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  1. 1

    Population education and communication strategies.

    Swamy SS

    In: Population studies (lectures on population education), [compiled by] Sri Venkateswara University. Population Studies Centre. Tirupati, India, Sri Venkateswara University, Population Studies Centre, 1979. 81-90.

    In this paper, communication strategies adopted in conveying population education in India are discussed. It briefly discusses the virtual explosion of population in the country, termed as “populosion”. Finally, the five sectors of communication strategy in the Indian context are presented, namely: audience, message, communicators, media, and behavioral change.
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  2. 2

    Health education, an important aspect of population education.

    Gurumurthy G

    In: Population studies (lectures on population education), [compiled by] Sri Venkateswara University. Population Studies Centre. Tirupati, India, Sri Venkateswara University, Population Studies Centre, 1979. 41-50.

    This paper highlights the importance of health education in population education. Definition of health, as well as, the objectives of health education in the prospects of the WHO is presented in this paper. Furthermore, it focuses on the different aspects of health education, namely: personal hygiene and environmental sanitation; maternal and child health; nutrition education; applied nutrition program; school health education; transmission of diseases and cultural practices; national health programs; age at marriage of women and health; and population explosion and health hazards.
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  3. 3

    Project request from Solomon Islands government to United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    Solomon Islands. Ministry of Education and Training

    [Unpublished] 1979 Dec. 15 p. (SOI/80/P02)

    The population growth rate of the Solomon Islands is creating problems in ensuring that finance and skilled manpower resources are available to maintain the present standard of living. The purpose of this project is to improve the education and awareness of people to the reasons for and the consequences of this population phenomenon. It is hoped that this can be accomplished by the introduction of population education into the formal educational system and by promoting greater interest and involvement of the parents in the formal educational system. Long-range and short-range objectives have been fashioned; long-range include: 1) promoting greater awareness of the causes and consequences of population growth in the Islands; 2) enabling the formal education system to deal more appropriately with these and other related phenomena; and 3) promoting greater parent interest and involvement in the formal educational system. The degree of coordination between the various activities will determine the degree of project success. The coordinator must become completely familiar with the educational situation in the Solomon Islands. An expert will be made available and together they will plan the sequence of project activities. The expert will then: 1) prepare and run a national seminar on population and education for August 1980, 2) select and order appropriate teaching aids and reference materials for developing population education, 3) brief and teach local staff on all relevant population education issues and topics, and 4) lay the groundwork for the project to proceed towards the 2-day National Seminar. In August, the local staff individual will develop curriculum materials and during this process will plan a series of provincial seminars to raise awareness of population issues. Another peak of activity in the project comes in June-August 1981 when the yearly in-service training of some primary teachers occurs. At this time too the primary level population education materials are tested and the expert returns to check on progress. Finalization of all curriculum materials follows and the end of 1981 will mark the conclusion of the project with the distribution of materials throughout the educational system. The entire work plan is presented in chart form. The seminars could be the impetus for strategies and objectives for curriculum development. The institutional framework for this development is presented as are any advance preparations and provisions for follow-up activities. The final section presents a description and justification for project inputs--the international expert, travel, the local staff person, national seminars, provincial seminars, training courses, library books, and other materials.
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  4. 4

    School and out of school population and family life education. Project request for United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    Yemen. People's Democratic Republic. Ministry of Education; General Union of Yemeni Women

    [Unpublished] 1979. 47 p. (UNFPA Project No PDY/78/P01)

    The Population and Family Life Education Project of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen consists of 2 separate but interrelated programs: school population and family life education; and out-of-school population and family life education. This project is directed towards the establishment and strengthening of population and family life education in the school system as well as in out-of-school activities. The school project includes the following: curriculum development in unity and secondary schools; production of text books, reference books, and audiovisual teaching aids; and teacher training programs. The out-of-school project includes the following: the strengthening of the General Union of Yemeni Women training centers; integration of family life education in the lieracy and post-literacy courses and in vocation education; and preparation of a Handbook on Family Life Education and Home Economics. The total proposed budget for the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) for the school population and family life education project is U.S. $495,800 for the 1979-1982 period. The budget for the out-of-school population and family life education is around U.S. $200,000 for the same period. Information on the following is included in this project proposal: background and supporting information; justification for the project; institutional framework; future UNFPA assistance; project objectives; and work plan. Immediate objectives include the following: launching a comprehensive population and family life education program to help in spreading population awareness and understanding of the demographic situation in Yemen; introducing population education for students in classes 4 to 8 and to reinforce the already existing components in classes 1-3 of the unity school and to integrate population education into selected subject matters from grades 9 to 11; to train approximately 1000 unity school level teachers and 160 pioneer teachers and 40 audiovisual aid pioneers in 4 years; and to train approximately 1500 pre-service teachers and 600 in-service teachers at the Higher College of Education.
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  5. 5

    Project agreement between the Government of India and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    India. Ministry of Education; United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1979. 76 p. (UNFPA Project No IND-79-P10)

    The primary goal of India's population education project is to gear the entire educational system in the country to the realization of the potential role of education in the developmental efforts of the country and of the interrelationship between the population situation and different aspects of the quality of life at the micro and macro levels. Project activities include the following: curriculum and instructional material development; training programs; evaluation and research; and the implementation of the population projects at the state level. Justification for the project is included in this project agreement between the government of India and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The activities planned at the national level have direct relevance to achievement of immediate and long range project objectives. The Ministry of Education and Social Welfare of the government of India would be the implementing agency for the national program in population education. A separate Unit of Population Education would be established in the Ministry of Education, and a national steering committee would be created at the national level. The detailed organizational structure would be developed by each state separately in accordance with their needs and requirements for implementation of the population education program. The existing educational infrastructure would be utilized at the district and local levels for the purpose of training and feedback from the field to the state and national levels. The project duration would be 36 months and the starting date would be April 1980. The UNFPA contribution would be US $5,321,620. India's contribution would be Rs. 8,050,000.
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  6. 6

    Formulating strategies for health for all by the year 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Executive Board

    Geneva, World Health Organization, 1979. 59 p.

    The 30th World Health Assembly decided in 1977, in resolution WHA30.43, that the primary social target of government and the World Health Organization (WHO) should be the attainment on the part of all the world's citizens by the year 2000 of a level of health that allows them to lead a socially and economically productive life. It is recognized that national policies, strategies and plans of action, and regional strategies will vary widely in accordance with the aspirations and capabilities of countries. Yet, if the goal is to be attained, there is a need for a common framework for the countries of the world to formulate strategies and plans of action. This document is intended to be such a flexible common framework. Attention in the monograph's 7 chapters is directed to the following: basic principles; formulating national policies, strategies, and plans of action; formulating regional strategies (regional promotion and support, overcoming obstacles, regional information and exchange, technical cooperation among developing countries, regional networks of health development centers, regional orientation and support for research, regional use of national expertise, and global implications of regional strategies); formulating the global strategy (global promotion and support, overcoming obstacles, global information and exchange, technical cooperation among developing countries, global orientation and support for research, and global use of national expertise); the role of WHO in counties and at the regional level); and a timetable for formulating strategies. The realization of the goal of an acceptable level of health for all by the year 2000 cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. It can be attained only through national political will and the coordinated efforts of the health sector and relevant activities of other social and economic development sectors.
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  7. 7

    Proceedings of the joint UPM/UNESCO Workshop on Planning and Coordinating Non-Formal Education Programme on Population Education, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, May 28-30, 1979.

    Workshop Secretariat

    Serdang, Selangor, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Center for Extension and Continuing Education, 1979. 62 p.

    Objectives of the joint Universiti Pertanian Malaysia/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UPM/UNESCO) Workshop on Planning and Coordinating Non-Formal Education Program on Population Education were the following: to invite all the government and nongovernmental agencies to share their programs and experiences with each other; to identify common needs and problems; to develop an interagency national program for out-of-school education and to identify the activities within; to identify the agency which can provide the necessary leadership in this area; and to discuss how population education can be integrated into the agency programs within the scope of the other interagency national programs. Included in this report of the Workshop proceedings are reports of the following agencies: Fisheries Division; Community Development Division; the National Extension Project of the Department of Agriculture; the Veterinary Division; Population Education Unit of the Curriculum Development Center; Federation of Family Planning Association; Rubber Industry Smallholder Development Authority; National Family Planning Board; Ministry of Health; Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Farmers Organization Authority; and the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports. Working papers on the subjects of planning and developing out-of-school population programs in Asia and Oceania and the potentials and strategies for integrating population elements in non-formal education programs are also included. It was determined that the integration of population education elements into non-formal education programs could be realized by leading agencies initiating programs such as organizing seminars and by training staff to be well-equipped in population and extension development.
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  8. 8

    Report of the WHO/UNICEF Consultation on the National Production, Packaging and Distribution of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), Bangkok, January 23-26, 1979.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1979. 33 p. (ATH/79.1)

    The conclusions and recommendations reached by the participants at a joint WHO and UNICEF sponsored consultation on the national production, packaging, and distribution of ORS (oral rehydration salts) were presented. Also provided were separate country reports on the status of ORS production and distribution in Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mozambique, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand. The purpose of the consultation was 1) to identify the problems involved in national efforts to produce and distribute ORS and 2) to develop guidelines for the production, packaging, and distribution of the ORS. Oral rehydration therapy provides an effective method for treating all but the most serious types of diarrhoeal diseases and the treatment can be administered at home without medical assistance. Many countries are engaged in the production of ORS and at the present time there is considerable variation in the formulation, packaging, cost, and quality of the products. Recommendations were 1) the product should be packaged and identified as a drug in order to inspire confidence in the product; 2) national standards for the quality control of pharmaceuticals should be applied to the production of ORS; 3) eventually international standards for the formulation and quality control of ORS should be established; 4) bulk packaging of separate ingredients for use in large facilities is preferred; 5) efforts should be made to make ORS widely available especially in rural and isolated areas; 6) efforts should be directed toward developing a product with a long shelf-life; 7) all levels of health personnel should be trained in oral rehdyration therapy; and 8) evaluation of production and distribution systems should be promoted.
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  9. 9

    Clinical management of acute diarrhoea: report of a Scientific Working Group, New Delhi, October 30-November 2, 1978.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1979. 21 p.

    This is a discussion of the clinical management of acute diarrhea, which was covered by a Scientific Working Group at the Southeast Asian Regional meeting of WHO in 1978. Current knowledge on the use of oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea was reviewed at the meeting. The mixture, which works for all age groups and for diarrhea of any etiology, is aimed at restoring normal fluid and electrolyte balances. The chemical means whereby these balances are restored are discussed in detail. There is evidence that the therapy reduces mortality caused by diarrhea to nearly zero and reduces the cost of hospitalization and intravenous therapy. Its great advantage is that it can be administered at home early in the course of the disease. Use of the oral rehydration technique with the complete and the incomplete formulae and by home reconstitution are discussed. Supply has not always kept pace with demand. Other aspects of the clinical management of diarrhea, e.g., with drugs, diet, or intravenous fluids, are covered. Recommendations for future research both on the clinical and the program sides of the issue are proposed. The UNICEF activities connected with national oral rehydration programs are listed.
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  10. 10


    Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Demographic Projections

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Prospects of population: methodology and assumptions. New York, UN, 1979. 3-10. (Population Studies No. 67; St/ESA/SER/A/67)

    The Ad Hoc Group of experts on Demographic Projections unanimously agreed that the United Nations population projections are a very important and an irreplaceable tool for demographic and economic analyses at the global, regional and national levels. Reasons for their immense value include the following: 1) projections are included for every country and territory of the world; 2) the projections are internationally comparable; 3) over 2/3 of the countries have never prepared official projections of their own; and 4) the methods, assumptions and basic demographic parameters of the projections are presented uniformly. The Group recommended that the current activities of the United Nations in the field of demographic projections should be strengthened. The Group also identified the need for updating the population projections at least once every 5 years and for an interim report to be published whenever population trends and the projections become perceptibly inconsistent. The Group focused on the need for the exploitation and improvement of existing data on the interrelationships between socioeconomic variables and demographic processes. The Group endorsed the use of the general system of projections methodology now in use by the United Nations Secretariat. Attention is directed to improving assumptions of projections -- mortality, fertility and migration -- and to consideration of socioeconomic and policy factors -- models and long-range projections.
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  11. 11

    Vaginal rings releasing spermicides.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Task Force on Vaginal and Intracervical Devices for Fertility Regulation

    In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ eds. Vaginal contraception: new developments. New York, Harper and Row, 1979. 188-93. (PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation)

    In response to the objectives of WHO for developing a reliable vaginal ring without systemic effects, a ring allowing for a constant release of spermicide Nonoxynol 9 was manufactured. Subsequently, it was clinically tested to assess sperm immobilization properties of Nonoxynol 9. Sterilized women with regular menses, active sex life and no evidence of vaginitis or infective cervicites were recruited in Japan and Mexico. 1 month prior to insertion the condition of the vagina was recorded and postcoital aliquots of venous blood and cervical mucus were used as baseline data. The vaginal ring was inserted on day 7 of the succeeding menstrual cycle and worn continuously for 10 days. Tests were made for sperm motility, estimation of Nonoxynol 9 levels in cervical mucus and plasma levels of Nonoxynol 9. 39 postcoital tests from 11 subjects showed a decrease in the number of motile sperm in cervical mucus. Nevertheless, some motile sperm still remained suggesting at the level of release of Nonoxynol 9, a contraceptive effect by sperm immobilization cannot be ensured. No side effects were evident.
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  12. 12

    Epilepsy in the developing countries.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Epilepsy in the Developing Countries

    WHO Chronicle 33(5):183-186. May 1979.

    Epilepsy is more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. The high incidence is assumed to be associated with poor antenatal and maternal care, prematurity, birth injuries, childhood febrile convulsions, malnutrition, and infections. Accurate diagnostic equipment, such as the computerized axial tomography, is often beyond the reach of developing countries. The 7 drugs considered essential to the management of epilepsy are phenobarbitol; phenytoin; carbamazepine; ethosuximide; sodium valproate; and diazepam and clonazepam. Surgery is indicated in symptomatic epilepsy due to a local lesion, e.g., a neoplasm. In developing countries, superstition, cultural beliefs, and ignorance add to the social morbidity of the epileptic. Although epilepsy is a chronic condition which can seldom be cured, it can be controlled to the point where it becomes a minor inconvenience.
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  13. 13

    Household distribution of contraceptives in rural Egypt.

    Gadalla S; Nosseir N; Gillespie DG

    [Unpublished] 1979 Jul 16. 23, [12], 5 p. (EGY-02)

    Building on previous AID-supported research by the American University in Cairo, specifically a study of household contraceptive delivery, the Social Research Center (SRC) expanded a household distribution system tested in Shanawan to 38 rural villages in the Menoufia Governorate. The project, which cost US $919,440, was designed to test the effectiveness of the household-based approach to delivery of family planning (FP) services. Like the earlier project, this study was based on the assumptions that there was an unmet demand for contraceptives and that this demand could be systematically identified and met in a culturally acceptable way, using lay women as distributors. Once a community is systematically exposed to FP information and services, a community-based resupply system can effectively meet the ongoing demand for services. The project tests 4 different FP systems, where a first round of free household distribution is followed by: 1) free resupply at the clinic; 2) free resupply in the village; 3) resupply sold at the clinic; and 4) resupply sold at a village depot. Distribution and resupply agents were local women. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Villages were matched as far as possible on sociodemographic characteristics and contraceptive usage and were randomly assigned to one of the 4 types of delivery systems. Data were collected through a baseline survey conducted at the same time as the household distribution of contraceptives to assess contraceptive behavior. A follow-up survey conducted 9 months later with eligible women only (married, fecund, and age 15-44) was designed to evaluate the household delivery system and focused on contraceptive and fertility behavior. Prevalence increased from 19.1% at the baseline to 27.7% 8 months after the distribution (relative increase of 45%). The delivery system proved to be culturally, logistically, and administratively feasible. There was no significant difference in prevalence between those groups who were charged for a resupply of contraceptives and those who were not. Prevalence increased from 19.5 to 28.5% in the former group and from 18.7 to 26.9% in the latter. Based on this study, a modified version of the tested delivery system was implemented in collaboration with the Governorate of Menoufia among the entire rural population of 1.4 million. The modified system included a wider range of contraceptive methods as well as health and community development components.
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  14. 14

    Role of World Health Organization in training frontline workers: policies, programme and resources.

    Khan R

    In: African conference on training, utilization, supervision and support of frontline health care workers, a report of the Sudanese Society for Prevention and Social Medicine 11th Scientific Conference, Khartoum, Sudan, 14-19 April 1979, edited by D.M. Storms, El Fatih Zien El Abdin El Samani and Abdalla A/Wahid Saeed. Washington, D.C., APHA International Health Programs, 1979. 23-33.

    It is the intention of WHO to provide technical and financial assistance in accordance with the needs of the member states in regard to providing health care to the peripheral level of the health services. Such goals are to be achieved by 1) contributing to the solution of health problems, 2) orienting the categories of all health personnel, and 3) meeting the health needs of deprived people. The WHO global program consists of the headquarters program and 6 regional programs each preparing a regional analysis containing a list of targets and a breakdown of specific actions to be taken. The 3 main areas of concern in terms of training health care workers are 1) manpower planning and management, 2) promotion and training and 3) educational development and support. The training program is aimed at attacking socially relevant problems, encouraging self-reliance and integration of health services.
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  15. 15

    A case of programming for women. The UNICEF women's development programme.

    Gerard R

    In: The situation of women in Bangladesh, edited by Mahmuda Islam, Parveen Ahmed, Ellen Sattar, Niaz Zaman, Farida S. Enayet and Renee Gerard for the Women for Women Research and Study Group. Dacca, Bangladesh, Women and Women Research and Study Group and UNICEF, Women's Development Program, 1979. 403-24.

    This paper reviews women's programs, projects and activities in Bangladesh from 1976-1979. In 1976 a series of surveys were conducted to ascertain what type of programs for women were needed and what strategies would ensure maximum impact. The results indicated that the existing training programs for women were not effective. While women indicated a desire to earn additional income through skills training, training was seldom related to employment and most programs did not reach the poorest groups. Many organizations had problems regarding training of instructors and organization of marketing. The constraints of developing women's programs included lack of clear policy guidelines, lack of means, budget and staff, and resistance to pre-programming research. Achievements subsumed under UNICEF's Women's Development Program (WDP) are reviewed. 3 types of projects were implemented in 1978: 1) Specific projects for women; 2) A pilot project, dealing with water, health and sanitation in 120 villages, directed by women; 3) Various activities run by women, such as provision of seeds for gardens, fishery training for village women, and maintenance of drinking tube wells. The specific projects under WDP fall into 3 categories: research on the life of village women and children; action programs for sustaining income generating activities and for promoting appropriate technologies and food production; and projects which deal with program planners and public awareness. WDP proved that development of human resources, skills training and basic education are key factors. It demonstrated that leadership exists among women at all levels and that children will not progress if their mothers do not progress first. Low cost, replicable projects are thought to be the answer. Finally, WDP called for communication and collaboration with many people, governmental and non-governmental agencies, in Bangladesh and abroad.
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  16. 16

    Critical issues for women and children in Bangladesh.

    Ahmed P

    In: The situation of women in Bangladesh, edited by Mahmuda Islam, Parveen Ahmed, Ellen Sattar, Niaz Zaman, Farida S. Enayet and Renee Gerard for the Women for Women Research and Study Group. Dacca, Bangladesh, Women for Women Research and Study Group and UNICEF, Women's Development Program, 1979. 379-402.

    This paper discussed the following critical issues of the 1980s for women and children in Bangladesh: 1) Excessive disparity between men and women in access to nutrition, health care and medical services, and in education, literacy and vocational training; 2) The lack of opportunities for female income-earning and non-recognition of female labor force in the agricultural economy; 3) The weakness of social and legal rights and the overall low status of women in society; 4) The limitations of government programs and the constraints of orthodox thinking; 5) The large number of windows; 6) The neglect of children in development planning. The role of international organizations, such as UNICEF, in formulating and coordinating realistic policies is discussed, along with the role of voluntary organizations. A framework of suggestions for action is presented. The following areas are identified as critical: population control and health, access to education, improved economic conditions, socio-cultural attitudinal changes, and improved quality of life for children. Development planners are urged to recognize that in order for overall economic progress to take effect, women and children must be integrated into development schemes. Men, women and children support each other in a large number of productive and economic activities -- their roles are interdependent in the existing structure. Consequently, action needs to be taken wherever possible to provide opportunities to the deprived women and children of Bangladesh.
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  17. 17

    The role of UNFPA in promoting of population and development planning.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: Latin American Conference on Population and Development Planning, Cartagena, Colombia, 1979. Final report. New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1979. 1-17. (RLA/78/P15; UNFPA/79/CDPP/LA/3)

    This paper examines UNFPA's role in promoting the integration of population into development planning, with a special emphasis on the Latin America region. The 1st section traces the resolutions and instruments adopted by the UN in the last 25 years on the subject of population and development, later framed in the broader context of a new international development strategy. UNFPA's general mandates and its intercountry activities are described in the 2nd section. The 3rd section summarizes the general situation in Latin America in regard to the integration of population policies and development planning, and outlines the response of UNFPA to the requests of governments at the regional and country levels. The 4th section is a concluding statement indicating UNFPA's willingness to seek guidance from Member States on its course of action and to meet requests for assistance from governments as it considers this necessary and desirable.
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  18. 18

    Report on the introduction of population education in the action-cum-research project on small farmers and landless labourers.

    Siddiq FK

    [Dacca], Bangladesh, People's Republic of Bangladesh, Central Coordination Committee, [1979]. iii, 198 p.

    A population education program was launched in 1978 within the existing framework of the Project on Small Farmers and Laborers that is currently in progress in 8 villages in Bangladesh. A workshop developed materials and methods and a workplan that the village level action research fellows could use. The workshop design was flexible; the idea being that the workers learn from process as well as content. Budgets and content for village level workshops, as well as formats for benchmark questionnaires to test workshop effectiveness, and the outline of a field workers' manual, were discussed. There followed reports on materials pre-tested in several of the villages: displays and education materials, including materials developed in the Philippines. An example is a short drama, in which a farm family, its crops destroyed by a storm, must react by removing the children from school. It is made clear this would not be necessary if there were fewer children, and that family planning (FP) does not go against religion. Other educational materials evaluated included felt boards, poem recitals, question and answer discussions, and others. Line agencies next presented papers on diverse topics, e.g. multi sectoral approaches to population education; a scheme of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting; processes applied with women. An example is a report by the International labour Organization on a project to educate 80,000 industrial sector couples in FP. Sub-project level workshop reports follow for 3 workshops in Comilla, Mymensing, and Bogra. Progress reports, discussing village-level advances such as latrine digging; night schools; and contraceptive prevalence follow, for several villages. The format was 2 review workshops held several months after projects began, in Comilla.
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  19. 19

    Vaccination schedules in PAHO member countries.

    EPI NEWSLETTER. 1979 May; 1(1):7.

    This table, based on information from the latest available (1975-79) Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization Form C vaccination Questionnaire submitted by the 30 PAHO Member Countries, presents vaccination schedules for 4 immunization: diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), poliomyelitis, measles, and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). For each vaccine, information is provided on the number of doses, the minimum and maximum age at 1st dose, the interval for subsequent doses (if applicable), and whether and when a booster dose is administered. Notation is also made as to whether vaccination is compulsory by law.
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  20. 20


    International Children's Centre

    [Paris, France], International Children's Centre, 1979 Jul. 5 p.

    This document on immunization is addressed to planners and administrators in matters relative to child health. It is WHO's objective to reduce morbidity and mortality due to diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, polio, and tuberculosis by immunizing every child by the year 1990. Planning of programs should begin by defining objectives based on problems in each country with the use of epidemiologic surveys. Some countries may find it effective to include immunization programs in an integrated maternal and child health program. Personnel training for paramedical aides, public health nurses, and technicians may be necessary, accompanied by education of the whole community in the importance of the immunization program. Proper storage conditions for vaccines must be maintained, requiring constant supervision at all levels.
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  21. 21

    Kitale maize: the limits of success.

    Johnson CW; Byergo KM; Fleuret P; Simmons E; Wasserman G

    [Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1979 Dec. 13 p. (A.I.D. Project Impact Evaluation Report No. 2)

    In 1964, hybrid maize was released for commercial production in Kenya. An aggressive private firm, the Kenya Seed Company, reproduced the seed, distributed it, and promoted it throughout the country via a network of private storekeepers. Hybrid maize allowed Kenya to feed itself and to industrialize rapidly at the same time in the face of a very rapid increase in population. Hybrid maize made it possible for Kenya to earn foreign exchange from the export of cash crops by reducing the demand for land for food crops. There were, however, limits to this success: 1) an indigenous maize research capacity has not been created in Kenya; 2) a substantial number of the country's poor have not been able to participate directly in achieving the increased yields; and 3) the policies of the government have not changed sufficiently to allow the full economic benefits of the technology to filter through the existing marketing systems to smallholders. The Agency for International Development (AID) played a role in the success of the hybrid maize. AID shares responsibility for the successful diffusion of the seed to neighboring countries in Eastern Africa. Several lessons were learned from the observations of Kenyan maize growers: 1) simplicity and viability were the decisive technical factors in the success of hybrid maize; 2) the private sector was crucial in its diffusion; 3) equity cannot be expected; 4) long term continuity of foreign experts was basic to the success of the breeding program; 5) foreign advisors do not automatically create an institutional capacity to perform agricultural research; 6) pragmatism should surround AID support for regionalism; and 7) too many lessons should not be drawn from the Kenyan experience.
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  22. 22

    Policy directions for rural water supply in developing countries.

    Burton I

    [Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, 1979 Apr. 43 p. (A.I.D. Program Evaluation Discussion Paper No. 4)

    The current state of knowledge on design, installation and maintenance of rural water supply systems is surveyed. Present statistics suggest that it may be possible to provide safe water for everyone during the 1980-1990 period designated as the International Drinking Water Decade. The results on a regional basis are uneven. Africa is making rapid progress in providing rural water supply and may equal Latin America, which had been far ahead. Southeast Asia, however, represents a major problem. More than 60% of the world's population without reasonable access to water is in this area. There are a number of evaluations underway, including studies by OECD, UNICF-WHO, IBRD, International Research Center, and a number of bilateral agencies like AID. All these evaluations have a non-hardware component of rural water programs in common. Maintaining the system once it is installed is one of the key elements in the long term success or failure of rural water schemes. There are 3 reasons for failure: 1) the technology; 2) the capability; and 3) the motivation. In many cases, lack of spare parts and motivation are to blame for system failure. There remains a need to strengthen the capacity of national water programs. Unless this takes place, there will be no sustained progress. Commitment on all levels will help insure continual success of rural water efforts. Successful programs will also require balance between hardware, community involvement, and repair and maintenence. One useful approach would be to fund programs, not projects. There are 2 activities that AID should consider: rehabilitation of existing systems and development of methodologies to measure consumer satisfaction with water systems. A need to: 1) keep abreast of technological development; 2) assess the need for manpower training; 3) encurage local manufacturers; 4) evaluate and strengthen the ability of national organizations and programs; 5) provide materials for health community involvement guidelines; and 6) collabotate and coordinate with other agencies exists.
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  23. 23

    Population issues in developing countries: their impact on industrial relations and human resources development.

    Richards JH

    Geneva, International Labour Office, 1979. 11 p.

    The population policy program of the International Labour Organization (ILO) was described, and the relationship between high fertility rates and labor supply, female labor force participation rates, and worker productivity was discussed. In the late 1960s the Governing Body of ILO, recognizing the implications for labor of rapid population growth, extended the ILO mandate to include education activities undertaken in accordance with naitonal poliicies. Population education for workers is vital as population growth directly affects worker welfare in a number of ways. In countries with rapid population growth, the labor supply often increases at a faster rate than the demand for labor. in Sri Lanka, the impact of population growth is clearly evidenced in the current 40% unemployment rate among urban males, aged 15-24. An oversupply of labor also has an impact on job security and on labor and management relationships. Some countries, faced with an overabundance of labor, have adopted policies to reduce capital intensive technological innovations and to increase the use of labor intensive technologies. This approach may temporarily decrease unemployement but it reduces industrial efficiency and ultimately retards industrial expansion. There is an inverse relationship between female labor force participation and fertility rates. If female labor force participation is encouraged, fetility rates will decline; however, the competition for female jobs will continue to increase beause larger cohorts of females born during the high fertility years will continue to enter the labor market for many years. There is some evidence that large family size has a negative impact on worker productivity. Knowledge of the macrolevel economic effects of high birthrates will not discourage individuals from having large families; however, an awareness of the problems engendered by large family size at the household level can exert an influence on an individual's fertility decisions. In 1970 ILO population activities were operationalized, and by 1978, 3 regional labor and population teams were working on projects in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Plant level population education programs are currently operating in Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The major role of the ILO teams in development of these programs was to encourage government, employer , and labor leadership support for the program. Administrative and manageial staff support is also needed to ensure program success. Personnel managers make particularly effective agents for enlisting the support of managerial and administrative staff members.
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  24. 24

    An operational strategy for a demographic program in the Sahel.

    Family Health Care; Population Council

    [Unpublished] 1979 Jul 30. 107 p. (Contract No. AID/afr-C-1413)

    This paper provides recommendations to the Sahel Demvelopment Program of the U.S. Agency for International Development concerning an operational strategy for the promotion and development of social services and production have been the development goals of the Sahelian countries since 1960, progress to date has not met expectations. With the exception of Senegal and Mauritania, all the member countries still have per capita gross national products of less than $200 per year. Between 1960-75 the Gambia and Mauritania experienced some growth in their per capita gross national product, while those in the other countries have actually declined. The agricultural sectors are the basis of the national economies, employing 80-90% of the economically active population, and growth of the agricultural sector between 1960-70 has been slow but steady, averaging about 2% annually. The population of region is 28 million, with an age structure in which 45% of the population is under 15 years of age and 55% is between ages 15-64. The Sahel Demographic Research Program has as its objectives: 1) to substantially develop the capacity for demographic data collection, analysis, and research in the Sahel countries; 2) to improve the mechanisms of social and economic development by taking into consideration the interrelations of all social, economic, and demographic variables in the process of development; 3) to contribute to the definition of appropriate population policies that are based on reliable data and can contribute to the rehabilition of the Sahelian ecosystem; 4) to reinforce the scientific and technical cooperation and solidarity between the countries of the area from a self-relian and common perspective of subregional development. To achieve these goals, objectives for a "first generation program" to be undertaken during the period 1978-82 were formulated. The strategy for achieving the objectives should be designed so as to remove the human, physical, and financial resource constraints that are reflected in lack of appropriately trained personnel, institutional networks, financial resources, and coordination at all levels. Successful program impelmentation should result in a team of professional and technical personnel capable of identifying, collecting, analyzing, and utilizing demographic data needed for longterm development planning, systematization of the colleciton, and mechanisms for regional coordination and collaboration. Specifically, the strategy should consist of: 1) institution building and training; 2) establishment of a centralized computer bank; 3) expansion of the demographic database; 4) promotion of the application of demographic data in policy formulation, planning, project design, and evaluation; and 5) publication, dissemination, and translation of research.
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  25. 25

    Population and development: the challenges for the future, statement made at the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 August, 1979.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1979]. 14 p.

    In the challenges faced by national policy makers and technical experts there is a vital linkage between population programs, policies and plans on health, housing, education, employment, the environment, and the uses of resources. The ultimate end of population programs should be assisting in the creation of societies which will enable individuals to develop their full potential. Reasons for the overall decline in fertility are not fully understood. It is not known which programs need to be sustained or modified to help the momentum continue. Can the reduction in infant mortality rate to less than 120/1000 live births by 1985 be attained? Regarding migration, the problem of how countries can institute action towards a more balanced redistribution of population within their natural boundaries exists. An increase in the population of the aged will require shifts in resources to welfare systems tailored to the needs of this population group. Consideration for human rights stresses the need for population programs implemented without coercion. There is also a need for better contraceptives. Population studies indicate that increasing participation of women in economic activities has decisive effects on decreasing reproductive rates. It is not only necessary to take into account the resources required to feed, clothe and shelter a growing population, but also the type of technology which will make this possible without worsening the environment. Regarding data collection and institutional development, there is a continuous need to strengthen the data base as well as the various types of governmental and community machinery for planning, promoting and coordinating population activities with development policies in developing countries. Large increases in demand for assistance from all parts of the developing world, particularly Asia and Africa, are foreseen. Present flow must increase to US$1 billion annually to meet this demand. Parliamentarians must demonstrate a strong commitment to action. There may be a need to transform the solid institutions of our society for more peace and security. One of the principal threats to peace is social unrest caused by the accumulation of human fear and hopelessness.
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