations. Its primary function is now assisting the government in making the program a success, filling the gaps with projects not yet touched by the government, and making use of its resources nationally or internationally obtained. The aid recieved through assistance in Population/Family Planning Programs has taken different forms and amounts and depends upon the stage of the program, the magnitude of the program, the differences in program and history.
[Unpublished] 1980.  p.This meeting of the ASEAN Heads of Population Program (AHPP) convened to to review and consider the earlier Report of the Experts consisting of the following: Phase I ASEAN Population Program; the Pre-Implementation Meeting Report of the Phase II ASEAN Population Program; interrelationships between and among Phase I and II projects; and the rules and procedures for the implementation of the ASEAN/Australia Population Project. It was generally agreed that the implementation of Phase I has stimulated greater cooperation and collaboration among the member countries in the field of family planning and population through important contacts and exchange of expertise. More ASEAN experts and expertise in the population field have resulted. Though it is too early to assess the impact of these projects, experiences gained in their implementation have already been applied to national programs in most countries. Efforts must be made to maximize the utilization of the findings of these projects, including making available financial and other resources to analyze, disseminate and utilize information. A structured mechanism to sustain and maintain a link between researchers and program managers needs to be designed.
Meeting information needs for population education: using materials for population education, Booklet 1. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 95 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials service, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it deals with some basic techniques of using and processing population education materials. The focus of the booklet is on activities that usually lie within the domain of librarians, documentalists and information officers, which nevertheless are useful to others involved in this field; for example staff of population education programs are frequently required to respond to requests for information. The 3 learning modules contained here are: 1) Assessing the quality of population education materials; 2) Literature searches, bibliographies and request for materials; and 3) Writing abstracts for population education materials. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. This booklet has a sequel, Booklet 2, which deals with other areas of population education information.
Meeting information needs for population education: information services for population education, Booklet 2. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 96 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials services, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education programme Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it focuses on the wide range of supplementary information activities that are provided to promote the success of the program. The supplementary activities include preparation of a newsletter and the distribution of background information to key leaders. The booklet contains 5 learning modules. The 1st module deals with the processing or transformation of materials, the 2nd examines more sophisticated materials services such as the selective dissemination of information and production of packages as well as basic survey technics, the 3rd examines methods of popularizing population education programs, the 4th analyses the nature and potential of networks as distribution and communication channels, and the 5th touches upon the evaluation of an information program and development of training workshops or materials for these programs. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. The preceding booklet, Booklet 1, covers other areas of population education.
Peshawar, Pakistan, Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, 1980.Add to my documents.
London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1980. 43 p.Add to my documents.
Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developign countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 19-23. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)During the years 1970-1980 the population of children in developing countries has increased by about 285 million, while there is an inequality in the distribution of the resources needed to care for them. At the same time, traditional medical school training caters to largely adult populations with little emphasis on the prevention of illness and the promotion of good health. In the Third World Countries children constitute almost 50%, and with the mothers 70% of the total population. In this group the mortality and morbidity rates are particularly high despite the fact that most of the conditions are easily prevented. Primary health care provided by a part-time, trained health worker who has been recruited from the community in which he will work is a very positive approach. Another area which should be expanded is the ongoing training for existing doctors through distance teaching so that their knowledge remains up to date. All levels of health workers involved in primary health care can learn through nets of information consisting of journals, correspondence, scientific meetings and visits to other centers. There are even free resources available such as Contact and Salubritas. More use should be made of the resources.
[Unpublished] . 10 p.At this time the urgent need for a wide spectrum of population activities in developing countries is fully recognized as the legitimate concern of governments and the international community. Technical cooperation and financial assistance are provided to these countries from a large variety of intergovernmental, governmental, and nongovernmental sources of international population assistance. This discussion of international population assistance reviews the following: current levels of population assistance; sources of population assistance; types and areas of assistance; and setting priorities. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to only about US$2 million in 1960 and US$18 million in 1965. It increased rapidly to US$125 million in 1970 and to an estimated net amount, excluding double counting, of around US$450 million in 1970. In 1981 it passed the half billion dollar mark. This marked increase in population assistance is an indication of the growing commitment of many governments and international organizations concerned about collaborating in and contributing to tackling the urgent population problems of the developing world. Nearly 100 governments contributed in 1979 to international population assistance, but the major share comes from less than a dozen countries. The largest contributor, the US, provided US$182 million for population assistance in 1979 amounting to nearly 4% of its total net official development assistance. Over 120 developing countries, or nearly all such countries, received population assistance in some form in 1979. Almost all of them were supported by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) provided support for family planning associations or programs in around 80 developing countries. Almost all donors make their contributions to population assistance in grants, but a few governments also make loans available. Around 72% of total international population assistance is provided in support of family planning activities. The region of Asia and the Pacific received the largest part of the population assistance to countries, namely 50%, followed by Latin America, 19%; Africa, 11%; and the Middle East and Mediterranean, 7%. More and more attention is being devoted to setting priorities in assistance to population programs. This is due, in part, to the fact that the amount of population assistance has not increased sufficiently in recent years to keep up with the growing needs.
[Unpublished] . 8 p.A study tour was undertaken by the Social Marketing Project in Bangladesh to observe production facilities of oral rehydration salt (ORS) in Bangkok, Manila, and Bombay. This report describes raw materials, plants and equipment, methods and procedures, and quality control for each country. In Thailand the Government Pharmaceutical Organization, under the Ministry of Health, supervises ORS production. ORS has been produced for the last 3 years and presently about 200,000 packets/month (equivalent of 1 litre solution) are being produced, following the World Health Organization (WHO) UNICEF formulations. The Ministry of Health in Manila has been providing ORS based on the WHO formulations for the past 6 years. Currently production is about 2 million packets with proper equipment. Distribution is through district health officials and village health workers. As an adjunct to ORS distribution there is a plan to introduce water purification tablets. The Fairdeal Corporation in India is a commercial pharmaceutical organization which produces 2 ORS solutions: 1) Electral which does not include bicarbonate and accounts for about 80% of total production, and 2) Electral Forte which has sodium bicarbonate and is recommended in severe dehydration cases in adults. Their research has shown that the WHO formulation is inadequate for many countries. Presently sales are about 500,000-600,000 packets/month mainly distributed through medical practitioners. This study also found that: 1) organic lipidity of the product is critical for acceptance; the addition of a flavoring agent is considered important especially for acceptance by small children, and 2) closely controlled humidity conditions (30-35%) and temperature (23 degrees Centigrade) are essential to the formulation and increases the life of the salts to 10-15 days even after opening the packs.
Establishment of a regional network of health literature, library and information services (HELLIS).
New Delhi, WHO, South East Asia Region, May 1980. 117 p.Summary of intercountry consultative meeting of administrators, librarians, and users of health libraries from the Southeast Asia region called to consider the establishment of a network of health libraries and information services in the region. Discussion centers on strengthening of libraries at the national level to provide a base for linkage and permit integration into international information retrieval systems. The major outcome of the meeting was a proposal for the establishment of flexible regional and national networks functioning on the principle of resource sharing and Country focal points. A WHO Regional Coordinating Center would act as liaison between the national level and international organizations. The intended availability of these services to all levels of health personnel, and the equal partnership of all participants in the network are stressed. Assessment of user needs would be a necessary part of the development of the system. Appended to the report is a list of participants, the program, a list of the working papers, the inaugural address of Dr. V.T.H. Gunaratne to the 27 August 1979 meeting, country situation listings, a case study of library facilities in a group of city medical colleges, a student loan scheme, description of MEDLINE services in the region, and a proposed bibliographic control system for the area, as well as a listing of low priced recommended textbooks for students.
Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1980 Dec; 83(6):259-64.The status of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine in Sabah, Malaysia was not known until 1971-72. In 1974 resurgence of malaria was 77% over the number of cases in 1973 despite a malaria control program. Several in-vivo studies and 1 in-vitro study were conducted from 1971-5 and showed 51% out of 57 cases were resitant to chloroquine, the substance most widely used in the control program. 1 study was started in 1978 to continue to 1980; the preliminary results show 65 cases (85%) out of 76 successful tests are chloroquine-resistant. A decision was made to change to Fansidar for treatment of P. falciparum infection and to make other changes in the anti-malaria campaign in 1978-79 such as switching to emulsion concentrate for DDT insecticide spraying and monthly mass drug administration in serious transmission areas.
WHO Chronicle. 1980 Mar; 34(3):118-9.The World Health Organization (WHO) plan is to hold 2 meetings with tuberculosis experts for the purpose of examining the implications of a large scale trial in the south of India that has shown no protection against lung tuberculosis from BCG vaccination. Launched in 1971, the trial covered some 260,000 persons older than age 1 month. It was aimed at preventing lung tuberculosis in the population of 209 villages as well as in a town in the district of Chingleput, west of Madras. Results with the BCG vaccines have varied in the scientifically valid controlled studies that have been conducted. The success of BCG vaccines has varied by population group, ranging from good (80% effectiveness) to poor (as in the Indian trial). The following were among the questions raised by the findings of the Indian trial: were there procedural flaws; were the BCG vaccines used of adequate potency; could other factors have played a role; and should BCG vaccinations be stopped. According to the published report, there were no apparent flaws in the procedures followed in the Indian study. In the Indian trial, 2 BCG strains--Danish and French--were used in the highest tolerated doses. The strains were selected for their relatively high efficacy in experimental studies, and extensive laboratory control showed the vaccines to be of good quality. The WHO experts found the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the trial area to be peculiar in the sense that the tuberculosis occurred long after an individual was infected. Not far from the trial area, and also in south India, disease occurred soon after infection. The experts noted that this phenomenon, which requires further study, may influence the effectiveness of vaccination. According to the experts, the findings in the study population were not applicable in other parts of India. Where many factors may play a role and when the level of protection is nonexistent, as in the India trial, little can be deduced about the worth of the vaccine and its effect under different circumstances.