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  1. 1

    World Bank lending policies and procedures in the population sector.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1977 Nov. 18 p.

    The attached paper provides the most up-to-date and authoritative statement that is available on World Bank lending policies in the population sector. The paper parallels closely an official Bank statement that was recently distributed to staff as an internal document. Since the paper is concerned only with the Bank's lending operations, it does not deal with other aspects of the Bank's population activities, such as the coverage of population in Bank economic reports or Bank research in the field. The paper defines the "population sector" as the Bank sees it and then describes the Bank's lending objectives, the range of fertility-reducing interventions possible in the light of current understanding of fertility determinants, the types of delivery systems available for the provision of family planning services, typical project content in the sector, and the use of "population components'' in non-population projects. The paper also explains how a number of general Bank policies -- e.g., on procurement, project justification, user charges, local-cost financing, co-financing, and project monitoring and evaluation -- are applied in this sector. (author's)
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  2. 2

    World Bank lending for population: 1969-77.

    World Bank

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 1977 Nov. [66] p.

    The Bank entered the population field because its experience drove it to the conclusion that attempts to raise the standard of living in a great many developing countries were being seriously hindered, if not thwarted, by the growth of population. The Bank has no fixed idea how large the population of any particular country ought to be, but it is convinced that, in most developing countries, the faster population grows, the slower will be the improvement of living standards. In many countries "population drag" is not just a minor element in the picture; it is one of the main explanations of why living standards are improving so slowly. In the mid-1960's, about two-thirds of total annual investment in a sample of 2.2 developing countries was required to maintain per capita income constant, leaving only about one-third to increase it. The corresponding figures for a representative sample of 19 developed countries were one-quarter and three quarters. The cost of rapid population growth is therefore large, and it falls most heavily on the poorest. High rates of fertility increase the number of children the labor force must support. Some of these costs are borne by the individual household, while others, such as education, are borne primarily by society. Without a decline in fertility, increased expenditures are necessary merely to provide the same inadequate instruction to larger numbers of students. Rapid population growth is an important cause of inequality of incomes. The expansion of the labor force exerts downward pressures on wages and creates unemployment; in agriculture, the effect is often the fragmentation of landholdings and growing landlessness. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Report on the seminar on incentive to natural breast feeding.

    Reproduction, Nutrition and Maternal and Infant Care [RENUMI]

    [Unpublished] [1977]. 8 p.

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  4. 4

    Information package on current status of population and family planning policies and programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). Office of Population.

    Washington, D.C., AID, 1977. 27 p.

    This information package is designed to help development officials keep up-to-date on the rapidly changing African attitudes toward population growth and family planning. It provides a brief summary of the situation as of mid-1977, both from a regional and country-specific standpoint. Although family planning programs have begun in various African countries, most Africans do not have effective access to modern family planning. Tables are given showing government policies on access to modern methods of fertility regulation and governments' perceptions of their population growth and fertility rates. Maps show private family planning associations, government support of family planning, both total and initiated since 1979, and fertility rates. A chart on the beginnings of family planning in Africa (when government support and government programs began and when private family planning associations were established) is provided. A country by country summary of population policies and programs shows 1) the attitudes toward population matters and family planning in sub-Saharan African countries; 2) programs in population and family planning; 3) the most important donor assistance efforts.
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  5. 5

    Annual Report for 1977 to the Joint Coordinating Committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1977. 28 p. (OCP/STAC/77.2)

    The STAC (Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee) is evaluating the feasibility for economic development in the Volta River Basin. The main obstacle is the danger of onchocerciasis which could lead to blindness. The onchocerciasis control program hopes to reduce the disease to a low enough level that it no longer poses a major health problem or an obstacle to socio-economic development as well as to maintain the disease at a tolerable level. Therefore, studies, plans, and recommendations on insecticides are being made. The program is treating waterways with Abate, a biodegradable larvicide, in addition to undertaking parasitological surveillance. Blackflys are captured and their larvae are analyzed; data is recorded; and tests are conducted to detect any insecticide resistance. The STAC also examined villagers to diagnose human microfilariae in their skin and determine if eye lesions were present. Treatment currently used to combat the disease is either by nodulectomy and/or chemotherapy, but neither is fully effective and mass treatment is difficult. Metrifonate is a promising drug which affects the microfilariae in the cornea without irritating the anterior segment of the eye. Although there are some difficulties in overcoming onchocerciasis, reclamation of the valleys will benefit the population.
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  6. 6

    Action now toward more responsible parenthood worldwide. (Proceedings of the Tokyo International Symposium, Tokyo, April 4-7, 1977).

    Japan Science Society; Draper World Population Fund

    Tokyo, Japan, Japan Science Society, 1977. 578 p.

    The Tokyo International Symposium reviewed the progress made since 1974 in integrating population policies with socioeconomic development, with additional focus on needs of rural areas. It was discovered that even countries experiencing economic growth have still failed to provide basic human needs - health, nutrition, housing, education, and employment - and that in densely populated rural areas, and marginal districts of cities, fertility decline has been slow or nonexistant. New evidence presented at the symposium suggested that now a new stage of population history is approaching, characterized by falling birth rates and slackening of world population growth; nevertheless, rapid population growth in developing countries has not ended because 1) of the high proportion of young people in many countries and 2) the fertility rates of the poorest half of the population are 50% higher than the national averages. While projections of world population are being revised downward, world population is still likely to grow from its present 4 billion to 6 billion by the turn of the century. All agencies, official or private, need to emphasize development of cost-effective methods which the government may adopt after a successful pilot study that take into account the social values, religious beliefs, and customs in each country. The symposium urges that additional resources be made available for a broad range of new initiatives in the following areas: 1) to make the fullest range of family planning services available in rural areas and marginal districts of cities; 2) to expand the social and economic roles of women and to improve their status in other fields; 3) to educate adolescents and young adults about their reproductive behavior and to underscore the impact that premature parenthood would have on themselves, their families, and communities; 4) to integrate family planning with development activities; and 5) to encourage program design by affected populations.
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  7. 7

    [The Church, the Family and Responsible Parenthood in Latin America: a Meeting of experts] Iglesia, Familia y Paternidad Responsable en America Latina: Encuentro de Expertos.

    Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano [CELAM]

    Bogota, Colombia, CELAM, 1977. (Documento CELAM No. 32.)

    This document is the result of a meeting organized by the Department of the Laity of the Latin American Episcopal Council on the theme of the Church, Family, and Responsible Parenthood. 18 Latin American experts in various disciplines were selected on the basis of professional competence and the correctness of their philosophical and theological positions in the eyes of the Catholic Church to study the problem of responsible parenthood in Latin America and to recommend lines of action for a true family ministry in this area. The work consists of 2 major parts: 12 presentations concerning the sociodemographic, philosophical-theological, psychophysiological, and educational aspects of responsible parenthood, and conclusions based on the work and the meetings. The 4 articles on sociodemographic aspects discuss the demographic problem in Latin America, Latin America and the demographic question in the Conference of Bucharest, maturity of faith in Christ expressed in responsible parenthood, and social conditions of responsible parenthood in Peruvian squatter settlements. The 3 articles on philosophical and theological aspects concern conceptual foundations of neomalthusian theory, pastoral attitudes in relation to responsible parenthood, and pastoral action regarding responsible parenthood. 2 articles on psychophysiological aspects discuss the couple and methods of fertility regulation and the gynecologist as an advisor on psychosexual problems of reproduction. Educational aspects are discussed in 3 articles on sexual pathology and education, education for responsible parenthood, and the Misereor-Carvajal Program of Family Action in Cali, Colombia. The conclusions are the result of an interdisciplinary effort to synthesize the major points of discussion and agreements on principles and actions arrived at in each of the 4 areas.
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  8. 8

    Outside consultation: the experience of the Dominican Republic program.

    Gonzalez-Fabra L

    In: Population and management: a report of the Seminar/Workshop on the Management of Latin American Population and Family Planning Programs held in Bogota, Colombia on May 23-26, 1976, edited by Henry Gomez. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, [1977]. 44-9.

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  9. 9

    The experience of the Costa Rican population program with an ICOMP-led consulting mission.

    Morgan VH

    In: Population and management: a report of the Seminar/Workshop on the Management of Latin American Population and Family Planning Programs held in Bogota, Colombia on May 23-26, 1976, edited by Henry Gomez. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, [1977]. 39-43.

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  10. 10

    Donors and developers in population communication.

    Echols JR

    Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Center, East-West Communication Institute, 1977 Apr. ix, 88 p. (A Synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper 9)

    Reviewing technical and economic assistance in the field of population and family planning communication, this document traces the development of population-related assistance programs and describes the kinds of assistance available from the major donor agencies and technical assistance institutions for population and family planning communication. It discusses problems and issues of technical and economic assustance such as the impact of external funding on national goals and policies; the relationships between outside experts and national personnel; the cultural variations that support or hinder programs of technical assistance; and coordination among donors, action agencies, and national governments. This review establishes that a population communication program is only 1 factor in the changing of attitudes about family size and motivating people to practice contraception, thus bringing about a reduction in fertility. Economic, technical, and social development alone can bring about these changes. In most cases, it is general, technical, and economic assistance that really helps in the development process. Specific technical and economic assistance to population programs can help to bring about the practice of contraception and thus, reduced fertility. That part of population assistance used for communication programs can help change attitudes and increase motivation to bring about these ends. Another element that emerges from this review is that the development process and population control would take place more easily if equal resources had been available internally rather than through the complicating mechanism of external assistance. Yet, less developed countries, with the possible exception of China, have been unable to carry out either of these processes without outside assistance. The role of motivational programs remains clear. Without adequate information and education about the problems created by large families and a growing population, there is no evidence that the traditional family in LDCs will choose to have fewer children. The role of national governments in these countries is also clear. They need to develop successful population programs with clear communication programs and good delivery systems as part of their total development program. Developed nations must be prepared to assist in the manner and according to the timetable of the LDCs. Technical and economic assistance to LDCs must be geared to their population programs and their messages using the best techniques and most fluid funding processes available.
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  11. 11

    Definitions and recommendations.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: World Health Organization. Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death. Vol. 1. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1977. 761-8.

    This presentation defines live birth, fetal death, causes of death, underlying causes of death, birthweight and low birthweigth, gestational age, preterm, term, postterm, and maternal mortality. It makes recommendations regarding the following: responsibility for medical certification of cause of death; form of medical certificate of cause of death; confidentiality of medical information; selection of the cause for mortality tabulation; use of the International Classification of Diseases; perinatal mortality statistics; maternal mortality statistics, statistical tables; and tabulation of causes of death. Medical certification of cause of death should normally be the responsibility of the attending phsician. In the statistical use of the medical certificate of cause of death and other medical records, administrative procedures should provide such safeguards as are necessary to preserve the confidential nature of the information given by the position. It is recommended that national perinatal statistics should include all fetuses and infants delivered weight at least 500 gm (or, when birthweight is unavailable, the corresponding gestational age--22 weeks--or body length (25 cm crown heel), whether alive or dead). The maternal mortality rate, the direct obstetric death rate, and the indirect obstetric death rate should be expressed as rates per 1000 livebirths. The degree of detail in cross classification by cause, sex, age, and area of territory will depend partly on the purpose and range of the statistics and partly on the practical limits as regards the size of the tables. The patterns listed, designed to promote international comparability, consist of standard ways of expressing various characteristics.
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  12. 12

    The implications of change, statement made at the 1977 David Owen Memorial Lecture at the David Owen Centre for Population Growth Studies, University College, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 2 June 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 15 p.

    The result of unprecedented population growth and the deficiencies of conventional development strategies both in slowing it down and turning it to productive purposes has been to challenge conventional approaches. In particular, the thinking which linked population growth and economic development in a linear way--more population growth would mean less growth in income per capita--was by the end of the 60s already giving way in many countries to a broader view which connected population with each of several other factors in development and which saw demographic growth as only one of many population issues. Since the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) started operations in 1969, this change in thinking has accelerated. 1st, there is evidence of the growing urgency with which population is viewed. This is seen from the growing number of requests for assistance. 2nd has been the rapid acceptance of population programs as a vital component in the development process. The range of contraceptive methods available has widened considerably since the Fund came into existence. Countries now depend on internal financing as much as on external aid for their development programs. This is reflected in legislation in various countries which provide government-sponsored population policies. Since resources of the Fund are limited, 40 high priority countries have been named on the basis of their need for assistance. Recommendations for policy implementation include the necessity of community participation in decision-making.
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  13. 13

    The UNFPA--an overview: present and past, statement made at the Twenty-fourth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, Geneva, 21 June, 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 23 p.

    This report provides an overview of UNFPA's operational experience in international population assistance, and a discussion of budget estimates, fiscal constraints, criteria for establishing priorities, projected expenditures, and estimated future needs and demands for funds. During its almost 8 years of operational existence, the Fund's cumulative resources have grown to almost US$400 million pledged by 83 countries. During these years, the Fund has implemented more than 1600 population projects in assisting 106 developing countries throughout the world. 40 priority countries (mainly in Africa), have received the largest allocation of funds (2/3), whereas UNFPA funded intercountry activities in 1976 received only 31% of available funding. Today, unlike 1969, most governments recognize population programs as an important component of development policy. National censuses, family planning programs and health services have emerged throughout the developing world. The concepts of cost-benefit analysis and absorpitive capacity are evaluated in light of UNFPA experience.
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  14. 14

    Population trends and implications, statement made at the Conference on "Population Trends and Implications," sponsored by The Conference Board, Dallas, Texas, 30 March 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 16 p.

    There is no universal agreement that the present rate of world population growth is too high. However, of the 48 developing countries which perceive their national population growth rates to be too high, 40 are acting to lower them. These countries contain some 80% of the developing world's population and over 1/2 of that of the entire world. Only 15 nations out of 156 prevent access to contraceptive methods. The right of access to the means of contraception is acknowledged almost universally. Population factors must be considered as part of socioeconomic development. The collection and analysis of demographic statistics has been valuable for over 100 years; but recently the methods have been considerably refined and extended to the predominantly rural societies of the developing world. The study and regulation of migratory patterns is another aspect of population activities. Population activities today are also concerned with factors indirectly affecting the birth rate, and are now widely accepted as an important part of development planning and policy. Constraints to effective population policies include: 1) social; 2) economic; and 3) institutional. Family planning services in most developing countries have traditionally been provided through public health systems. Efforts are now being made to bring family planning services closer to clients by using local groups and people. A variety of carriers--midwives, health visitors, housewives recruited for the purpose--are taking these services to the villages where most of the 3rd world's population lives. This new approach is often called the "community-based approach" or "community-based distribution of family planning services." The Fund has established a "core program" of population activities.
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  15. 15

    UNFPA progress report January 1977, statement made at the Twenty-third session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, New York 28 January 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 15 p.

    Financially, pledges made during 1976 to the UNFPA totaled about US$79 million. This was an increase of more than 24% above the comparable figure--US$63 million--for 1975. It is hoped that in 1977 resources will be made available to the Fund totaling at least US$95 million. However, even if that figure is achieved, requests from countries continue to mount. More sharply focussed priorities for the allocation of resources are planned, as is exploration of multi-bilateral financing. It is requested that UNFPA resources be concentrated in countries with the most urgent population problems. There are 40 high-priority countries for population assistance. At the end of 1976, the Fund has already committed over 1/2 of its 1978 resources, and about 40% of its 1979 resources. The concept of minimum population programs at the country level has been developed. There is a mission to 2 of the 40 countries to consult with them on minimum population programs. A review and assessment of regional interregional and global activities supported by UNFPA in the past has been initiated. A fair amount of progress has been made with the operation of UNFPA/multi-bilateral funding. However, this should not go for only large projects as was suggested in 1976. The executive Director of the Fund and the Administrator of the UNDP work nicely together. A report has been made on the project implementation in 1975--which is defined as the ratio during the year of expenditure to allocations. The 1975 overall implementation rate was 78.3%. As for the monitoring process, during 1976, 6 annual country reviews were held. 25 tripartite project reviews were also carried out. 6 proposals have been submitted for approval. A training program in demography is being organized for developing countries at the University of Moscow.
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  16. 16

    Population and the new international economic order, a statement made at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 12 January 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N,Y. UNFPA, [1977]. 13 p.

    A serious attack on the problem of rapid population growth is clearly a priority with most governments of the developing world. Since 1974, there has been little substantive discussion of population as part of the New International Economic Order debates. Most governments have accepted the view that in their own nations there is a negative correlation between population growth and development; and that a long-term strategy of reducing the birth rate is not only prudent but a necessary part of economic and social programs. There is a consensus on population among developing nations. There is international consensus, but few internationally accepted quantitative goals. It is difficult to imagine a New International Order such as the 3rd world countries seek without some recognition of the importance of population issues. Agreement may be achieved, because many of the staunchest supporters of the New International Economic Order are now also the most effective practitioners of a policy of limiting population growth. Many countries are contemplating stronger measures to slow population growth. Acceptance of sterilization has increased recently. The effect of increasing emphasis among developing countries on population programs can be seen in increasing demand for the UNFPA's services. One general principle guiding the allocation of the Fund's resources is to aid countries with particularly urgent population problems. The problem now facing 3rd world countries is how to convey these population problems to the people who will make the ultimate decisions on population. There is a new spirit abroad--"meeting basic needs." This is part of what the New International Economic Order is all about--an internal restructuring and redistribution within developing countries, a direct attack on poverty and its causes.
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  17. 17

    [Population and the new international economic order] La poblacion y el neuvo orden economico internacional.

    Salas RM

    Medicina y Desarrollo. 1977 May; 13-16.

    The problem of population received little attention in the meetings on the New International Economic Order. Historically, governments have equated population increases with prosperity. Recently, governments have accepted the necessity to reduce population for the succcess of social and economic programs. This article points out the advances made by several countries in the areas of health, nutrition, education, contraception, legal aspects, planning, and research methods since 1972. The collaboration of different governments with UNFPA and their solicitation of help from this organization are regarded as further evidence of the advances made. Difficulties for the acceptance of family planning in developing countries such as social sanctions, lack of demographic data, and the role of UNFPA in the amelioration of these problems are discussed. Since population politics are seen as long-term strategical weapons, an intensification of persuasive methods in all countries and an increase in aid to underdeveloped countries are recommended.
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  18. 18

    Social welfare programmes.

    Parvez M

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [Dacca] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 58-64.

    Described here are different socioeconomic development projects (other than charity and relief) of the Department of Social Welfare (DSW). Urban Community Development (UCD) Projects aim to ameliorate the socioeconomic condition within the project area. Project components in general are: primary and children's religious education; adult education; wool knitting; typewriting; sewing; family planning; charitable dispensary; books and library; recreation; tailoring; maternity centre and jute crafts. Coverages of UCD projects are meagre, reaching 0.7% of the urban population of the 6 major cities. There are 23 State Children's Homes for those between 5-14; all provide primary education. The Rural Social Services (RSS) community-based project is considered to be a major breakthrough in extending DSW services to the underpriviledged. The main activities of this program are to organize women, children and youth of the project areas for participation in socioeconomic development work. The purpose of creating centers for different interest groups was to give them a group identity; arouse their interest in identifying and undertaking projects for their own benefit; and activate, organize and mobilize all segments of the population for participation in development activities. The main objective of the Youth Welfare Plan is to provide vocational training and education at the primary level, and to promote recreation. Project components are similar to those of UCD. Average monthly beneficiaries vary between 5000-6000.
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  19. 19

    Summary analysis of nutrition status in Bangladesh.

    Court AL; Farooq SA

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [Dacca] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 35-47.

    Although much work has been undertaken regarding the various aspects of nutrition in Bangladesh, the problems of malnutrition seem to be as bad as they ever were. Protein-calorie malnutrition, diarrheal disease-related malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency are still major problems. The situation has been further aggravated by natural and man-made disasters. As well as being linked to such factors as food availability, medical service delivery, environmental sanitation and education, malnutrition is also affected by economic and social factors like low salaries and employment levels and women's status. The 1st 5-year Plan of Bangladesh (1973-78) outlined as a general strategy for improving nutritional standards, increased supplies of cheap calorie and proteinous food, e.g., fish, animal products, vegetables and sugar. Specific aims of the plan included a concentration to improve and extend pulse and groundnut cultivation. However, it was only with the setting up of a National Nutrition Council in 1976, that concrete attention has focused on nutrition education. A brief review of food production and food aid shows that the latter can be counter-productive if not targeted at vulnerable groups or when it is not necessarily related to need as it is to surplus in the donor countries, for it may act as a disincentive to local farmers as they might not be able to meet the competition from food aid. The preliminary report of the Bangladesh Nutrition Survey of 1975-76 underlines an overall reduction in per capita food intake since the 1962-64 survey. The Report also shows that food intake varies seasonally with a potential period of protein-calorie deficiency between June and November. Government attempts to effect a rapid increase in food production have concentrated on methods of irrigation, e.g., deep and shallow tubewell irrigation, which require a certain level of community involvement. These are poorly utilized, leaving a large proportion of land, belonging mainly to small farmers, fallow during the dry season. The logistics problem faced in the various attempts to reach vulnerable groups with food aid seems to point to an overcomplicated distribution mechanism. UNICEF, in cooperation with the government, has attempted to direct assistance to the poor through increased work and service availability, increased fish availability, and the dissemination of nutrition information through journals and demonstration projects. Included in the report are tables illustrating food intake, food grain requirements and availability, land utilization and irrigation, yield of major crops, wages and income distribution.
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  20. 20

    Situation analysis of maternal and child health in Bangladesh.

    Preble EA

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [DACCA] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 25-34.

    The lack of a vital registration system in Bangladesh and the absence of any nationwide health statistics make it impossible to form an accurate impression of the situation of maternal and child health in the country. However, the few statistics gathered from small scale research projects show that infant and child mortality rates in Bangladesh are unacceptably high. The most important children's health problems in the rural areas appear to be diarrheal diseases, dysentery and malnutrition. A number of factors contribute to this low level of health status including poverty, lack of health and nutrition education, lack of health services and poor sanitation. Children's health care needs are usually served by the same facilities as the general public; the existing health services do not address the major health problems of children which could be cured and prevented with rather unsophisticated interventions. Data on maternal health is also insufficient. Crude indicators reveal that women marry young, the mean age at 1st delivery is 18.5 and the average number of pregnancies in a woman's reproductive life is 8. Maternal mortality is high and the largest proportion of these deaths are directly related to obstetrical factors, with eclampsia being the commonest single cause of death. Family planning programs, antenatal and postpartum services could reduce a large proportion of these maternal deaths. Health services for mothers are of poor quality. No information is available on % of deliveries attended by the various providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, relatives) and about the quality of such deliveries. Recent government health policy focuses on establishing a health infrastructure in the rural areas, which is prevention-oriented. Examination of the government's health budget, however, does not reveal that health is a high priority. An important recent addition to the government's health delivery system specifically for children is the initiation of Under-5 Clinics, held once a month and offering comprehensive services, e.g., immunization, physical exams, stool and blood exams, nutrition and hygiene training and milk supplement provision. In terms of policy, this is the 1st massive effort specially concerned with children; the initial response indicates an important commitment to children by the government. UNICEF's assistance in the past 5 years has consisted primarily of supplies of drugs, medical equipment and vehicles. Future UNICEF aid will be planned with a more Basic Services/Primary Health Care approach which is domiciliary and rural-based. Attached are tables illustrating trends in infant and child mortality and their causes.
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  21. 21

    Situation report on population in Bangladesh.

    Preble EA

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [Dacca] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 20-4.

    The level and growth rate of population in Bangladesh is seen as 1 of the nation's most critical problems, affecting nearly all sectors of development. Demographic data in Bangladesh is poor due to a lack of a functioning vital registration system or other reliable data collection systems. The most recent estimate of total population as of January 1, 1977, is 82 million. The average density is estimated at 531 persons/km (1974), with 90% of the population concentrated in the rural areas. The crude death rate remains high at 19/1000 population, with an infant mortality rate estimated at 150/1000 live births. The total fertility and annual growth rates are judged extremely high and are related to several factors of underdevelopment particular to Bangladesh. These include mothers' reluctance to postpone or space births because of a high incidence of infant deaths; a low level of literacy and employment of women; inadequate community health care facilities; and a lack of acceptable family planning services in rural areas. The effects and consequences of this demographic situation on all age groups in Bangladesh is apparent in all areas of development: economic growth, food production, and the delivery of health, education and social services. Although the level of contraceptive awareness is high, the extent of acceptance of contraceptive practice in the country is estimated at only 5% of eligible couples. Despite a heavy concentration of government efforts in its Population Control/Family Planning Division (PC/FP), success has been limited due to struggles between the government's Health and Population Division; frequent administrative reorganization; personnel problems; difficulties in transferring local funds; innovative program development rather than concentration on regular program activities; and the resistance of the population to family planning and limitation. A family planning component has been included in most foreign assistance schemes (IDA;USAID;UNFPA). Of concern to UNICEF is the slow implementation of the family planning side and the generally poor level of maternal and child health care which falls under the PC/FP Division, rather than the Health Division.
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  22. 22

    I.U.S.S.P: eleven years of activity, 1965-1976.

    International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]

    Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, [1977]. 68 p.

    The International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) is the only worldwide and independent association of individuals dedicated to the study of population problems. To realize this aim, Article 1(2) of the Constitution states that the Union shall foster relations between individuals engaged in the study of demographic matters among governments, national, and international organizations, scientific bodies, and the general public and shall have power to organize conferences and to publish scientific information focusing on population problems. This document describes how the Union actually implements its statutory mandate. Discussion covers the following: the members; structure (the General Assembly, the Council, the officers, the Scientific Activities Coordinating Committee (SACC), the committees, and the Secretariat); finance; conferences; the scientific committees; publications; and relations with other organizations. All members of the Union automatically receive the most important international scientific journals in the field. Every 4 years the Union organizes a General Conference where all members may participate actively in the scientific debate, elect the officers and the Council, discuss various matters relevant to the Scientific Community. The next General Conference will be held in August 1977 in Mexico City at the invitation of the Mexican government. The Union furthers its statutory aims through the creation of Scientific Committees, set up according to the directives of the General Assembly and of the Council. These Scientific Committees promote their activities through meetings, the organization of specialized seminars and conferences, and the preparation of scientific publications. The strategy of the IUSSP is to foster the largest possible participation of members. With its increasing membership from developing countries, it is natural that the Union tends more and more to be involved in the scientific study of the population problems of the developing world. At this time, many of the present committees focus almost totally on the problems of the developing world. A continuous and even flow of financial resources is essential for medium- and longterm planning of the Union's activities. The Council hopes that in the near future the commitments of the principal donors of the Union will be entered into for the medium- or the longterm so that the Council will be in a position to plan its activities in greatly improved conditions and to increase considerably both the efficiency of the Union and the final output of its working programs.
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  23. 23

    United Nations decade for women: equality, development and peace. Promotion of full equality of women and men in all spheres of life in accordance with international standards and the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    [Unpublished] 1977 Nov 21. 17 p. (A/32/216/Add.1)

    This addendum to the report of the Secretary General on the promotion of full equality of women and men in all spheres of life is based on information received from 10 governments and 1 nongovernmental organization after July 23, 1977. It summarizes the activities undertaken by those governments and the nongovernmental organization with respect to the implementation of paragraph 12 of the General Assembly resolution 3520 of December 15, 1975. Government replies indicated that positive efforts have been made to improve the "de jure" and "de facto" condition of women in accordance with international standards and provisions of the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Some replies dealt primarily with broad trends and policies; others emphasized specific activities. 3 governments provided specific information concerning activities to publicize the declaration. Greece reported that repeated publicity was given to the Declaration through the news media and through public activities organized by women's associations. Lebanon indicated that it had published the Declaration and that it was distributed by the Lebanese Women's Council to other women's associations. The Sudan reported that press and radio interviews were used to explain and promote International Women's Year. General measures reported include: constitutional, legislative, and other regulations of a general nature; obstacles encountered and measures taken to overcome them; and methods and machinery established to review and evaluate the "de jure" and "de facto" position of women. The following measures related to specific rights (articles 4-10) are reviewed: the political rights of women; nationality of married women; consent to marriage, minimum age for marriage, and registration of marriages; penal codes involving discrimination; traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women; equal conditions of access to and study in educational institutions of all types, the same choice of curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff of the same standard, and school premises and equipment of the same quality, equal opportunity to benefit from scholarships and study grants, and equal opportunities for access to programs of continuing education; and measures to ensure women equal rights with men in the field of economic and social life, measures to prevent women's dismissal in the event of marriage and maternity and to provide paid maternity leave, and measures taken to protect women in certain types of work for reasons inherent in their physical nature.
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  24. 24

    AID/UN collaboration in social sector activities in Asia (trip report of a visit to the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh and India--Summer, 1977).

    Laufer L

    [Unpublished] Nov. 1977. 33 p.

    A trip was undertaken subsequent to and in conjunction with the 1977 UNICEF Executive Board Meeting in Manila. It included visits to and consultations with AID missions in 4 countries. The focus is primarily on coordination between AID and UN programs in the social sectors. In general, relations between AID and UN development agencies are good, but lack of coordination exists. There are many urban problems in the Philippines. The government's main focus is "Project Compassion,"--an attempt to reach rural population with interrelated services involving food production, nutrition, population, and environment. Indonesia has a large number of externally supported projects in AID priority areas, and many domestic agencies responsible for them. There are nutrition programs and a village water supply program. In Thailand, WHO, UNICEF, and AID all have a similar outlook on health and population matters. There are 4 priorities: 1) population/family planning; 2) water and food-borne diseases; 3) respiratory diseases; and 4) vector-borne diseases, especially malaria. Primary health care has been introduced into the provinces. A community school in a slum was visited. The Economic Commisision for South Asia and the Pacific has established a rural development task force, and would like to establish additional task forces to bring together UN agencies. This does not appear to be very successful. At the UNESCO regional office for education, social science research was discussed, as was the effectiveness of the International Bureau for Education International Educational Reporting Service project. The goal of the AID program in Bangladesh is to help achieve food grain self sufficiency by 1985. AID and UN agency interests coincide in the food-for-work programs of the World Food Program, and to a smaller extent in UNICEF's child feeding program. Indian programs are also discussed.
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  25. 25

    Profile of Bangladesh women: selected aspects of women's roles and status in Bangladesh.

    Alamgir SF

    [Unpublished] 1977. 99 p.

    This report was prepared in response to a request from the Asian Bureau of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) that all USAID missions in Asia develop national profiles on the status of women in their countries. The 1st section of the report, "Women's Legal and Social Status," is based on the 1974 Bangladesh Population Census and presents information on the laws and customs related to women's property and inheritance rights, marriage, and divorce. The 2nd section, "The Rural Woman," provides information on the role of women in rural society. Although 90% of the 76.2 women in Bangladesh are rural, data in this area are limited. Statistics on Bangladeshi women are presented in an Appendix. These data reveal the subordinate position of women in Bangladesh society. Females account for only 0.9 million of the 20.5 million population in the labor force. Of the 7.8 million primary school graduates, 2.7 million are female; of the 4.0 million secondary school graduates, 0.7 million are female. Women constitute 0.07 million of the 0.7 million college graduates. An average number of 6 children/family is reported, and 0.8 million (4.7% of eligible couples) females practice family planning. Recognition of the contributions being made by women to Bangladesh society and development of these activities through additional training and support is urged. Greater participation of women in agriculture and other development activities should be encouraged. Recent indicators of the changing status of women in Bangladesh include the creation of a Women's Affairs Division within the President's Secretariat. In addition, 10% of public sector jobs are being reserved for women.
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