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Report on the Preparatory Technical Consultation for the Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Population Programmes held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22-24 November 1976.
[Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia], Regional Organization for Inter-Governmental Cooperation and Coordination in Population and Family Planning in Southeast Asia, 1976. 248 p.The Preparatory Technical Consultation for the Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Population Programs was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from November 22-24, 1976. It was organized by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Regional Organization for Inter-Governmental Cooperation and Coordination in Population and Family Planning in Southeast Asia. Sponsorship was also received from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). From Nov. 24-26 the Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Population Programs hosted by ASEAN, Malaysia, and the National Family Planning Board of Malaysia (NFPB) was held. They met to exchange views and to compare experiences regarding population problems and programs, particularly those related to rural and urban under-privileged sectors; to define common needs of ASEAN population programs, and to delineate the likely thrust of population policies in the Region for the coming 10 years. The proposals for action which came from the discussions of the Preparatory Technical Consultation covered policy, programs, strategies, research, training, information, education, and communication. Particular emphasis was given to activities extending beyond traditional family planning approaches.
Geneva, WHO, 1976. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 600) 98 p.Approximately 125 million infants were born in 1975 and approximately 10-12 million died before their first birthday. The WHO Expert Committee on Maternal and Child Health met in Geneva December 9-15, 1975 to consider new approaches and trends in delivering maternal and child care health services. The Committee decided to redefine health problems and adapt delivery of services in light of social and environmental changes. The effect of careful and informed mothering on the health of the entire family and the relation of family health to community health are important factors in individual, national, and community development. The roles of environmental and socioeconomic factors in mortality, morbidity, and growth and development have been further clarified during the last decade. In countries where data was not previously available, the mmultiple causation of the main health problems of mothers and children has been better documented. The priority health problems are related to the synergistic effects of malnutrition, infection, and unregulated fertility, together with poor socioeconomic conditions and scarcity of health services.
Financial management of population/family planning programmes. (A report of the IGCC Regional Workshop/Seminar, Manila, Phili
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IGCC, 1976. 176 p.17 participants from 6 Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC) member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) took part in the IGCC Regional Workshop/Seminar on the Financial Management of Population and Family Planning Programs held in the Philippines in March 1976. In addition to the country papers, papers were presented on the following topics: 1) an operational framework for management of family planning programs; 2) planning, programming, budgeting system; 3) planning, programming, and budgeting in brief; 4) acounting and auditing concepts, tools and techniques; 5) accounting and auditing; 6) cost benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis in family planning programs; 7) cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit from the Philippine family planning program; 8) financial resources and management of the International Planned Parenthood Federation; and 9) the innovative role of United Nations Fund for Population Activities within the United Nations system. Gerardo P. Sicat in a keynote address spoke of the need for cost effective analysis and the finance managers' role in such analysis. He urged finance managers of population programs to assist in effectively mobilizing scarce financial resource to promote the success of the population program.
Dobbs Ferry, New York, Oceana Publications, 1976.  p.4 volumes of text are dedicated to the discussion of rapid world population growth, especially in developing countries, since the second World War and the role of UN organizations in checking this growth. This second volume of the series discusses the UN system of organizations, the role of the Population Commission, United Kingdom commissions, and international assistance. It provides a detailed view of the reaction of the modern world after World War II to questions raised by rapid population growth, the increasingly central role played by the UN system, and the special position of the UK and US in overseas aid. Subtopics covered include: human fertility and national development; UN enabling resolutions; the World Bank and population; excerpts from Robert S. McNamara's address to the board of governors; the report from the 16th session of the Population Commission; the Royal Commission on Population report; commentary; report on the population panel; anatomy of change; the role of international assistance in the populations fields; and notes that the world population action gains momentum.
Dobbs Ferry, New York, Oceana Publications, 1976.  p.4 volumes of text are dedicated to the discussion of rapid world population growth, especially in the developing countries, since the second World War and the role of UN organizations in checking this growth. This fourth volume of the series discusses the World Population Year with central attention given to the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania; purposes and the constitution of the World Population Fund as well as the global program of activities listed in UNFPA's 1973 report; purposes and programs of the World Population Year; and presents main documents prepared for delegate use at the Bucharest Conference, a summary report of the conference, and a selection of current annotated book lists and other bibliography related to subject matter of all volumes. Subtopics covered relating to the World Population Conference include: the provisional agenda and organization of work; recent population trends and future prospects; population change and economic and social development; a draft World Population plan of action; report of symposia on population and development, family, resources and environment, and population and human rights; population policy and the family; world fertility trends; population and education; health and family planning; use of models as instruments in formulating population policies; action taken at Bucharest; and Bucharest in retrospect. IPPF publications, random bibliographies of publications and visual materials, current publications and visual materials, current publications in population/family planning, and selected references to the social science literature on population policy are among selected bibliographical references.
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 1976 Oct; 235(4):25-33.The key events in the eradication of smallpox worldwide are related. Smallpox virus was spread by droplets, only from the appearance of the rash until scabs form, 4 weeks later. It only infected humans, making it a potential disease for eradication. It had been endemic in populous areas, largely China and India in ancient times, appearing in Europe in the 6th century and in America in 1520. Smallpox vaccination was known as variolation before the modern practice of vaccination with cowpox (Vaccinia) was demonstrated in 1796. Success of the 10 year long world eradication campaign depended on production of heat-stable vaccines and a reusable pronged needle that used little material. The U.S.S.R. suggested the campaign in 1959, but the current campaign began in 1976. The 1st strategy was intensive vaccination, with moderate success. Subsequent strategies involved surveillance and containment, along with improved reporting methods. The concept of an infected village was introduced, and house to house searches were instituted. Victims were put under guard and all villagers were vaccinated. The last case of virulent smallpox occurred in Bangladesh in October 1975, and of mild smallpox in Ethiopia in August 1976. The cost of the entire 10-year global eradication was $83 million for foreign assistance, and about $160 million spent by the individual countries. This is small compared to an estimated $2 billion yearly spent to control smallpox. It is ironic that smallpox became an epidemic pestilence upon the growth of populations, yet it played a major role in preventing population growth until variolation and vaccination became common.
World plan of action for the implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year: a summarized version.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1976. 43 p.This booklet's objective is to bring the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year to a wide audience. The 1st section focuses on national action -- overall national policy, national machinery and national legislation, funding, and minimum objectives to be realized by 1980. The 2nd section covers specific areas for national action: international cooperation and the strengthening of international peace; political participation; education and training; employment and related economic roles; health and nutrition; the family in modern society; population; housing and related facilities; and other social questions. The subsequent 4 sections deal with the following: research, data collection and analysis; mass media; international and regional action; and review and appraisal. A major focus of the Plan is to provide guidelines for national action for the 10-year period up to 1985 which the Generaly Assembly, at its 30th session, proclaimed as the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. Its recommendations are addressed primarily to governments and to all public and private institutions, political parties, employers, trade unions, nongovernmental organizations, women's and youth groups and all other groups, and the mass communication media. Governments are urged to establish short, medium, and longterm targets and objectives to implement the Plan. The following are among the objectives envisaged as a minimum to be achieved by 1980: literacy and civic education should be significantly increased, especially among rural women; coeducational, technical, and vocational training should be available in both industrial and rural areas; equal access at every level of education, including compulsory primary school education, should be ensured; employment opportunities should be increased, unemployment reduced, and discriminatory employment conditions should be eliminated; infrastructural services should be established and increased, where necessary, in both rural and urban areas; legislation should be introduced, where necessary, to ensure women of voting and electoral rights, equal legal capacity, and equal employment opportunities and conditions; there should be more women in policymaking positions locally, nationally, and internationally; more comprehensive measures for health education, sanitation, nutrition, family education, family planning, and other welfare services should be provided; and equal exercise of civil, social, and political rights should be guaranteed.
Comparative study of social and biological effects on perinatal mortality. Etude comparative des effets des facteurs sociaux et biologiques sur la mortalite perinatle.
World Health Statistics Report. Rapport de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1976; 29(4):228-34.The World Health Organization's (WHO) comparative study, in 8 countries (Austria, Cuba, Hungary, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, UK, and the US), of social and biological effects on perinatal mortality is discussed, including the background and the objectives of the study, reportingon the progress achieved thus far, and some of the results likely to emerge. Perinatal mortality, as currently defined, comprises late fetal deaths (stillbirths) and early neonatal deaths, i.e., it includes deaths between the 28th week of pregnancy and the end of the 1st week after birth. In developed countries between 1.6-4% of all pregnancies result in perinatal death. Although many less developed countries give priority to the reduction of postneonatal and early childhoo mortality, with increasing success in their efforts, the hard core of perinatal mortality will gain in importance. Perinatal mortality may be considered as reflecting standards of obstetric and pediatric care as well as the effectiveness of social measures in general and of public health actions in particular. In a 1968 joint UN/WHO Meeting on Programs of Analysis of Mortality Trends and Levels reference was made to the serious gaps in knowledge of the magnitude and determinants of perinatal mortality. In a 1971 follow-up, WHO Consultation on Fetal, infant, and Childhood Mortality, it was recommended that WHO initiate and coordinate studies of the biological, socioeconomic, and cultural factors associated with perinatal mortality and that detailed guidelines for the collection, classification, and tabulation of these biological, socioeconomic, and cultural factors for both national and international purposes be worked out. The proposed study would have the following general objectives: it would serve as a stimulus to countries to make better use of the information to be derived from vital statistics and would encourage detailed studies of the determinants of perinatal mortality and their interrelationships as a basis for the planning of public health programs designed to reduced perinatal mortality; it would enable WHO to obtain precise and detailed information on the significance and the international comparability of perinatal mortality rates and would provide a basis for WHO to develop guidelines concerning the collection, processing, and presentation of national perinatal mortality data as an important part of a national health information system. To achieve the general objectives a draft study protocol was developed. The specific aims established for the study are outlined. More attention will be directed to the problem of perinatal mortality and how it might be reduced.
Report of the meeting of experts in natural family planning, Task Force on Methods for the Determination of the Fertile Period, Geneva, 9-11 February 1976.
[Unpublished] 1976. 17 p.As a result of the meeting of experts in natural family planning (NFP) methods, recommendations were made for research. To select priorities for types or research needed, the following criteria were used as a guide: relevance (with respect to the practice of NFP), feasibility (state of knowledge and availability of methodology and manpower), time, and cost. Very specific recommendations were presented by each of the conference participants. Using the delphi method of ranking priorities, the following recommendations were ranked as the most important research areas: 1) factors that effect choice, demand, and use of NFP include social, educational, psychological, cultural, service aspects and studies on continuation of use in couples who start NFP versus couples who switch to NFP; 2) the need to assess the psychosocial integrative or disintegrative effects of fertility regulation methods,including the impact of fertility regulating methods on conjugal stability, and the psychological significance of the act of coitus in different peoples and culture; 3) service aspects of the educational component of NFP, including value of mass educational techniques, nonmedical settings, content of programs, teaching methods, promotion and reinforcement of abstinence, and intensity of emphasis given the male partner; 4) determine the temporal relatiohships between basal body temperature, abdominal pain, mucus, and events in the hormonal profile; and 5) clinical trials of NFP in the postpartum, postpill, lactating, and premenopausal period. Throughout the conference a number of general issues were raised, the most frequent being the need for a universal definition of NFP and misunderstanding of use of some NFP methods, discrepancies in reporting use-effectiveness of NFP, and errors in overall interpretation of data accumulated on NFP methods.
World population and the United States: the development of an idea, statement made at the United States in the World International Conference, Washington, D.C. 28 September 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 20 p.A history of United States attitudes toward population problems is presented. In 1954, it seemed that the UN and its agencies were precluded from involvement in population action programs. In the US, the battles of Margaret Sanger and Abraham Stone were still fresh in the memory. The forces that would change this situation were already at work. American demographers, economists and campaigners articulated them. At the World Population Conference that year papers presented by Americans were crucial. Abraham Stone presented a paper on new developments in contraception. It has been feared that any discussion of contraception at the Conference could prevent its success. By the early 1950s, anxiety had grown that the prophecies of Thomas Malthus were about to be realized. In some Asian countries, notably India, death rates combined with high birth rates had caused some concern for years. Biologists, economists, agriculturists, and sociologists were also concerned with the quality of life in the US. During the 50s, the considerable resources of the US research and development began to turn toward improvements in contraceptive methods. By the end of the decade, a viable contraceptive pill had been developed and tested, and the earliest IUD had been considerably improved. At the same time, means of improving the delivery of contraceptive services were sought. Marketing and promotion were applied to family planning campaigns. In 1965-66, the US government finally turned around on the population issue. A firmly established action program within the UN system did not end the controversy over the place of population in development. The women's movement in this country has coincided with heightened consciousness in the international community of the importance of women as agents rather than mere recipients.
Priorities and trends, statement made at the Sixty-first session of the Economic and Social Council, United Nations, Geneva, 27 July 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The UNFPA has continued to receive strong support from major donors in the developed countries. Pledges have been received from a number of new donors among the developing countries. However, demands made upon the Fund's resources have been more pressing. The total of aid-worthy requests for implementaition during the present year is well over US$100 million and requests are likely to increase to around US$120 million--at least for the next year. The report "Priorities in future allocation of UNFPA resources" has been prepared. The UNFPA should, in making future resource allocations, apply the following general principles: 1) promote population activities proposed in international strategies; 2) meed the needs of developing countries which have the most urgent requirements for assistance; 3) respect the sovereignity of recipient countries on matters of population policies; 4) build up the recipient countries self-reliance; and 5) support activities of special benefit to disadvantaged population groups. The Governing Council endorsed the proposed core program of UNFPA assistance. It also approved in principle the criteria for establishing priorities. A review of intercountry activities supported in the past has been asked for. This study has been started. The Fund has been operational for 7 years. It has cumulative resources of almost US$300 million. The Fund is now moving through 3 phases of population assistance: 1) traditional technical assistance; 2) financial support to assist governments and nongovernmental bodies to expand their activities; and 3) phasing out of assistance or foreign experts as appropriate bodies at the country level are progressively taking over the full responsibilities for the programs. Only 27% of UNFPA project expenditures are for expert costs.
The UNFPA in Mid-1976, statement made at the Twenty-second session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, Geneva, 28 June 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 15 p.The outlook for UNFPA finances is good. It is recommended that the Governing Council confirm--provisionally--approval authority at US$90 million for 1976; and further, that a provisional approval authority be authorized for US$100 million in 1977; US$50 million in 1978; and US$17 million in 1979. During 1975, 47% of UNFPA's project expenditures were for personnel costs. Another important category of UNFPA expenditures in 1975 was equipment and supplies, which absorbed 30% of total expenditures and which included consumer supplies. A number of recipient countries no longer require the assistance of international experts to carry out development programs--there are an increasing number of national experts in these countries. What the countries do require is financial support. The total of aid-worthy requests for implementaion during 1976 stands at about US$109 million. Requests are likely to increase to something like US$120 million for 1977. The 1976 contributions target is US$90 million. Recommendations on criteria and priorities for the future allocation of resources are being presented to this session in document form. In preparing this document, the World Population Plan of Action and the role which the UNFPA should play in its implementation have been kept in mind. The chief portion of the Fund's resources would be devoted to activities at the country level and mainly to respond to requests made by governments. A core program of population activities has been outlined. Another portion of resources would be reserved for support of activities at the regional, interregional and global levels. An analysis of the organizational structure and related staff requirements at the senior levels will be presented to the 23rd session. 5 biennial reviews of country projects are being presented.
Population and employment, statement made at the Tripartite World Conference on Employment, Income Distribution and Social Progress and the International Division of Labour, Geneva 14 June 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The importance of the relationship between poverty and population was underlined by the World Population Conference of 1974 at which the World Population Plan of Action was adopted. The Plan states that population goals and policies are integral parts of social, economic and cultural development. Population programs can reinforce the effect of other development activities, and can attain their objectives only in the presence of certain basic developmental requirements. Among these are the availability of employment, improved social conditions and better income distribution. Development assistance has an important role to play in support of national efforts, but in order to assist effectively, basic-needs strategies for assistance policies and programs will have to be restructured and changed. The purposes and forms of assistance will have to be changed to provide for more support of local costs, recurrent expenditures, long-term commitments and more flexibility in applying donor policies and principles. The UNFPA is in the process of developing criteria for setting priorities for future allocation of resources. Developing countries should be made self-reliant as fully and rapidly as possible. The UNFPA will build up the capacity and ability of recipient countries to respond to their own needs. High priority will be given to supporting resource development and institution-building at the national level; to strengthening the managerial, administrative, and productive capabilities of recipient countries; and to exploring through research and pilot projects innovative approaches to population problems. In order to identify the developing countries with the most urgent need for population assistance, the Fund is proposing the use of a set of criteria.
Interurban Man: the dynamics of population in urban and rural life, statement made at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, Canada, 2 June 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p.Human history up to this point has been one of movement. Gradually, the nature of this movement has changed. Population flow across countries has concentrated on the great cities. As man has become more mobile, his settlements have become more concentrated. By the end of this century, man will be predominantly urban. He might be called "Interurban Man." There is still a tendency to think of the city dweller as an aberration. People will not return to the land in any significant numbers unless taken by force; and the tendency to congregate will probably continue. A new perception of cities and towns requires a complementary change in our view of rural areas. Rural people are not "hopelessly backward peasants," nor are they all that is valuable in our life. The land on which they live and work is the essence of human survival. The shift in perception that is taking place now implies 1st that in the future urban life will be the norm, and 2nd that the "life-force" of a country or a region is less likely to be a single great city than a series of urban centers. The shift is marked by a change in approach to the problems of urbanization and industrialization. There is an increasing emphasis on rural development. Population programs have proved most effective when coupled with community involvement. How does international assistance fit in? UNFPA is already active in many aspects of human settlements and is extending its means of cooperation with local and international developmental agencies. So many aspects of development involve population considerations that it has become a major concern of the Fund to establish priorities for the use of our limited resources. A core program has been determined. The Fund supports collection and analysis of basic data on population growth and movement, and programs developed on the basis of this data.
Responsiveness and innovation: the role of the UNFPA in a restructured United Nations economic and social programme, statement made at the Ad Hoc Committee on the Restructuring of the Economic and Social Sectors of the United Nations System, New York, 20 February, 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 15 p.Efforts to restructure the UN apparatus concerned with economic development are intended to make the international community more responsive to human problems. In the early 50's, the UN system responded to the need for aid for such population activities as census taking, data analysis, and training and research on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. However, for many years, most international assistance for population was supplied by voluntary humanitarian organizations. In 1971, the General Assembly (GA) recognized that the UNFPA had become a viable entity in the UN system and called upon the Fund to play a leading role in promoting population programs. In 1972, UNFPA was made a Fund of the GA and the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Program was designated as the Governing Council of UNFPA. The aims and purposes of the UNFPA are: 1) to build up, on an international basis, the knowledge and capacity to respond to national, regional, interregional, and global needs in the population and family planning fields, to promote coordination in planning and programming; and to cooperate with all concerned; 2) to promote awareness, in developed and developing countries, of the social, economic and environmental implications of national and international programs, and of the human rights aspects of family planning; 3) to extend aid to developing countries in dealing with population problems at their request; and 4) to play a leading role in the UN system by promoting Fund projects. The Fund is now supporting such projects as data collection, family health, population policy, and research and training. In determining future structure several factors should be considered: the subject matter, the allocations of resources, the delivery of project services and the time frame of the activity.
New directions: the UNFPA in 1976, statement made at the 21st session of the UNDP Governing Council, New York, 19 January 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 12 p.In 1975, United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) pledges of support showed an increase of about 17% above the figure for the previous year. In 1975, also, the League of Arab States recommended support for population activities. In Africa, emphasis is on the collection of basic population data, mainly census activities. However, programs in family planning, communication, education and maternal and child health are also being supported. In Latin America, the emphasis on data collection is diminished. Family planning communication and education are also being supported in Asia, the Pacific, and the rest of developing world. In 1976, the Governing Council of the UNFPA has adequate financial resources to meet its project commitments. Requests for UN collaboration, however, are numerous. The Arab Minister from Qatar is visiting Arab countries which need support for their population programs. The Egyptian government has decided to increase its previous UNFPA contribution by 50%. The Arab World had decided to pledge at least US$25 million over a 2-year period. There is likelihood of increased support from 7 governments outside the Arab World. It is recommended that the Governing Council allow the provisional authorization of US$90 million to stand. New country proposals have been submitted for Bolivia and Ecuador. In Peru, the Fund has approved 4 projects in the areas of data collection and analysis, and social research. There is a new systematic and detailed method of monitoring project implementation quantitatively as well as qualitatively. In choosing priorities, much useful guidance has been found in the criteria proposed and adopted in mid-1974. However, these criteria should be tightened.
[Unpublished] 1976. 21 p.The US has given increasing support to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Concern about family planning began to grow in the 1950s along with concern about population growth and its relationship to resources as well as about newly available contraceptive methods. Northern European, Asian, and Caribbean countries were in the forefront of the voluntary family planning movement in the early 1950s and in the parallel effort to involve the UN and international agencies in those efforts. This was also supported by some US demographers and family planning pioneers, especially General William Draper, Hugh Moore, and various biologists, economists, agriculturists, and sociologists who were concerned with the environment and the quality of life in the US and other countries. Without official government or UN action, voluntary bodies were established such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Population Council, the Pathfinder Fund, and the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations. By the end of the 1950s the oral contraceptive and the IUD had been refined, as were methods of delivery of contraceptive services. Despite official caution, the involvement of developed countries in family planning overseas increased and it was theorized in 1958 by Coale and Hoover that rapid population growth can seriously hamper efforts to hasten social and economic development in poorer countries. In the US pressure for government action increased. A 1959 Presidential Committee on foreign aid recommended assistance for action programs relating to population and a study for the Senate came to a similar conclusion, yet requests for population assistance were still being referred to private institutions. In 1962 the US stated that it was willing to help governments seeking solutions to population problems through the UN, and in 1966 the US co-sponsored a resolution on population programs which laid the foundations of UN involvement; in 1968 the US became the 2nd and largest donor to the UN's Trust Fund for Population Activities with US$1 million. The US has been the largest donor ever since, yet has never attempted to influence the Fund's policies. Several strands of thinking about population have emerged through the years: 1) the population/resources situation is a crisis which can be solved only by extraordinary means, perhaps by suspending normal civil liberties for a time, but this view has no status in the UN; 2) family planning services are essential to break the cycle of poverty since poverty and overpopulation are seen as symbiotic evils; and 3) social and by economic advancement in developing countries is the only way of dealing with problems posed by population growth and a reordering of the international economic system is needed to make this possible. Success in achieving consensus on the wider issues of international economics and development, as with population, consists in the exercise of restraint; a willingness to understand the needs of other nations and to accept those needs is crucial. The US must recognize its economic interdependence with the rest of the world, especially considering its own virtues of openness.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Education Department, 1976 Aug. 43 p.This is a review of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) 1st statement of policy on education, adopted in 1976. Family planning education, in order to be a catalyst for change, must be set in the context of overall education for family life which includes family planning, responsible parenthood, sex education, nutrition, environment, and population, as well as child care. Family planning education must be viewed as a longterm process and should be directed towards the disadvantaged sectors of society. Prerequisites for the effectiveness of such programs include approaching people within their community and family settings, and developing a model that can be altered in various settings without disrupting traditional life styles. Some approaches to the integration of family planning education include: 1) making it an integral part of a total national development plan such as is done in China, 2) including a family planning component into all development efforts, 3) having family planning associations (FPAs) work in partnership with government and other nongovernment agencies, 4) working with community organizations at the local level, 5) stimulating community action, and 6) having FPAs provide a range of services on their own or integrating these services into others. Integration offers associations a broader vision of the types of settings in which family planning education can operate and to identify a greater number of channels for education programs. In order to improve family planning education throughout IPPF there must be identification of priority areas for action which will differ depending on the capacity of the FPA and the cooperation of government or nongovernment agencies as well as the extent of financial and manpower resources. The settings in which family planning education can take place include nonformal educational settings, community groups, formal education, and the health infrastructure. Development of communication strategies involve consideration of objectives, learner characteristics, content, educational form, and media. It is also recommended that family planning educational programs be aimed at stimulating community participants, involving volunteers, and aiming at the younger generation. A background paper describing family planning community programs, eduction as a force for change, and critical issues for family planning education in IPPF is included.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
New York, UNFPA, 1976 Aug 9. 39 p.The UN Fund for Population Activities has been supporting population activities undertaken by the International Institute for Labor Studies (IILS) connected to the International Labor Organization in Geneva since 1972. This evaluation report covers the following: ILO Population Program; IILS (objectives, activities, follow-up, staff, and financial situation); population activities of IILS (objectives, activities in the field of population, financial situation, and achievements); and conclusions and recommendations. The IILS was founded by the Governing Body of ILO in 1960 for the purpose of furthering a better international understanding of labor and social development problems and of the possible methods for their solution. The Institute should provide those with responsibilities in industry, in the trade unions, and in government, and in community work, i.e., future policymakers, with opportunities for discussion, exchange of ideas and research in the area of social policies. In 1975 IILS was reorganized to reflect the emphasis of the work in the following 3 principal areas: economic change and labor policy; the dynamics of industrial relations systems; and quality of life and social perspectives. The IILS objectives have been translated into major activities in the following areas: education; research; symposia and meetings; and other activities. The long range objectives of the population activities of the IILS include: contributing to climate of rational debate and action on national population policy; building bridges between the institutions of the labor sector and those agencies with primary responsibility in the field of population and family planning; increasing the objective study and consideration of population problems and their relation to development and social policy by key personnel in worker, employer, and government organizations, who will play a leading role in labor and social policy decision making; and promoting the study of these problems by academics in the labor studies field in developing countries. The objectives of the IILS population program are consistent with the new objectives of the ILO program. IILS has performed its population activities in a satisfactory manner. UNFPA funds have been crucial for these activities. The Institute has shown a special capacity for organizing educational activities. Although it is not possible to make any precise judgement of the program's achievements, it appears that the immediate objectives have been realized in part and that the medium range objectives are partially achieved. The long range objectives have a potential for being realized in the future.
[Unpublished] 1976. 100 p.Study drawing on comprehensive evidence developed from a diverse set of experiences to examine some of the important policy and institutional issues facing national governments and donor agencies in the implementation of rural development projects. It utilizes data from 22 projects in Africa and 14 in Latin America, collected by Development Alternatives Incorporated for USAID, applying a different method of analysis (employing a standardized statistical technique for a more rigorous approach) but with the same objective: identification of measures and components that would enable the better design and implementation of projects that relate to small farmer development. The main recommendation of the report is for active involvement on the part of small farmers.
Jimlar Mutane. 1976 Feb; 1(1):191-202.The Committee for International Coordination of National Research (CICRED), formed by the UN in 1971, commissioned a number of national monographs on "Past, Present and Future Trends of Population" for African countries. A report on the UN programs of demographic training in Africa pinpoints governments, universities, and the UN as sponsors and centers for demographic training and education. The UN's program, in cooperation with African governments, the Economic Commission for Africa, the Conference of African Statisticians, and the Conference of African Planners, established statistical training centers at middle, intermediate, and high levels of competence in demographic statistics. Demographic teaching in UN sponsored demographic units in African universities provides for teaching and research programs. The Cairo Demographic Center has carried out a number of research projects which have helped in understanding demographic trends in the area it serves. It has established a program for team research, selecting different demographic topics for different years, and awarding fellowships for trainees. The Regional Institute for Population Studies in Ghana, the Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques in the Republic of Cameroon, and the Cairo Demographic Center follow the same model with training in: substantive and technical demography; and ancillary subjects such as mathematics, statistics, sampling, survey and research methodology, sociology, economic development planning, genetics, and physiology of reproduction. The centers plan to provide field experiences to students by jointly sponsoring ad hoc demographic surveys in the host countries. Coordinators among different UN agencies meet annually to coordinate training activities. A survey of women from the Republic of Cameroon showed that women desire population growth; their ideal family size is 6; they desire family planning information; they want sex education taught in post primary institutions; they prefer polygamy; their ideal age of marriage is 18.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, 1976 Apr. 271 p.An overview of major population developments between 1965-1975 occurring worldwide, regionally and within countries is presented. The world population situation is discussed with reference to declining birthrates, but increasing population size which fostered the historic spread of population action during the decade, particularly multilateral and bilateral support for population programs of developing countries. The 1974 World Population Conference in Bucarest highlighted the controversy surrounding the causes and solutions of population related problems. The relationship between population and development, specifically the choice between implementing socioeconomic development programs or population/family planning programs formed the basis of the controversy. The population related problems and actions discussed include: health care system, family planning and service delivery, food, urbanization, and international migration. The interrelationships between women's rights, women's status, and fertility and the significance of induced abortion are also discussed. The specific population situation of 143 countries within 8 world regions are reviewed. The discussion highlights population policies, family planning services, and the projects supported by external aid. The activities of the UN system of agencies assisting countries with population programs are described. USAID has been the foremost supporter of global action and supports the following types of activities: demographic data collection and analysis, population policy development, biomedical and operational research, development and strengthening of family planning services, communication, and manpower, and institutional development. The activities of 43 private organizations are also reviewed. The 1965 and 1975 estimates of basic demographic data, i.e., birthrate, death rate, rate of natural increase, time to double population, and per capita gross national product, for each region and country conclude the report.
World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1976; (590):1-88.A Meeting on Vitamin A Deficiency and Xerophthalmia was convened jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in Jakarta, Indonesia, during November 1974 for the purpose of discussing priorities for research and action programs. The following questions were considered: what should be the objective of an action program--control of vitamin A deficiency or prevention of blindness; what should be the criteria for instituting a regional or national program of action; how can vitamin A programs be evaluated and monitored; and what research is needed. The 8 chapters of this report of the meeting cover the following: definitions and significance (severity, duration of morbidity, mortality, and prevalence); vitamin A (chemistry, units, dietary sources, requirements and metabolism and function); methods of assessment of vitamin A status (clinical assessment, biochemical assessment, dietary assessment, and criteria for community diagnosis of xerophthalmia and vitamin A deficiency); ecology of xerophthalmia (host factors, agent factors--the diet, environmental factors); prevalence (nature of the information available, prevalence of xerophthalmia and vitamin A deficiency in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa, and methods of assessing the prevalence of xerophthalmia); treatment of xerophthalmia; prevention; and recommendations for research (clinical and biochemical studies, epidemiological investigations, evaluation of action programs, and contributions made by horticulture and food technology). In humans, and particularly in infants and preschool children, vitamin A deficiency most commonly affects the eye--internally by impairing dark adaptation and leading finally to night blindness, externally by producing destructive lesions of the cornea that often result in blindness. Vitamin A deficiency is usually accompanied by protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and is frequently precipitated by infections, particularly gastroenteritis and measles. Despite improvements in standards of living in many areas of the world during the last few decades, vitamin A deficiency is still a significant health problem in much of South and Southeast Asia, in parts of Africa and South America, and in some areas of the Middle East. Vitamin A deficiency has recently reappeared in some areas where it had been shown to exist in areas where it was not previously reported.
Assistance to the Government of Mexico: support to the national programme of sex education. Proposed projects and country agreements--recommendation by the Executive Director.
[Unpublished] 1976 Apr 28. 6 p. (DP/FPA/5/Add. 9)Population growth in Mexico is proceeding at a fast pace; at the current rate of growth of 3.3% between 1970-75, the population will double in 22 years. In response to this quick growth, Mexico enacted, in 1973, a general population law marking the beginning of a new demographic policy. The aim of the law is to modify the growth and distribution of the population in order to prevent the dilution of development efforts. Furthermore, the general population law calls for the creation of a National Population Council (CONAPO) to coordinate population activities. Under their supervision, sex education programs are being introduced and integrated. Other agencies have also been involved in the efforts to organize and integrate sex education activities and programs. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has increased its assistance to the Mexican government. Various projects and the funding allocated for them are briefly reviewed. UNFPA has supported a national program of sex education for 4 years (1976-79) to be implemented by CONAPO with the assistance of the UNDP. This program is part of the framework of the national population education program in Mexico, and uses 4 main channels to implement the educational, training, and information activities of the program: 1) official organizations, 2) private popular organizations, 3) CONAPO's own population communication programs, and 4) private health and welfare organizations. The longterm objectives of the program are to promote changes in attitudes toward sexuality and reproductive behavior. The immediate objectives include designing sex education curricula to be incorporated into the school system, to train teachers in sex education, and to create a training program in sex education at the university level. Funds are being provided from a number of sources, among them the government of Sweden. It has been proposed that a national expert on population serve as the project director. It is planned that the project will finance publications as well. The UNFPA will monitor, review, and report on the project to ensure its attainment of goals. This document presents a breakdown of the total external contribution for the 4-year program to cover experts, local personnel, subcontracts, training, and equipment supplies for a grand total of over U.S.$2 million. The government contribution for the total period 1976-79 is U.S.$22,583,600.