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  1. 1

    IPPF-WCOTP Joint Follow-up Mission to the 1976 Bolgatanga seminar on teachers and family life education, 2th - 28th October 1978.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]; World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession [WCOTP]

    [Unpublished] 1978. 57, 15 p.

    This document presents the results of a mission undertaken in 1978 by the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to follow up on a seminar held in Bolgatanga, Ghana, in 1976 on the theme of Teachers and Family Life Education. The follow-up team spent 1 week in each of the following 4 countries: Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ghana. Among the aims of the mission were to evaluate the value of the Bolgatanga seminar in stimulating the development of family life education in participating countries; to assess how far national plans formulated at the 1976 seminar have been implemented; and to examine the level and nature of cooperation between teachers' unions, family planning associations, and other institutions and government departments. The 4 African countries were found to be at different levels of awareness and program development in the area of family life education. At this point, Ghana serves as a valuable model for other countries interested in developing family life education programs. There is wide awareness in Ghana of the need to provide education to young people that will reduce the incidence of problems related to sex. The 3 major findings that emerged from the 1978 mission relate more to the Gambia, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Although there exists in these countries a general awareness of the need for some kind of organized family life education, the concept is not clearly understood and often confused with sex education and family planning. Also noted was a lack of coordination and communication among the many government departments, voluntary organizations, and institutions involved in family life education. Outside of Ghana, the Bolgatanga seminar appears to have had little direct impact on the development of family life education. The slow progress of national groups in implementing action plans in large measure reflects the unmet need for training, funding, and resource materials.
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  2. 2

    Family planning based on periodic abstinence. A preliminary glossary (draft).

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Task Force on Methods for the Determination of the Fertile Period

    [Unpublished] [1978]. 11 p.

    This glossary, prepared by the Task Force on Methods for the Determination of the Fertile Period of the World Health Organization (WHO) Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, defines 79 terms and concepts central to the understanding of family planning based on periodic abstinence. The glossary was the result of awareness that the absence of standardized terminology has resulted in misunderstandings regarding the teaching and practice of natural family planning methods, errors in the overall interpretation of data and evaluation of effectiveness, and communication difficulties between family planning programs and investigators. The glossary is primarily intended to provide technical language for the natural family planning instructor as a tool for communication with couples who intend to practice family planning based on periodic abstinence. Efforts were made to use simple and precise language, and it is expected that the glossary will be translated from English and adapted to local vernacular and cultures. The glossary in not intended to replace a manual of instruction on natural family planning planning.
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  3. 3

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae and gonococcal infections. Report of a WHO scientific group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific Group on Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Gonococcal Infections

    World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1978; (616):1-142.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Group on Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Gonococcal Infections, which met in Geneva November 2-8, 1976, set 3 goals: 1) to evaluate current knowledge regarding N. gonorrhoeae, gonococcal infections, and complications of these infections; 2) to determine research directions in light of public health priorities; and 3) to propose a control policy adapted to existing health structures and epidemiologic sitations. In addition to specific recommendations pertaining to individual facets of the problem of gonococcal infections, such as their pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility, the Group made 5 principal recommendations. 1st, the gonococcal antigens that have been defined immunochemically should be intensively investigated with the aim of establishing a sensitive, selective serologic test for gonorrhea and assessing the potential value of these components in vaccines against gonorrhea. Research should also be directed toward the effects of gonorrhea on male and femlae fertility, child development, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. 2nd, health education and stricter control over the availability of microbials are needed to counteract the development of drug resistance on the part of gonococcal strains of bacteria. A system for the continuous surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern should be set up in each epidemiologic area. 3rd, governments should set up the best possible services for the diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal infections. These services should involve a well-balanced range of techniques, continuously monitored to evaluate their relevance and cost-effectiveness. In areas where diagnostic laboratory support is unavailable, a simplified control program based on clinical diagnosis and contact treatment may be considered a temporary measure to reduce the spread of infection. 4th, health authorities must determine the prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing strains and attempt to limit their spread. The recent appearance of these strains is regarded as a serious public health threat which may produce a major increase in morbidity and mortality. 5th, governments are urged to facilitate research on the practical value of new findings and to cooperate with WHO in training programs to improve the effectiveness of gonorrhea control. A network of national and regional centers for research and training would be a positive development.
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  4. 4

    The role of the health sector in the development of national and international food and nutrition policies and plans, with special reference to combating malnutrition, 13th Plenary Meeting, 24 May 1978.

    World Health Assembly

    Geneva, WHA, 1978 May 24. 10 p. (WHA31.47/WHA34.22)

    The 31st World Health Assembly (WHA) has considered the Director General's report on the role of the health sector in the development of national and international food and nutrition policies and plans and endorses the functions of the health sector in this field. The WHA is convinced that malnutrition is 1 of the major impediments to realizing the goal of health for all by the year 2000, and that new approaches based on clearly defined priorities and maximum utilization of local resources are needed for a more effective action to combat malnutrition. The WHA recommends that Member States give the highest priority to stimulating permanent multisector coordination of nutrition policies and programs and to preventing malnutrition in pregnant women, lactating women, infants, and children by doing the following: 1) supporting and promoting breast feeding with educational activities to the general public, 2) legislative and social actions to facilitate breastfeeding by working mothers, 3) implementing the necessary promotional and facilitating measures in the health services and regulating inappropriate sales promotion of infant foods that can be used to replace breast milk, 5) ensuring timely supplementation and appropriate weaning practices and the feeding of young children with the maximum utilization of locally available and acceptable foods, and 6) conducting, if necessary, action oriented research to support this approach and the training of personnel for its promotion. Governments and multilateral and bilateral organizations and agencies are urged to support the proposed programs of research and development in nutrition through their technical and scientific institutions and workers and by financial contributions. A copy of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes is included. The 11 articles of the code cover the following: aim and scope of the code, definitions, information and education, the general public and mothers, health care systems, health workers, persons employed by manufacturers and distributors, labelling, quality, and implementation and monitoring.
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  5. 5

    Immunity and vaccine development: report of a Scientific Working Group, Geneva, 14-16 August 1978.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1978. 22 p. (WHO/DDC/78.2)

    The ultimate control of diarrheal diseases and other enteric infections will only be achieved through improved water supplies, sanitation, and education in developing countries. Since this goal will not soon be realized in most of these places, a complementary approach is prevention through the development of vaccines. WHO (World Health Organization) sponsored a Scientific Working Group in August 1978 to discuss possibilities in this field. Topics of discussion were: 1) recent advances in the knowledge of gut infections and associated immunity; 2) the application of new genetic knowledge to enteric vaccine development; 3) the status of currently available immunizing agents; and 4) future possibilities and suggestions for research in the field.
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  6. 6

    Future directions in regional sectoral programme in population education in Asia and Oceania.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania. Regional Mobile Team in Population Education

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, 1978. 92 p.

    The Regional Population Programme is funded by UNFPA and operationalized through a Regional Mobile Team in Population Education, consisting of a Regional Advisor, a Specialist in Curriculum Development in Population Education, and a Specialist in Population Education for Out-of-School and Adult Education. Attached to this unit is the Population Education Clearing House Services headed by a Documentation Specialist. From 1970-78 the mobile team has provided services to Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. India, Pakistan, and Thailand, while not having national projects, also use the services. The mobile team has developed population education materials and source books, provided training in workshops and seminars, conducted regional conferences and national meeting, conducted surveys and studies, and collected and disseminated information through the clearing house. The needs in population education from 1970-77 were summed up under the following headings: introduction of population education in the schools' curricula; awareness and orientation for policy makers; training of personnel; research and evaluation; curriculum and materials development; information flow and exchange; regional infrastructure for technical assistance; innovative educational strategies through population education; coordination of faculties of institutions; out-of-school programs; exchange of experiences; and, institutionalization of population education.
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  7. 7

    Population growth problem in developing countries: coordinated assistance essential, Report to the Congress of the United States by the Comptroller General.

    United States. General Accounting Office

    Wash., D.C., GAO, 1978 Dec. 91 p.

    This document argues that a formal coordinating mechanism should be established to oversee the increasing bilateral and multilateral assistance funds being channeled into population activities in developing countries. Effective coordination is needed, according to the General Accounting Office, to ensure that funds are applied to the highest priorities, to maximize efficiency of country programs, and to take advantage of opportunities of cost reduction. The report is based on visits to 6 countries including Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Thailand, and interviews with U.S. ambassadors, AID mission directors, officials of donor organizations and host governments, and visits to headquarters of voluntary organizations and the 3 principal donors of population assistance. Viewpoints of the officials and agencies contacted and provisions for coordination within country programs are described. In-country coordination was found to consist largely of informal discussion among field representatives, officials of several voluntary organizations warned that overdeveloped coordination would be counterproductive, and officials of AID, the World Bank, and UNFPA, the main donors, felt that obstacles in the way of greater coordination were many. The GAO was unable to identify instances of unproductive duplication.
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  8. 8

    Population growth problem in developing countries: coordinated assistance essential: report to the Congress.

    U.S. Comptroller General

    Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, 1978 Dec 20. 101 p.

    Because rapid population growth in developing countries impedes efforts to improve the quality of life, the General Accounting Office (GAO) recommends that AID work with other national and international agencies, private and voluntary organizations, to improve the coordination of population assistance to developing countries. The magnitude of the population problem, and the increasing number of developing countries establishing population programs and seeking assistance combine to make effective coordination essential, to ensure that funds are applied to the highest priorities, that country programs are as efficient as possible, and that opportunities to reduce costs are identified and taken. The report is divided into 7 sections: 1) importance of coordination: views of major donors providing population assistance (AID, UNFPA, World Bank); 2) nongovernmental organizations providing population assistance and their views on coordination: Asia Foundation; Association for Voluntary Sterilization; Family Planning International Assistance; Ford Foundation; IPPF; Pathfinder Fund; Population Council; Population Services International; World Education; World Neighbors; 3) systems, arrangements, and other coordination efforts of the World Bank, UNFPA, and AID; 4) salient features or coordination systems observed in countries visited by GAO: long-range strategy; leadership; division of program responsibility (Bangladesh; Thailand; Nigeria; Tanzania; Costa Rica; Jamaica); 5) interaction among participants in countries visited; 6) division of program responsibility and specialization by organizations involved in providing population assistance; and 7) conclusions and recommendations. Appendices include: 1) comments on the draft report by AID and the Dept. of State; 2) AID population program assistance by major organizations 1965-1979; 3) assistance for population activities by major donors 1971-1976; and 4) socioeconomic data on the countries visited.
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  9. 9

    Steroid contraception and the risk of neoplasia.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific Group

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1978. (World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 619) 54 p

    Studies on steroid contraception (SC) and risk of neoplasia are reviewed. Methodological issues in neoplasia etiology studies include: 1) possibility of a latent period between exposure to cause and disease development; 2) cumulative effects of prolonged or repeated SC exposure; 3) discontinued drugs or dosage schedules; 4) time of exposure (adolescence or prenatal, e.g.); 5) isolation of specific causes among multiple risks; and 6) variations in neoplasma diagnoses. The 4 epidemiological approaches to SC-associated neoplasia studies have inherent shortcomings, but cohorts yield significant associations. Relative risk (ratio of disease incidence among exposed vs. nonexposed persons) is an index of association only, not evidence of cause and effect. Benign breast neoplasia risk was reduced by current SC use of >2 years, and weak evidence points to a residual protective effect, apparently associated with progestogen dose. Aggregated breast cancer data show no clear adverse or beneficial effect of SC use; however, evidence suggests SCs may increase breast cancer risk in population subgroups (e.g., young women). Only short-term evidence is available; hence, no inference of long-term SC breast cancer effects is possible. No beneficial effect of SCs on uterine fibroids is evident, but sequential SCs, no longer marketed, may have increased risk to endometrial carcinoma. Inconclusive data suggest SCs may decrease ovarian cancer risk. Increased risk of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ is associated with SC use, especially long-term use by women with predisposing factors. Risk of hepatocellular adenoma of the liver increases with prolonged SC exposure, especially high dose. Relevance of existing data from more developed countries to disease risk in less developed ones is discussed, and recommendations made.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating the safety and efficacy of placental antigen vaccines for fertility regulation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Task Force on Immunological Methods for Fertility Regulation

    Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 1978 Aug; 33(2):360-375.

    Since guidelines for safety evaluation of antifertility vaccines do not exist, this WHO report attempts to define the parameters to be examined and the methodology which might be used for such a safety assessment. In principle, antifertility vaccines may: 1) prevent sperm transport and/or fertilization; 2) prevent or disrupt implantation; and 3) prevent blastocyst development. Potential advantages of this immunological approach to fertility regulation include: 1) possibility of infrequent administration, possibly by paramedicals; 2) use of antigens or antigen frangments that are not pharmacologically active; and 3) the possibility of large-scale synthesis and manufacture of vaccine at relatively low cost in the case of antigens of known chemical structure. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of placental antigen vaccines, placental antigens used should not possess significant immunological similarity with tissue other than placenta. Carriers or haptens may require structural remodifications of placental molecules to overcome natural immunological tolerance. Adjuvants may be needed to enhance the immune response required. Quality-control procedures for vaccine component production include tests for: 1) purity; 2) toxicity; 3) sterility; and 4) shelf-life. Acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity testing in animals is described for it must be performed separately for the haptenated antigen or conjugate and adjuvant. Such tests would include hematological parameters, blood chemistry, urinanaylsis, gross pathological and organ weight analysis, and ophthalmological tests. Animal models are suggested. Means of monitoring the immune reponse and potential hazards of immunization (e.g., allergy or autoimmune disease) are discussed. The rationale and protocol for safety and efficacy studies of human chorionic gonadotropin-peptide vaccine receive similar attention, with emphasis on tests to be performed before human clinical trials can start.
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  11. 11

    A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume four. Techniques.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. v, 72 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. IV))

    This manual (volume 4) produced by the UN presents a number of practical training techniques that can be incorporated into the popular participation training to achieve specific objectives and to create a more varied and interesting experience. It also contains 5 elements essential in the evaluation of each technique, which includes objectives, settings, process, discussion and comments or preparation. Chapter 1 discusses the techniques for problem recognition, which include: 1) first steps in group activities; 2) perception exercises; 3) entering your own space and entering another's space; 4) force field analysis; 5) polling; 6) differences in perception; and 7) serialized posters. Chapter 2 describes the techniques for capacity building, which consist of: 1) village planner; 2) problem-solving posters; 3) the impertinent PERT chart; 4) need identification; 5) choosing a color; 6) inter-group competition in plan preparation; 7) inter-group collaboration in program implementation and 8) challenging conflicts within the Iwo village. Chapter 3 presents the techniques for attitude and value development through role playing, development of community, awareness of hidden motives, the fishbowl approach, difference between clear and unclear goals, charting group participation, application of empathy and ring-toss.
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  12. 12

    A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume three. A selected group of training approaches.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. iv, 39 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. III))

    This manual (volume 3) produced by the UN presents a comprehensive description of each training approach and technique that have been theoretically developed and tested. The use of a format in the description of training approaches ensures the reliability of the information consisting of 1) name of the approach; 2) background, rationale and training goals or objectives of the approach; 3) process of approach objective achievement; 4) association of specific techniques in relation with the approach; and 5) presentation of further references for further information. The first chapter presents the approach of synthetics as a method of creatively stating and solving problems. The second chapter highlights the discrepancy model as a means of training people the skills needed for the job through programmed instructions and carefully developed materials. The third chapter focuses on field training as one alternative in training, which provides opportunity for utilizing the field as a laboratory as well as a reality test of the training activity. The fourth chapter presents group dynamics as an option for training approach that encourages combining talents of all members to arrive at results that would benefit the group. The fifth chapter highlights laboratory training as an alternative approach that focuses on the learning of new knowledge and change in behavior as a result of the training experience. The sixth chapter presents the motivation training, while the seventh chapter highlights self-awareness and self-development methods that focuses on the development of trainer-learner relationships to enhance learning in the course of the approach implementation.
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  13. 13

    A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume two. Selected examples of innovative training activities.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. iv, 21 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. II))

    This manual (volume 2) produced by the UN illustrates the efficacy of the process of information dissemination on innovative training activities to promote popular participation in the national, institutional and cultural development programs. Included also in this volume are examples of successful training conducted in various countries. The six items used to evaluate innovative training activities include field and country, identification of resources, sponsor, methods used, comments and specific techniques related to popular participation training. Chapter 1 presents the community development in the Central African Empire. Chapter 2 highlights the community development in Canada. Community development in Saudi Arabia is presented in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the functional education for family life planning program in Turkey, while chapter 5 introduces the family planning program in Indonesia. Chapter 6 presents the rural development in Honduras. Lastly, the Rural Women's Development and Participation program in the Philippines is evaluated.
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  14. 14

    A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume one. Introduction.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. xiii, 34 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. I))

    This manual (volume 1) produced by the UN presents a set of resources that aids in the planning and implementation of innovative training programs that promote popular participation. An introduction and bibliography material is presented. A detailed discussion on the basic assumptions vital to the approach and the organization of the manual is included. This volume also presents two approaches when using this manual. In addition, two basic and interlocking themes were discussed specifically in the promotion of popular participation through training and training innovation through popular innovation. The following sections present the context of project accomplishment in training, the need of matrix in training, the address to practical training planning such as matching program needs and training approaches and the development of a training plan. The first chapter presents an index on the specific elements that provide general application to each training goal. This index also serves as a guide in locating any approach, activity, and technique. The second chapter presents manual participation, which includes comments, examples of training activities, approaches, and techniques given in the manual. The third and fourth chapters present selected general references and the specific references used in this manual, respectively.
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  15. 15

    Smallpox: epitaph for a killer?

    Henderson DA

    NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. 1978 Dec; 154(6):796-805.

    The story of the defeat of smallpox is told from the end back to high points in the effort. In April 1979, the case of the last natural victim of smallpox, a Somalian cook, was documented. Unfortunately there were 2 subsequent cases, due to laboratory exposure in Birmingham, England. The more severe Asian strain killed 20-30% of persons it attacked, and left the survivors scarred and sometimes blinded. A concerted world effort to eradicate smallpox, rather than merely control it, began with WHO in 1959, but succeeded with the WHO campaign instigated in 1966. In 1966 there were 44 countries with uncontrolled smallpox. The number fell to 19 nations in 1972, 5 in 1975, and none in 1978. Asian smallpox was contained in 1976, leaving only variola minor endemic in Ethiopia and Somalia. The 1st plan was mass vaccination. After a shortage of supplies in Nigeria, the strategy of surveillance and containment was found to be far superior and cost effective. In this technique, suspected cases were quarantined under guard, while all contacts and everyone within a 5-mile radius were vaccinated. New stable vaccines and a special needle that saved vaccine material permitted field workers to vaccinate inaccessible populations. Workers used charm, guile, shame or intimidation to get universal cooperation. This feat in world-wide teamwork, creative problem-solving and heroic leadership under severe odds and admonitions of the experts demonstrated that the chain of transmission of a dread disease could be broken.
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  16. 16

    Fourth population inquiry among government in 1978: review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. 52 p. (78-40195)

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  17. 17

    Population education: its place in work-related training.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Population and Labour Policies Branch

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, Population and Labour Policies Branch, 1978. [12] p.

    This brochure, addressed primarily to International Labor Office (ILO) personnel, seeks to introduce the content and modalities of the population and family welfare education component of the ILO's Labor and Population Program. Whenever possible, training projects should include a presentation of relevant population/family welfare issues consistent with national policies and priorities. The content of such education should be directed at family-level relationships and the family well-being of individual workers. From the standpoint of the worker, the relationship between labor and population has 2 facets: 1) the pressure of labor supply (caused both by current birth rates and migration to urban industrial centers) and 2) family welfare and the standard of living. Workers must be shown that they can determine their own family size and, in so doing, they can increase their control over actual and expected material resources. The contribution required from a training program is relatively small. In countries where there is an ILO-executed family welfare education program, such trainers can be used to both prepare and present the new component in the basic training programs. In countries where population policies are primarily health oriented and implemented largely by health ministries with little participation of other sectors, the introduction of a family welfare component into an ongoing basic training program may need to be preceded by interdepartmental discussions and clearances at government level.
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  18. 18

    Report of working group on training methodology of population education.

    Shroti KS; Seshachalam P; Iyer J; Khan S; Coloane JF; Rao HK; Kaddu MR; Matarwala RP; Chaterji RP; Chandrasekhar Y

    In: Population education in rural development, a report of the National Workshop on Integration of Population Education in Agriculture Extension and Rural Development Programmes, Bangalore, May 22-28, 1978, organised by the Government of India in colloboration with Food and Agriculture Organization and Family Planning Foundation of India. New Delhi, India, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Dept. of Rural Development [1978]. 136-43.

    A working group was established on training methodology for population education in India. It assessed the training needs of different functionaries, identified the trainers, suggested methods and materials for training, and identified training institutions. Training should be organized for the following categories: village level functionaries, Block and District level functionaries, administrators and policy makers, and trainers. Population education should be built into the regular curricula and provided through mobile units for those already on the job. The Union Government should seek collaboration and cooperation of international agencies for development of teaching materials and audio-visual aids. A comprehensive manual should be prepared and continuously enriched. In dependent research in the concept, content and methodology of education should be promoted. Funds should be provided by the Central Government and, if necessary, international agencies. National level voluntary organizations should also be involved in funding and undertaking innovative projects. Training of functionaries working in the field of agricultural extension and rural development is a pre-requisite for launching the population education programs. State level workshops should be organized within the first 6 months to help the State Governments in formulating plans. A monitoring cell should be established in the Central Government and at the State level.
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  19. 19

    Expanded Programme on Immunization progress report by the Director-General.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1978 Mar 31. Presented to the Thirty-first World Health Assembly provisional agenda item 2.6.10. 13 p. (A31/21)

    This report summarizes progress in 1977-78 in the planning and implementation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). The EPI's long-term objectives are: 1) to reduce morbidity and mortality from diphtheria, pertussis, measles, poliomyelitis, and tuberculosis by providing immunization against these diseases to every child in the world by 1990; 2) to promote countries' self-reliance in the delivery of immunization services within the context of comprehensive health services; and 3) to promote regional self-reliance in matters of vaccine quality control and production. The present EPI program strategy is to develop managerial competence at the senior and middle levels to serve as a foundation for solid, enduring program implementation. Regional and national authorities have been made a part of the global planning process. An EPI Global Advisory Group has been established to assist in operational implementation, develop prototype training curricula and educational materials, develop and transfer appropriate technologies, establish a 2-way information system to obtain global data on the target diseases, and attract and coordinate extrabudgetary resources. Recent training activities have included a course on EPI planning and management, middle management training at the national level, training in cold chain management, and preparation of an EPI field manual. Research and development efforts have focused on improving the equipment used in the cold chain. Work continues on the development of more stable, more potent, less reactogenic vaccines. 42 developing countries, in which a total of 57 million children are born every year, have been identified as expanding their immunization programs in active collaboration with the World Health Organization. As more countries actively expand their immunization coverage, a larger level of resource input will be required to sustain this expansion.
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  20. 20

    Course outlines and case study guidelines for communication and information systems.

    Harun R; Chee YS; Ismail ZA; Ali M; Abdullah OB; Woods JL

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Development Programme, Asia and Pacific Programme for Development Training and Communication Planning, 1978. 7 p. (RB No. 359; UNDP Regional Project RAS/81/111)

    The course on improving communication capabilities of development administrators assumes that the participants are from a technical background and have had little, if any, training in management or communication. The approach of this course outline is to move the participant through a series of experiences starting from basic skills and progressing to general concepts. The 6 sections of the outline cover the following: an introduction to the course; communication skills; planning individual strategies; general communication concepts for development administrators; presentations to fellow partitipants and instructors; and course evaluation. The course on improving an organization's communication systems is designed for high level administrators working in organizations that are responsible for planning and implementing development programs such as agriculture, primary health care, family planning, and so forth. Its purpose is to give the participants sufficient theory and practice for him/her to study a development project organization to identify communication problems and suggest possible solutions. This course begins with basic concepts and progresses toward specific analysis techniques. A field case study exercise is part of the course. The 10 sections of the course outline cover the following: importance of communication within an organization; general communication concepts for development administrators; basic organizational communication categories; communication techniques used by development organizations and potential problems; identifying causes of organizational communication problems; planning a case study exercise; fieldwork for case study data collection and preparing draft reports; presentation of case study to clients, associated agencies, instructors, and fellow participants; revision of case study reports; and course evaluation. The guidelines for preparing a case study outlines the types of information to be collected for the case study portion of the course.
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  21. 21

    Media and population in Zambia.

    Mijoni V

    [Unpublished] [1978]. [6] p.

    Zambia's mass media has the dual task of informing the public about development issues and about Zambia's role in the liberation wars of other south African countries. To adequately fulfill these tasks, the mass media must overcome communication obstacles which stem from the historical development of the nation's mass media system. In the past, Zambia's wealth was derived primarily from copper mining. As a result, development and urbanization was confined to the Copperbelt region of the country. The mass media was developed with money derived from the copper industry and created to serve the needs of the urban elite residing in the Copperbelt. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and is, therefore, excluded both as an audience and as a source of news. Efforts are now underway to improve the 2-way flow of information between urban and rural areas. This flow is essential for promoting public understanding of development issues. To increase the flow from the rural areas to the urban areas government reporters are now assigned to each provincial information office. The reporters send all the news from their areas by telex to the government's Information Department but also to the Zambian News Agency, which then distributes it to radio and television stations and to the newspapers. Efforts to increase the information flow from the urban areas to the rural areas includes a plan to introduce television into all the rural areas of the country. Currently, television is available in the major urban province and in 1 rural province. In reference to newspapers, there are 2 major dailies in the urban region and small government newspapers are published twice a month in each rural province. These rural newspapers are of poor quality. To improve news availability in rural areas, summaries of the news carried in the major daily urban papers are now published each week and distributed in the rural areas. An additional problem faced by the Zambian mass media is the need to depend on foreign news services for international news. These services tend to report African issues from a biased perspective and generally attribute the problems of African countries to tribalism or economic mismanagement. To overcome some of the problems associated with dependency on the foreign new services, Zambia recently joined the African Media Foundation. This organization will gather and distribute news from numerous African countries.
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  22. 22

    Report of Experts Meeting 18-22 September 1978.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa. Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa

    Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, [1978]. 19, [16] p. (XA/01471/00)

    The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
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  23. 23

    U.S. non-profit organizations in development assistance abroad: TAICH directory, 1978.

    Technical Assistance Information Clearinghouse

    New York, N.Y., Technical Assistance Information Clearinghouse, 1978. xvi, 525 p.

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  24. 24

    U.S. international population policy, second annual report of the NSC Ad Hoc Group on Population Policy, January 1978.

    United States. National Security Council. Ad Hoc Group on Population Policy

    [Unpublished] 1978 Jun. 45 p.

    Noting the devastating effects of uncontrolled population growth, this 1978 annual report reviews population problems, primarily in 13 developing countries, and focuses on program development, broadly and by specific countries. It acknowledges mounting international attention to the problem, adoption of more government-sponsored population programs, and increasing assistance from international and private donors, as well as government agencies. Urgently needed, however, is a broader, more concerted effort, along with implementation of the multi-year program plans of several organizations, particularly the Agency for International Development (AID). Strengthening family planning programs in village and community organizations, improving the status of women, intensifying fertility research, motivating smaller families, lessening the gap between food production and population, the legal reform are central tenets of AID programs. Some evidence of declining birth rates in developing countries is indicated, but projections are that for every decade of delay in achieving replacement-level fertility rates, world population will increase by 15%.
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  25. 25

    WHO: natural methods "relatively ineffective".

    International Family Planning Perspectives and Digest. 1978 Winter; 4(4):125-6.

    Carefully controlled studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) found 2 of the most modern natural family planning (NFP) methods--the ovulation and the symptothermal methods--to be "relatively ineffective for preventing pregnancy." The 2 methods were compared in a randomized study in Colombia and the ovulation method alone was evaluated in 5 countries. Centers with natural family planning experience were selected and only motivated volunteers were recruited, all of whom were given personal instruction, yet in Colombia 16-22% of the women became pregnant within the 1st year of use. In 5 countries 19 pregnancies/100 woman years occurred. A problem with rhythm methods may be the lack of knowledge of the events surrounding conception, the report notes. In 1976, a comparative study of the ovulation and symptothermal methods of NFP was begun under WHO auspices. Women were admitted to the study after they agreed to be randomly allocated to 1 of the methods. All were aged 18-39 and had a history of regular menstrual cycles. They were given 3-5 months of training. Before entering the effectiveness phase of the study, the volunteers were required to have practiced the method correctly during the last 2 months of training. As of August 1978, there were 439 couples in the study. During the 1st year of participation in the study, life table analysis showed that 16% of couples using the symptothermal method and 22% of those using the ovulation method had unwanted pregnancies. In El Salvador, India, Ireland, New Zealand, and the Philippines, centers with experience with the ovulation method and with qualified teachers available participated in the WHO study, which began in 1975. As of October 1978, 890 women had contributed 2685 cycles to the study; 40 women had become pregnant, i.e., 19.4 pregnancies/100 woman years of use. According to WHO, the high rate of failure was not due to the inability of the women to learn the method but to couples "taking a chance" during the fertile phase. 1 reason for the method failures of periodic abstinence may be that the life span of sperm in the female reproductive tract may be longer than was previously believed. WHO is continuing to develop teaching and educational materials for the ovulation and symptothermal methods in the hope that they might help reduce user failure with these methods.
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