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New Delhi, India, Continental Printers . 210 p.This is a report of the National Symposium on Labor and Population Policies organized by the Ministry of Labor in New Delhi from April 15-18, 1974. It was held with the active participation of the Department of Family planning and in collaboration with the International Labor Organization (ILO) with financial assistance from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, (UNFPA). It brought the workers and employers' organizations of previous conferences to a common forum permitting discussion of the problems already considered by them separately. The Symposium, in which Family Planning Institutions and National Family Planning and Labor Managements also participated had, for its aim, to spell out the precise role to be played by the different aencies and to draw up a specific action program expressing the widest possible agreement of all the concerned parties, so that optimum results could be achieved. Population growth cannot be dealt with in isolation and must be viewed in the context of the overall social and economic policies of the country. However, the impact that unplanned population growth has on socioeconomic development and on well-being of the people cannot be ignored or belittled. The concern of the Symposium was population policies and family welfare planning within the organized sector as an important part of the overall national program.
Cabanatuan City, Philippines, Philippine Wesleyan College, Wesleyan Population Center, 1975. 39 p.These revised curriculum materials integrating population education with high school world history have as general objectives to chart the population growth of the world from 600,000 B.C. to 1970, to project future growth through 2000, to outline the causes of population growth and zero growth in the various stages of world history, to distinguish between the degree of environmental and population control attainable by ancient and modern man, and to describe national and international organizations and activities which may help reduce world population growth. The early lessons present the concepts that population growth has been slow in most of human history, with high death rates balancing high birthrates, and that the life of prehistoric man was uncomfortable and short, with his numbers kept in check by natural events; that the development of man's 1st major achievement in environmental control, agriculture, allowed greater population growth and density than hunting and gathering; and that despite increased food production, life was still uncomfortable and short, with famine and disease continuing to exert high tolls and food production continuing to be threatened by consumption due to increasing numbers. The 4th lesson, covering the effects of industrialization from 1650-1900 on world population, presents the concepts that industrial inventions permit greater food production and further population increases, and that population growth during these years was greatly speeded. The next lesson concerns the effects of medicine on world population between 1900-70, emphasizing that improved mortality control made possible by medical discoveries greatly decreased the death rate from disease, and that disease control operates independently of food supply. The 6th lesson, on population projection to 2000, teaches that population growth has accelerated in recent years in the developing countries while slowing voluntarily in developed areas, and that the developing world may pursue population control or growth may again be controlled by famine, disease, and war. The 7th lesson suggests that man can control his population, that overpopulation is a worldwide threat, and that international agencies exist to help slow growth. Each lesson contains a description of the subject matter, a list of teaching aids and references, lists of concepts and specific objectives to be covered, and outlines of procedures regarding perceptions and development of the lesson.
Training and utilization of traditional healers and their collaboration with health care delivery systems.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1975 Nov 21. 6 p. (EB57/21 Add. 2)Suggestions, formulated by WHO, for promoting the training and utilization of traditional healers in the primary health care systems of developing countries were provided. Traditional healers constitute a large reserve of potential health manpower. Additional information on the traditional healers and on their health practices must be collected before effective training programs and utilization procedures can be formulated. There are many different types of traditional healers and indigenous health systems. In Asia the major indigenous systems are the Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani-Tibbi systems. Traditional healers in these systems frequently receive formal training in institutional settings. In Latin America and Africa ethnic groups have their own indigenous health systems and most of the healers in these areas receive instruction by serving as apprentices to established healers. In developing programs to utilize traditional healers, efforts should be made 1) to incoorporate into the program those traditional health practices which are beneficial and to substitute modern practices for those traditional practices which are harmful; 2) to tailor the programs to the educational level of the traditional healers; and 3) to maintain the self-esteem of the traditional healers and to ensure continued community respect for the healers. Training courses should provide the healers with information on 1) body system; 2) treatments for common illness; 3) first aid; 4) immunization techniques; 5) sanitation and hygiene; 6) nutrition; and 7) maternal and child care. Health professional should be given an opportunity to learn about traditional medical systems, especially in regard to patient management techniques which have been developed over the years by the traditional healers. Programs should be designed in such a way as to reduce competition between traditional and modern medical personnel, to avoid duplication of services, and to promote community involvement.
Report of the evaluation of Family Planning International Assistance. Directed and coordinated by M.E. Gorosh, D.W. Helbig and S.C. Scrimshaw.
N.Y., IISHR, Feb. 1975. 2 pAdd to my documents.
Proposals for a population programme of action for Africa following from the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Conference.
n.p., U.N. Economic and Social Council, March 1975. 18 pAdd to my documents.
N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities (1975) various pagingsAdd to my documents.
In: The Population Debate: Dimensions and Perspectives, Vol. I. N.Y., U.N., 1975, pp. 3-44. (Population Studies, No. 57)Add to my documents.
Geneva, WHO, 1975. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 564) 41 p.Studies indicate that seriously debilitating mental illness is likely to affect at least 1% of any population at any one time and at least 10% at some time in their life. Since about half the population in many developing countries is under age 15 there is a high quantity of child and adolescent disorders. The prevalence of organic brain damage will diminish with the introduction of public health services, but the same measures are liable to increase the number of surviving children with brain damage. The World Health Organization recommends the pooling of mental health experts to aid the developing countries lacking personnel and resources to cope with mental disorders. Pilot programs in mental care are also recommended to create awareness in communities that mental illness exists and can be treated.
Comments on translation. Presented at the ESCAP Expert Group Meeting on Translation of Population Materials, Bangkok, December 8-12, 1975.
Bangkok, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, December 4, 1975. (POP/TPM/CR.4) 3 pAs translation work is costly, other mass media can assist in making valuable academic knowledge available in ways that are less expensive, easier to understand, and more efficient. As 49% of the population of Asian countries is illiterate, translations are not particularly helpful. The Development Support Communcation Service needs to specify its objectives in terms of translation. The United Nations Environment Program has not as yet become involved in the translation of information materials. United Nations Children's Fund activities in the field of translation are continuously and routinely undertaken by field offices for programming purposes. Assignment Childre contains resumes of all articles in French, English, and Spanish. The periodical BERITA UNICEF which is published in Indonesia is available in English translation for those publication recipients who reside outside of Indonesia.
Department of State Bulletin. 1975 Aug 18; 9-27.At the United Nations World Conference of the International Women's Year, held at Mexico City June 19-July 2, 1975, a World Plan of Action was adopted. The Plan, the full text of which is presented here, is intended to strengthen the implementation of the instruments and programs adopted by the UN concerning the status of women and to broaden and place them in a more timely context. In particular, the Plan seeks to stimulate national and international action to solve the problems of underdevelopment and of the socioeconomic structure which places women in an inferior position. in order to promote equality between women and men, governments should guarantee equality before the law, equality of educational opportunities and training, and equality in conditions of em ployment, including remuneration and social security. Governments should ensure improved access to health services, better nutrition and other social services essential to the improvement of the condition of women. Individuals and couples should have the right to determine the number and spacing of their children and to have the information and means to do so. Child-care centers should be provided. The international community should help see to it that these goals are carried out and the media, instead of reinforcing traditional attitudes, should use its power to help remove prejudices and stereotypes. A thorough review and appraisal of progress made in meeting these goals should be undertaken at regular intervals.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 615-24. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)Emphasizing the essential role of laws in the population field, the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has sponsored a major study of law and population to assess the impact of laws on population trends and to identify inconsistencies between existing legislation and government policy relating to population, with the aim of developing guidelines for the revision and adaptation of legislation supporting population action programs in the countries concerned. This paper 1) defines population law as that body of law (including customary societal law) which "relates directly or indirect to the population growth, distribution and those aspects of well-being affecting, as well as affected by, population size and distribution[,]" and 2) shows how population law can contribute to the solution of the population problem. The awareness of human rights (such as the right to nutrition, health, education, and contraception) and other considerations since World War II has propelled population concerns, and while some debate the legal status of human rights as legally-binding or merely moral responsibilities, the over-emphasis on the formal aspects of human rights treaties confuses the instruments stipulating human rights with the substantive human rights themselves. The proper analysis of the binding force of human rights rests with a review of their non-treaty sources: natural law, customary international law, and general principles of law recognized by civilized countries. The methodology for relating law to world population begins with 1) the compilation of the laws that affect fertility behavior and population in each country, 2) the analysis, and 3) the formulation of recommendations. Lawyers can render invaluable services in the population field by using and co-ordinating all branches of the law in this area and should become more actively involved.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 429-33. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The UNs International Conference on Human Right (Teheran, May 1968) concluded that "[T]he protection of the family and of the child remains the concern of the international community. Parents have a basic right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children." The sovereignty of nations in formulating population policies with due regard to the couple is also recognized by the UN. Yet the 2 principles seem to conflict: the freedom and human rights of the individual and the responsibility and sovereignty of the State. Jurists may interpret the UN declaration as nonbinding, since they are not ratified covenants; others say their legal force originates from natural law, customary international law, and general law. The right to "freely" and "responsibly" choose the number and spacing of a couple's children allows a decision without subsequent action from the State to punish or reward the couple for their actions, while requiring that the couple act responsibly toward one another, toward their existing and future children, toward their community, their country, and even the community of peoples. Education and information is essential to assist in responsible decisions in the form of knowledge of consequences of their actions for themselves and others in terms of health, food, education, social and economic development, and the quality of the social and natural environment. Thus, an attempt to limit family size by the State when democratically applied, would neither contradict the principle of equal rights nor that of the right to marry and found a family. Education is the cornerstone for stemming world population growth, yet the right to education is far from being realized for a large part of the world's population, particularly females. Communication media and population education depend on the mass media as well as traditional, fold means of communication and the essential person-to-person communication within communities.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 201-10. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)Models have been developed about population growth, economic development and expansion, and the exploitation of natural resources and environmental problems in the attempt to improve overall understanding of the implications of these problems. They view human society as a system and typically include natural resources, population, and capital in addition to other phenomena and subfactors. This paper considers whether the types of models already developed or envisaged can be used in formulating population policy. While definitions of population policy may vary, the strong relationship between demographic factors and economic, social, and other conditions demands that these variables be considered even under the most narrow definition of population policy. Comprehensive dynamic demographic-economic-social models (DESMOD) are needed regardless of how the notion of population policy is formulated. Models are generally discussed, with specific attention given to those developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the population sector in the World 3 model; and the International Labor Organization Bachue models. It is concluded from a review of these models that those already developed or envisaged are inadequate to deeply analyze demographic-economic-social problems. Accordingly, they can not contribute to improving the grounds for decision making in formulating and carrying out policy. Introducing a policy variable into Bachue for the study of government activities in family planning would, however, be a positive step in the development of better models. Existing models may be used to evaluate outcomes of ordinary forecasts and population projections. Guaranteed resources as well as cooperation and coordination between and among researchers from many disciplines is called for to develop more comprehensive models; the United Nations is well placed to organize and support such efforts.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 416-28. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)Human rights relating to population questions in Africa cannot be divorced from the meaning and implications of human rights in all other spheres. In developing Africa, many important population issues implicate human rights: the welfare of children, youths, the aged, and women; regulation of the levels and patterns of fertility; mortality, morbidity; and migration, internal as well as external, including refugee movements; family welfare and marriage; problems of employment, wages, equal pay, and working hours; access to adequate education and means for cultural expression and identity; and problems of family planning in relation to mother and child care. The relationship between human rights and fertility involves: 1) the rights relating to marriage and the family, specifically to enhance the legal status of women in the home, community, and in national development; and 2) the rights to freely and responsibly decide the number and spacing of children, including the increase, as well as the decrease in fertility. Migration, population distribution, and human rights have been promoted and respected in varying degrees, depending on each country's internal and external policies. Internal migration, distribution, and settlement in nearly all the independent African countries have resulted in rapid urbanization despite inadequate infrastructure. To counter the overurbanization, many support the spreading of development projects throughout the entire country promoting balanced development between rural and urban areas. Historically international migration was customary; with the advent of sovereignty, crossing borders even among related ethnic groups has come under close scrutiny. The international community has come to accept responsibility for protecting and caring for refugees. Human rights, morbidity, mortality, and health care include the right to good health and freedom from disease and sickness, the right to food and freedom from hunger and malnutrition. Increased action at national and international levels is necessary to encourage the governments of Africa to promote the realization of human rights with respect to current and projected population trends.
Population and development in perspective, with particular reference to the second United Nations Development Decade.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 457-62. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)Earth's limited size, its finite supply of natural resources, and man's tendency to improve material standards of living dictate that an unlimited population is unsustainable. While population growth is not the main source of world problems, a world population policy is nonetheless called for. Such a policy should be flexible and established in the context of other interconnected world development problems and policies. It should be assumed that people throughout the world are very similar and that regularities between population tendencies and the progress of civilization appear universally. A rational approach should therefore be taken to all problems of mankind with proper emphasis upon each issue. Principles for analysis and recommendations are outlined with consideration of the complex and sensitive nature of population issues including the political, economic, social, and ethical implications. Objectively must be maintained in world population policy so that one group of countries or region is not thought to be against another. The General Assembly of the United Nations on the international development strategy for the 1970s was very cautious in recommending any kind of world population policy. Evidence indicates that most developing countries now acknowledge the need to limit population growth and that socioeconomic progress and national population policy are positive forces in that direction. Population should be less problematic in the 1970s. If world economic and social discrepancies and inequalities which cause mass poverty could be reduced, the rate of population growth may also be reduced. Instead of expressing concern over exhausting the Earth's limited resources, man should work to change human priorities and behavior patterns to foster sustainable development.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 562-72. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The interaction between population dynamics and education is examined through the experiences and goals of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Education is an important feature contributing to social and economic development. UNESCO's responsibility since 1948 has been to promote the examination of population programs as affecting international understanding. Sir Julian Huxley as Director General in 1948 emphasized overpopulation as affecting the type of civilization and rate of development and environmental problems. A balance was needed between population and natural resources. UNESCO's role was to educate people about the seriousness of the problems. UNESCO with other agencies sponsored the World Population Conference of 1954 in Rome. Basic human rights and responsibilities were reiterated at a General Conference in 1968. In 1970, the Director General was authorized to assist Member States in addressing population and family planning issues. A brief view of the state of education in 1974 and institutional problems is given. The most common characteristics are the ever-increasing demand for education and the availability of education for a lifetime. However, educational reform was also needed. Education has been influenced both by population dynamics, decolonization and democratization, and rapid population growth. School facilities would need to be increased. The problem is concentrated in developing countries where urban growth is growing at 4.5%/year. The change in structure of the age pyramid means decreasing numbers of economically active persons must teach increasing numbers of young people; finances would be strained to finance educational services. Rapid population growth is also an obstacle to attaining targets and balanced development. Education's influence on demographics is not so straightforward, but indications are that literacy is correlated with lower birth rates. Population education is in its infancy and primarily focuses on formal education which will lead to informed decisions; culture influences the curriculum. Migration causes and effects, the role of international cooperation, and methods of introducing population education are discussed.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 484-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The issues dealing with the interrelationships between population growth, food supply, and agricultural development are summarized. Focus is directed to past trends in food supplies, food consumption and nutritional requirements, future demand, future food supplies, agricultural employment, and rural development policies. A table included in the annex gives population growth rates, food production rates, food demand rates of growth, dietary energy supply, and protein supply by country. Meeting the nutritional needs of population growth is possible. Supply and demand vary between countries; supplies are unevenly distributed. Increased production alone will not solve the problems of poverty. Food production must meet nutritional and employment needs. Food production declined slightly during the 1960s due in many cases to policy, but in developing countries it occurred in spite of policy. In 34 countries, food production failed to keep pace with population growth. Population growth accounts for 70% of the demand for food increases. Between 1952 and 1972, in 54 out of 85 developing countries food production increased less than demand. Balancing supply with demand was unaffected by the rate of population growth. 1965-66 brought bad weather and declines in production; 1967-70 is associated with the "green revolution" and increased production. In 1971-72, bad weather again prevailed and food production declined in absolute terms as well as in relation to population growth. Imported food has created dependency relationships. Nutrition is a measure of total availability of dietary energy; developing countries during the 1960s had a 3% deficit while developed countries were 20% above requirements. In 1970, 62 developing countries had overall dietary energy deficits. Insufficient food supply affects poorer families and particularly pregnant and lactating women and children. 10 million children under 5 years of age suffer from severe malnutrition, 80 million from moderate malnutrition, and 120 million from milder forms of malnutrition, or about 50% of all the children in the developing world. 14% of the population excluding Asian economies have insufficient food intake to meet energy needs. Reducing the rate of population growth is essential.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 124-54. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The UN Secretary-General's state of the population and family message is an expansive discussion of many issues. There are some historical perspectives and definitions of family type, socioeconomic change, and demographic changes affecting the family. Population trends are given for family size, more and less developed regions, the family life cycle, and family structures. Policies in industrialized countries are examined with a focus on the nuclear family, new marriage patterns and the sociological implications, and political responses to population growth. Family policy is also viewed from within transitional societies: demographic characteristics; specific populations such as those in Latin America, India and Indonesia; economic and social change; nuclear and extended families; international migration and urban-rural differences; marriage age changes; educational impacts from population growth; health programs; and family planning. Some basic principles for population policies are outlined. Parents must have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Children have a right to education, and parents to literacy. Women have an equal right to employment. Women have a right to choose their own marriage partners. Social policy in order to ensure the welfare of the family relies on social and economic services, including care for the aged. Market expansion and economic policy also impacts on the family through increasing participation of marginal workers especially women and should be sensitive to the well-being of the family. Population pressure will affect housing shortages and inefficiencies in social welfare, for example. Traditional societies are defined as those not affected yet by modernization. Regional illustrations are given for tropical Africa, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The threshold hypothesis is advanced that even in traditional societies substantial mortality decline has occurred; the stages of demographic transition for specific countries has been shortened and inadequacy of data prevents a detailed estimation. Raising national and income/capita is seen as a goal of notional government. National governments have a responsibility to develop family and population policies. Human rights must be protected. The implications of growth patterns, the objectives of national policies, priorities, and universal criteria for a family policy are all discussed.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 77-123. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The Secretary-General's commentary on the state of population growth, resources, and the environment examines the most important relationship. Conflicts in resource use and distribution and essential resources are identified: potential water and land resources for agriculture, availability of potential arable land, new technology, carrying capacity, capital needs, the imbalance between population and arable land, energy needs, agricultural modernization, nonfuel mineral resources, and energy resources. The relationship between rapid population growth and the environment may be one where man is indeed capable of reducing the environmental consequences to tolerable level through reallocation of resources. There a 3 sets of environmental problems: 1) those related to poverty and inadequate social and economic development; 2) those arising from the development process itself; and 3) those which could have a major impact on climate or environmental conditions and are not well understood. The environmental problems of developed countries pertain to high levels of energy use and the problems of affluence. In poor countries, environmental problems are caused by rapid population growth and urbanization, and poverty. Environmental destruction from mining and transportation are discussed along with the need for conversion to alternative forms of energy and reduction of polluting energy use. Developing countries' problems focus on water supply and waste disposal, the benefits of environmental improvement, and the global changes possible in climate, carbon dioxide emissions, and particulate matter in the atmosphere. "Hot spots" from fossil fuel combustion and nuclear fission are occurring; accurate data, improved analytical models, and international cooperation in monitoring and analysis is essential. Settlement patterns and the costs plus the internal organization of large urban areas are some of the problems examined. Rural development, rural-urban migration, and population redistribution are other issues of concern. Urban development and urban growth strategies reflect the potential need to curb urban migration and a new settlement system. Technology's impact on population, research gaps, and policy implications are revealed. Definitions of societal objectives are necessary before deciding what technology is needed.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 573-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)WHO presented a discussion on health trends and prospects in relation to population and development at the World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania, in 1974. Even though many countries did not have available detailed results of 1970 population censuses, WHO was able to determine using the limited available data that both developing and developed countries could still make substantial reductions in death rates. This room for improvement was especially great for developing countries. Infectious diseases predominated as the cause of death in developing countries, while chronic diseases and accidents predominated in developed countries. Life expectancy at birth in developing countries was lower than that in developed countries (48.3-60.3 years vs. 70 years). Any life expectancy gains were likely to be slower after 1970 than during the 1950-1970 period. WHO claimed that by 2000 almost all of the population in developing and developed countries could reach a life expectancy of 60-65 years and 75-80 years, respectively. WHO stressed the complex interactions among population growth, health, and socioeconomic development. Specifically, an improved health status for both individuals and communities would promote socioeconomic development which in turn appeared to reduce natural increase. Some experts have expressed concern that investment in health services spurs population growth because they reduce mortality. Yet the child survival hypothesis indicated that a reduced infant mortality precedes increased demand for family planning methods and subsequent fertility decline. WHO concurred with the hypothesis and advocated that primary health services and family planning are critical to socioeconomic development. Indeed, family planning services should be integrated with maternal and child health services.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 313-46. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The school enrollment ratio is determined by dividing student enrollment at given educational levels by the student population size in appropriate age ranges which should be enrolled according to national regulations. Calculation and review of this ratio offers a quick view of the extent of educational participation in given countries or regions. Without allowing for future plans, intentions, or policy changes, this paper projects enrollment trends of youth aged 6-29 to 1985 based upon data reported for the period 1960-1970. Data were limited for many of the 24 United Nation regions considered, but severe lack of information precluded the incorporation of East Asia in the analysis. East Asia incorporates China, Hong Kong, Mongolia, and Macau. Ages were broken into 3 ranges of 6-11, 12-17, and 18-29 years. Marked differences exist between the more and less developed regions in the trend of enrollment in the youngest age grouping. Specifically, enrollment follows population growth in developed regions, while enrollment growth in developing countries is unrelated to population growth. Enrollments in the remaining 2 age groupings were indirectly projected by estimating the percentage of enrollment in a given grouping in a given year remaining in school 6 years later. These percentages were then extended linearly into the future. In general, rapid population growth in developing countries greatly strains educational systems at all levels. Disparities between developed and developing countries are likely to continue for quite some time. While developed countries will achieve almost universal enrollment for those aged 6-17 by 1975, developing countries would have to treble average annual enrollment increases realized in the 1960s to simply achieve universal enrollment for those aged 6-11 by 1985. Those aged 6-17 not enrolled in developing countries will decline from 58% in 1965 to 50% in 1985, but the absolute number of out-of-schoolers will increase by 53%. Finally, by 1985, developing countries will have 32% of those aged 6-29 enrolled compared to 59% of those in more developed regions. Lacking resources, most developing countries can hope to simply tread water with school enrollment in the face of rapidly expanding populations.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 105-9. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)In 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, romania, WHO discusses degradation of the environment and population. In developing countries, poor sanitary conditions and communicable diseases are responsible for most illnesses and deaths. Physical, chemical, and psychosocial factors, as well as pathogenic organisms, cause disease and death in developing countries. Variations in individuals and between individuals present problems in determining universally valid norms relating to environment and health. Researchers must use epidemiological and toxicological methods to identify sensitive indicators of environmental deterioration among vulnerable groups, e.g., children and the aged. Changes in demographics and psychosocial, climatic, geographical, geological, and hydrologic factors may influence the health and welfare of entire populations. Air pollution appears to adversely affect the respiratory tract. In fact, 3 striking events (Meuse valley in France , Donora valley in Pennsylvania [US], and London  show that air pollution can directly cause morbidity, especially bronchitis and heart disease, and mortality. Exposure to lead causes irreparable brain damage. Water pollution has risen with industrialization. Use of agricultural chemicals also contribute to water pollution. Repeated exposure to high noise levels can result in deafness. Occupational diseases occur among people exposed to physical, chemical, or biological pollutants at work which tend to be at higher levels than in the environment. Migrant workers from developing countries in Europe live in unsafe and unhygienic conditions. Further, they do not have access to adequate health services. Nevertheless, life expectancy has increased greatly along with urbanization and industrialization. A longer life span and environmental changes are linked with increased chronic diseases and diseases of the aged.
[Consequences of the exercise of human rights for internal migration] Las consecuencias del ejercicio de los derechos humanos para las migraciones internas.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 386-94. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)One of the basic human rights promoted by the UN for all persons is the right to move freely within one's homeland. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 12 of the International Pact on Civil Rights and Policies, and other proclamations affirm the right to free movement with few exceptions. External migration became important with the advance of industrialization throughout the world, but after about 1930 internal migration began to assume greater significance, especially in the developing countries. The process of urbanization has been intimately linked to internal migration in most countries. The rates of growth of urban areas and especially principal cities in the developing world considerably exceed the historic maximum rates of growth in cities in industrialized countries, and rapid urban growth fed by internal migration is expected to continue for some time. The diversity of migration situations revealed by studies of the causes and consequences of migration has slowed the search for empirical generalizations and the construction of multivariate models to explain migration. Among the determinants of migration, those affecting rural-urban migration have received the most study. The character of land tenure and the agrarian structure has been found to be extremely important. Latifundia and low rural productivity appear to be factors of expulsion for rural inhabitants. But migrant selectivity appears to be influenced by the particular economic conditions of rural zones. Selectivity is often positive in regions with more favorable economic conditions. Economic variables and motives are basic factors in internal migration, but other variables may also be influential. The consequences of migration have been amply studied in the scientific and popular literature. The arrival of migrants to cities appears to result in a marked increase in social disorganization, although recent studies have demonstrated great variability in the insertion of migrants into urban structures. The concept of marginality was initially intended to refer to rural-urban migrants and their housing and employment conditions. The frequent lack of political participation of migrants contributes to an overall depressed level of participation in all aspects of life. Possible problems in rural communities of origin resulting from the positive selectivity of migrants have received much less attention. Rather than violating human rights by supressing freedom of movement, noncoercive means should be sought for reorienting migratory flows and improving conditions for marginal urban populations. Such measures should seek to improve conditions for migrants at their destination or to affect their motivations for abandoning their places of origin.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1975; 52(2):209-22.The history of smallpox eradication in the 20 countries of West and Central Africa from Mauritania to Zaire is recounted, including background, evolution of strategy, assessment, maintenance, costs, and significance of the campaign. Smallpox was endemic in these countries, peaking each year at the end of the spring dry season, usually occurring in isolated villages only periodically. The average case fatality was 14.5%, but twice as high in infants and older adults. Clinical exams showed that those with actual vaccination scars rarely got smallpox. The campaign was made feasible because of lyophilized heat-stable vaccine and bifurcated needles or jet injectors. The initial strategy called for mass vaccination and assessment of achieved vaccination. Between 1967 and 1969 100 million persons were vaccinated at collecting points; by 1972, 28 million more children had been protected. In 1966 an outbreak of 34 cases in Nigeria was blocked within 3 weeks of initiation of surveillance and containment. This effort also demonstrated that actual smallpox transmission was slow and relatively ineffective, and further that vaccination of contacts even after exposure was effective. The strategy was replaced by surveillance-containment begun in the seasonal low. The results were that smallpox disappeared within 5 months in an area of 12 million, and within 1 year in 19 of the 20 countries. Maintenance vaccination to prevent importation of the virus is continuing. The cost of the program was $15 million to the U.S. sponsors, or 1/10 the yearly price of smallpox control in the U.S.
Alternative approaches to meeting basic health needs in developing countries: a joint UNICEF/WHO study.
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1975. 116 p.Based on the failure of conventional health services and approaches to make any appreciable impact on the health problems of developing populations, this study examined successful or promising systems of delivery of primary health care to identify the key factors in their success and the effect of some of these factors in the development of primary health care within various political, economic, and administrative frameworks. In the selection of new approaches for detailed study, emphasis was placed on actual programs that are potentially applicable in different sociopolitical settings and on programs explicitly recognizing the influence of other social and economic sectors such as agriculture and education on health. Information was gathered from a wide range of sources; including members, meeting reports, and publications of international organizations and agencies, gathered country representatives, and field staff. The 1st section, world poverty and health, focuses on the underprivileged, the glaring contrasts in health, and the obstacles to be overcome--problems of broad choices and approaches, resources, general structure of health services, and technical weasknesses. The main purpose of the case studies described in the 2nd part was to single out, describe, and discuss their most interesting characteristics. The cases comprised 2 major categories: programs adopted nationally in China, Cuba, Tanzania, and, to a certain extent, Venezuela, and schemes covering limited areas in Bangladesh, India, Niger, and Yugoslavia. Successful national programs are characterized by a strong political will that has transformed a practicable methodology into a national endeavor. In all countries where this has happened, health has been given a high priority in the government's general development program. Enterprise and leadership are also found in the 2nd group of more limited schemes. Valuable lessons, both technical and operational, can be derived from this type of effort. In all cases, the leading role of a dedicated individual can be clearly identified. There is also evidence that community leaders and organizations have given considerable support to these projects. External aid has played a part and apparently been well used. Every effort should be made to determine the driving forces behind promising progams and help harness them to national plans.