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Population dynamics and educational planning; a discussion of educational incentive programmes for reduced fertility.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1974 May. 41 p.As a result the author was asked to enumerate in more detail his suggestions for educational incentives which were spelled out in background paper. BK/73/D/254-120 entitled "Educational Incentive Approaches in Population Planning". This paper is an imperfect attempt to add more clarity to an admittedly sketchy and unclear proposition. It is hoped that others will react to this paper and offer their points of view. It is also hoped that as a result of this effort and the efforts of others, one or more field experiments with educational incentive programmes for reduced fertility will be initiated. It is only after some hard data have been collected that conclusions can be drawn regarding the acceptability and applicability of such a programme on a large scale. (excerpt)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1974; (542):1-54.A World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Filariasis met in Athens in October 1973 to consider developments that have taken place since the last such meeting in 1967. At least 250 million people throughout the world are estimated to be infected with Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine, vector control, malaria control, and socioeconomic development have contributed to a decline in a filarial infection in some parts of the world; however there is evidence to suggest that filariasis has increased in both prevalence and distribution range in many parts of Africa and Asia. The total population at risk has doubled in the past 20 years. Factors that are likely to contribute to the spread and intensity of infection include uncontrolled urbanization, increasing population density and movements of people to and from endemic sites, and a lack of adequate waste water drainage. The success of filariasis control programs depends largely on well-planned health education compaigns based on the local cultural attitudes and behavior patterns. Such campaigns should provide an understanding of the mode of transmission and development of the disease, a knowledge of the parasite and local vectors, and methods of prevention and treatment. Also needed are epidemiologic assessments to obtain baseline data on the prevalence and distribution of filariasis, to define the public health importance of filariasis in an area, and to monitor and evaluate changes in endemicity including those due to control programs.
Population strategy in Asia. The Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, November 1972. Report, declaration and selected papers.
Bangkok, Thailand, ECAFE, 1974 Jun. 449 p. (Asian Population Study Series No. 28; E/C.N.11/1152)The 23 countries represented at the 1972 Second Asian Population Conference adopted a Declaration of population strategy for Development. The action program outlined in this declaration covers areas such as labor utilization, land reform, pollution, planning mechanisms, and family planning. The conference sought to provide a better understanding of the central role of population in the achievement of development goals and to assist governments in determining and applying the most effective means of influencing population trends. The Declaration of Population strategy for Development notes that, while population has a direct effect on development and the human enviroment, conversely policies in the fields of education, healt, housing, social security, employment, and agriculture also have an impact on population. Thus, integrated national planning and coordinated action are required. Particular attention should be given to the need to bring about a more equitable distribution of income and opportunity. The priority of population and family planning should be recognized through the allocation of broad responsibilities in planning, evaluation, and analysis of programs in these fields to government departments. Information, education, and services that will enable families to realize their aspirations must be available, and small family size should be encouraged through intensive efforts in information and education. Steps should be taken to ensure that all pertinent information reaches policy makers, opinion leaders, and socioeconomic planners. The conference requested that its deliberations be taken into consideration in the drafting of the World Population Plan of Action. It further called upon the 1974 World Population Conference to consider global-level means for addressing the population problem.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1974; (552):1-40.This document represents the work of a World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Tuberculosis, which met in Geneva in 1973. Chapters in this volume focus on epidemiology, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, case finding and treatment, national tuberculosis programs, research, WHO activities in this field, and the activities of the International Union against Tuberculosis and voluntary groups. The Committee emphasized that tuberculosis still ranks among the world's major health problems, particularly in developing countries. Even in many developed countries, tuberculosis and its sequelae are a more important cause of death than all the other notifiable infectious diseases combined. The previous WHO report, issued in 1964, set forth the concept of a comprehensive tuberculosis control program on a national scale. The implementation of this approach has encountered many problems, including deficiencies in the health infrastructure of many countries (shortages of financial, material, and physical resources and a lack of trained manpower) and resistance to change. However, many countries have instituted comprehensive programs and tuberculosis control has become a widely applied community health activity. A priority will be control of pulmonary tuberculosis. The Committee stressed that national programs must be countrywide, permanent, adapted to the expressed demands of the population, and integrated in the community health structure. Steps involved in setting up such programs include planning and programming, selection of technical policies, implementation, and evaluation. Research priority areas identified by the Committee include epidemiology, bacteriology and immunology, immunization, chemotherpy, the systems analysis approach to tuberculosis control, and training methods and instructional materials.
Chandigarh, India, Punjab Nutrition Development Project, 1974. 115 p.The primary goal of the Punjab Nutrition Development Project was to develop a plan of delivering supplementary foodstuffs to pregnant and nursing women, infants, and children up to age 11. The project was assisted by CARE and was led by an anthropologist, a pediatrician, a nutritionist, and a statistician who worked with a supportive staff from the government. Research was undertaken in 4 main areas: nutritional assessment and diet surveys; studies of community participation, sociocultural aspects of malnutrition and midday meals programs; development of local foods; and organizational and administrative aspects. The following specific studies were conducted: nutritional assessment of preschool children of Punjab; diet survey of preschool children, pregnant and lactating women; chandigarh study of privileged children; nutritional assessment of primary school children; sociocultural aspects of malnutrition in Punjab; nutrition knowledge level of village leaders and their opinions regarding the formation of local health/nutrition teams; a study of the midday meals program with special emphasis on the role of the teacher; comprehensive study of food processing and marketing; food formulations feasibility studies; bulk food consumption by preschool chidlren; feeding programming through community participation; prototype food preparation center; and, evaluation of the midday meals program.
N.Y., U.N. Centre for Economic and Social Information, 1974. 63 pAdd to my documents.
n.p., U.N. Fund for Population Activities, and Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974? 29 pAdd to my documents.
U.N. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. ECAFE Population Division Clearing House and information activities for the 70s.
In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference, Association for Population/Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers, New York City, April 1974. K.H. Speert, et al., eds. Wash.,D.C., APLIC, Dec. 1974, pp. 161-182Add to my documents.
(London, IPPF), December 1974. 3 p.The staff of the CBDD Khokhar, 2 Vacant), Administrative Assistant (Rita Fulton), 2 Secretaries (Valerie Berryman, 1 Vacant), Planning and Finance Consultant (Ralph Susman), and Products and Manufacturing Consultant (Norman Applezweig).
In: United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) The United Nat ions and population: Major resolutions and instruments. New York, Oceana, 1974. (Law and Population Book Series, No. 7) p. 211-212Selected purposes of the International Bank for Reconstruction and D evelopment (IBRD), as described under Article One of the Articles of Agreement of IBRD, include: 1) Reconstruction and development assistance to member states through facilitating capital investment for production purposes, including restoration and reconversion of production facilities to peacetime needs and stimulating of industrial and resource development in developing countries; 2) Promotion of the balanced, long- range growth of international trade through encouragement of international investment for the development of production and economic well-being of the population of member states; and 3) Arrangement of loans made or guaranteed by the Bank through other channels in order that more urgent large and small projects receive first priority. A second section briefly describes the contents of an IBRD sector working paper on population planning.
For the public good. A history of the Birth Control Clinic and the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Hamilton, Canada, W.L. Griffin, 1974. 35,  p.The history of the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada has been prepared to recognize the fact that the Society is the oldest of its kind in Canada. It is approaching its 50th Anniversary, and it still plays a prominent role in Hamilton as well as being one of the founding members of the Family Planning Federation of Canada. The Federation is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The Society was founded by Mary Elizabeth Hawkins with the help of Albert R. Kaufman. Mr. Kaufman alleviated the plight of wives of the unemployed who were having unwanted children. The constitution of the Society had 2 parts: (1) "to establish and maintain a birth control clinic in Hamilton where free instruction will be given to married women in cases where there are definite physical or mental disabilities in order that the public good may be served." (2) "To educate the public as to the true aims of the birth control movement and its beneficial effect upon the race." In 1932 Mrs. Hawkins and Miss Burgar went to the Wentworth County Court House in Hamilton to talk to the Crown Attorney Ballard about the legality of operating their clinic. At the time the Criminal Code had prohibitions against "every one having for sale or disposal any means of instructions or any medicine, drug or article intended or represented as a means of preventing contraception." The result of the meeting was a letter from George Ballard that openly supported their activities and wished them success. The early days were the hardest because of a lack of money, most of which came from the founding members. There was also a great deal of opposition from the local community. However, it was the work of Society that helped make contraception legal in Canada today.
In: Population strategy in Asia. The Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, November 1972. Report, declaration and selected papers, [compiled by] United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East [ECAFE]. Bangkok, Thailand, ECAFE, 1974 Jun. 69-130. (Asian Population Study Series No. 28; E/C.N.11/1152)The Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) region currently includes 31 countries and territories. Since the first Asian Population Conference in 1963, there has been greater recognition of the adverse effects of rapid population growth on national development and on the standard of living of individual family units. By the year 2000, the population of the ECAFE region is expected to almost equal the total for the world in 1970, despite significantly slowed population growth in the East Asia subregion. During the periods 1900-1950 and 1950-2000, the average annual rates of growth for the population of the ECAFE region are estimated at 0.7% and 2.0%, respectively. The 4 largest countries in the region--China, India, Indonesia, and Japan--together hold 78% of the region's total population. Even in the countries where there has been a decline in fertility, it has not been sufficient to offset the effects of corresponding declines in mortality. The 1950 population of each country, except for China and Japan, will at least double itself by the year 2000. The number of preschool-aged children is expected to reach 356 million by 1980 and there will be 609 million school-aged children. Children ages 0-14 years currently comprise about 40% of the total population of the ECAFE region, producing a high dependency burden. The female population in the reproductive age group will grow from 474 million in 1970 to 593 million in 1980, implying that the fertility potential of the region will be accelerated. In addition, the population of persons aged 60 years and over will increase from 117 million in 1970 to 158 million in 1980, requiring significant investments in health facilities and social security. The urban population in the region is expected to increase from 25% in 1970 to 45% by 2000. Despite widespread awareness of the interrelation of population and development, no common approach among demographers, family plannes, and economic plannes has emerged.
New Internationalist. 1974 May; (15):31-2.This article details and defends the role of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). UN involvement in population activities has come under attack by Marxists, Catholics, and other forces. Although the Fund provides assistance for activities in the area of population, including family planning, it is not an agency for world population control. Establishment of a strong UN role in population assistance has not reduced other forms of development assistance. The UNFPA stresses the need for development decision making at the local level and the link between population and development. Assistance is provided only after a request has been made, and no particular view of either problem or solution is imposed. In the 1st 3 years of operation, funds dispersed by the UNFPA increased 10-fold. The steady increase in requests may reflect distrust on the part of governments for bilateral population aid.
Ippf Situation Report. 1974 Sep; 1-9.The current status of family planning in Sri Lanka was described, and relevant background information on population characteristics was supplied. Family planning services have been provided by the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka since 1954. In 1958 the government initiated a family planning pilot project. In 1965 the government assumed full responsibility for providing family planning services, but the governemnt did not formulate or publicly endorse a family planning policy until 1972. Sri Lanka's population was 13,033,000 in 1972, and the annual average population growth rate was 2.3% between 1963-72. The crude birth and death rates were respectively 29.6 and 7.6 in 1971, and the infant mortality rate was 48 in 1973. 41% of the population was under the age of 15 in 1973. In 1972, per capita income was US 100. 71% of the population is Sinhalese, and 70% of the population is Buddhist. The country is primarily agricultural and derives 1/3 of its income from gorwing and processing tea. Education is compulsory for all children aged 5-14 and currently 89.7% of the males and 75.4% of the females are literate. Free medical care is provided, and in 1968 there were 310 hospitals and 3242 physicians. There are no laws restricting contraception in Sri Lanka. The Ministry of Health is responsible for operating the country's national program, and the goal of the program is to reduce the birth rate to 25 by 1975. The government provides family planning services through 496 family health bureaus, and oral contraceptives (OC) and condoms are distributed by midwives and through a variety of other channels at low cost. Service statistics for 1967-73 were provided. In 1973 the number of new acceptors was 27,528 for IUDs, 34,214 for OCs, 13,941 for traditional methods, and 20,248 for sterilizations. In 1973, 11 population and family planning projects, funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities were launched in collaboration with a number of government and UN agencies, labor and employer groups, and the University of Sri Lanka. A contraceptive knowledge, attitude, and practice survey was conducted in 1973, and a National Seminar on Law and Population was held in 1974. In 1973 an effort was launched to decentralize and intensify training for family planning personnel, and several new training courses for nurses, midwives, medical officers, health educators, and public health personnel were developed. The national program receives additional assistance from the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the UN Development Programme, the Swedish International Development Authority, the Canadian International Development Agency, the World Assembly of Youth, and the Population Council. During 1973, the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka provided family planning services for 8174 new acceptors and 20,858 continuing acceptors at its 25 clinics, located primarily in Colombo. The Association conducts several industrial sector and rural programs which promote vasectomy and provide vasectomy services. Recently the Association conducted several mass mdeia educational campaigns, provided family training for 125 government physicians, and conducted several contraceptive studies, including a Depo-Provera study. In 1973, the Population Services International initiated a national social marketing project for distributing condoms.
Paris, Unesco, 1974 Jun. 28 p. (COM/WS/335 Rev.)The Unesco program is based upon 4 main assumptions: the integration of family planning communication with other aspects of development communication; the maximization and optimum use of resources, including expertise, institutions, agencies, projects, and programs in all communication sectors; a flexible and adaptable perspective of communication; and an approach to communication as a continuum, not in isolated project terms. Unesco's role in the field of family planning communication should not differ substantially from its role as an international agency in other communication fields. The principal roles open to Unesco are the encouragement of coordination and the optimization of resources, the testing and development of new communication approaches, the exchange and evaluation of information and research, and training and research activities. The philosophy and program have been tested empirically by field personnel, debated, and extended by a number of specialist meetings. Emphasis thus far has been upon establishing needs and priority areas and on developing common understanding and principles which might be proved further in material terms. The recommendations of the expert meetings form the basis for developing country programs and for the global, regional, and national level projects developed by Unesco. It is estimated that during the 1973-78 period assistance will be made available to family planning communication programs in 25 Member States and nearly 400 communicators from Member States trained. In the South East Asian region, Unesco's Regional Communication Advisor has been active since 1970. Since 1972 an interim Regional Communication Adviser (Family Planning) has been active in Africa, and similar experts have been posted to Latin America and the Arab States. Recommendations of expert meetings are included on the use of broadcasting and associate media for integrated family planning and developmental messages, on integrated use of folk media and mass media in family planning communication programs, and on communication and education in family planning. An urgent need exists to implement the strategies and recommendations proposed by the Consultation with regard to the recognized needs in the communication and education components of national programs concerned with family planning.
Population assistance and the UNFPA--responding to the countries' own assessments of their needs, statement made at the World Population Conference, Bucharest, Romania, 20th August 1974.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 12 p.For the last 5 years, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities has served the needs of countries in the field of population. On the basis of its experience, this report examines the relationship of population to economic and social development, and gives some indication of the possible future direction of both national and international action. The classic development models and the development trends themselves have stressed urban as against rural growth, large-scale as against small, concentration against diffusion. But, in fact, in order to meet our problems, it may be that quite the opposite emphasis is needed. Development must be diffused socially and geographically throughout all levels and all areas. Growing national pride and self-confidence in many countries are bringing about a re-evaluation of national needs and wants which is both in line with the realities of existing social structures and better adapted to the dictates of change. The adoption of sensible and enlightened policies in the field is an essential step for all countries--whether developed or developing--on their road towards becoming self-sufficient societies. The UNFPA is helping to achieve this goal by involving itself and becoming an integral part of the "total" development effort.
Women and World Population Year, decision-making for development, statement made at the Women's Forum on Population and Development, New York, 25 February 1974.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.This statement briefly traces the history of development and population programs from the 1960's till the present and discusses what these programs can do for women. The cumulative effect of apparently minor innovations which help to ease the work load in the home is far greater than it might appear. There are significant material benefits but more important are the effects of the way a woman perceives herself. She has, for the 1st time, opportunity to widen her horizons, Increased education, employment and equality tend to lower family size as well. It is therefore important to ensure the commitment and participation of women in family planning programs, so that women become active rather than passive tools of policies which ultimately affect their lives.
the Fookian Times Yearbook. 1974; 16-7, 374.A continuing role for multilateral assitance in population will exist. Only international organizations can adequately transmit information, provide multinational experts and transmit certain technical advances in the population field. Aid-receiving countries must show both the realistic and necessary objectives and the will to execute their plans. A serious concern of aid administrators today is the probability that the volume of development assistance which showed an accelerated rate of increase in its early years is indefinitely at a plateau. Many varied reasons for this exist including the sharp, troublesome changes in world trade patterns, a crescendo of accusations of ineffective aid and a very slow rise, if any, in net per capita production. Aid-receiving countries have been discontent because of tied loans and allegations that aid has had inflationary results. Unlike other development projects, population programs often take a generation or more to take full effect. It is sometimes claimed that rapid population growth is the single most important obstacle to improved living standards. This opinion is not universally agreed on, however. Other possible obstacles are neglect of agriculture, lack of adequate infrastructure to develop markets and rigid social structures. A reduction in the population growth rate may actually be a serious hindrance to the attainment of economic and social goals. International assistance has only been a marginal addition to the total development resources of aid-receiving countries, although it has made a major contribution to the initial implementation of population programs, especially in India and China. Aid should be given in those basic areas which will yield better returns in the long run. It should be a 'spur' rather than a catalyst, which is only effective in a short-term crisis. The main aim is the creation of clear national population goals toward which the nation's human resources should be mobilized according to its needs. Necessary administrative infrastructure and the necessary skills and means should also be available. Adequate communication is the most important component of the strategic effort to solve the population problem.
Accent. 1974 May; 2(4):26-8.The recent establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities indicates a universal alarm at the global population situation and a universal determination to deal with it. Set up in 1967 by the Secretary General of the United Nations, the Fund can draw on an inexhaustible reservoir of worldwide expertise of governmental, international and private organizations as well as individuals. In 1969 it was placed under the management of P.G. Hoffman, Administration of the United Nations Development Program. The work of many aid-giving organizations contributed substantially to the successful launching of the initial programs. The Fund directs its efforts toward maintaining national sovereignty without prescribing national policies and emphasizes that population programs should complement, not substitute for economic development efforts. By the end of 1973, the Fund was already supporting over 950 projects in 92 individual countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Near and Middle East. Among these were evaluation missions, plans to strengthen demographic training and research facilities, and the provision of expert services, supplies and equipment for family planning. Additionally, agreements were signed for large scale aid to Mauritius, Pakistan, and Iran for comprehensive family planning programs. The United Nations and its agencies are engaged in population activities. The population Division has offered substantial advice and guidance to countries seeking population policies; the World Health Organization has expanded its own work in the medical field to aid countries in incorporating family planning into their health services; the UNICEF collaborated with the Fund to increase help to children. The remarkable rise in support for the Fund is noted, but requests for assistance are also rising. A greater emphasis on social development is needed. More advanced countries' population problems require different approaches for the same goal: bringing the numbers and needs of people into a reasonable balance with the development of the earth's resources. It is estimated that an annual income of US$100 million will be needed to provide sufficient aid to developing countries.
Needed: sufficiency for all, excerpt from statement at the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 20 August 1974.
Populi. 1974 Sep-Aug; 1(5):4-5.Development must be diffused socially and geographically throughout all levels and areas. A society of sufficiency for all, without excess or deprivation, must be aimed at. This concept is valid both nationally and internationally. Progress should not be limited to the economic realm. Rather, priorities should be changed to answer the needs of all. Although growth in terms of GNP has been at its highest ever in the developing world, the economic gap between the developed and the developing countries has widened. The pursuit of increasing wealth has meant greater production, consumption and waste, with consequent increasing damage to the ecological balance. Pollution does not respect national boundaries. The values of cooperation and concern and recognizing the interdependence of human beings are necessary. Change is more readily accepted by national leaders; technologies and techniques are emerging in response to needs. Population should be seen as an integral part of the sufficiency society and the adoption of sensible policies in this field is essential. A clear understanding of the complex interrelationships of fertility, mortality, morbidity, migration and the growth, distribution and structure of the population, and economic and social factors is essential. Since population deals with the most delicate of human relationships, it must be dealth with on the personal level. The Fund should respond to countries' own assessments of their needs and priorities. External aid is to be used when its effect will be of the greatest benefit to the recipient country. A comprehensive and effective communication network is essential. Salas examines the operation of the Fund through examples. The Fund actively assists in furtherance and expansion of family planning and maternal child health programs in many countries. Adequate housing, education and health services, improvement in women's status and income redistribution are crucial factors. Population programs must be an integral part of the total development effort. The success of programs largely depends on the leadership and quality of training of workers before they undertake a project.
World population plans, statement made at the Regional Consultation on the World Population Plan of Action, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, May 1974.
the Ethiopian Herald. 1974 May 16; 2 p.In this speech Salas makes mention of the UNFPA's contribution to the African Census Program in the largest international operation of its kind ever undertaken. 22 countries are involved. Findings of the census combined with other demography work being done in Africa will add inpetus to the growing debate on population in the Africa context. Mr. Salas cites a 2.9% annual growth rate in Africa, which is expected to rise to 3.1%. This will yield a doubling of the African population in less than 30 years. City populations are said to be growing faster: almost 4% annually. There is a need for planning; food supply is particularly important. Nothing can be done about population growth rates in the immediate future but there is no case for ignoring their long term importance. Despite high growth rates and associated problems, population growth does not present the major threat in Africa. Traditional societies have their own approaches to the regulation of family size. Family planning, properly used, can be a powerful force for life, adding strength to individuals, the family unit, and society as a whole. In accordance with the Fund's mandate, great attention will continue to be paid to country programming and the conclusion of long term comprehensive agreements within the framework of national development programs. 14 country agreements are currently in operation. The Work Plan is based on projected resources of US$321 million, of which US$52.8 million earmarked for country and regional projects in Africa. 40%, or the largest share, will go for the collection and analysis of population date. Support for family planning programs accounts for 25%, communication and education, 18%. Work in relation to population dynamics takes 12% and the rest is accounted for by assistance in the formation of population policy and by multi-sector activities.
Echo. 1974 Dec; 23(2):1-2.This article addresses the question of the education of population program administrators. Population is regarded as one of the most delicate aspects of administration. Population programs affect the most intimate aspects of family life and individual behavior. This is one of the 1st lessons that the administrative personnel of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities had to learn. In 5 years of experience since the foundation of the Fund in 1969, the most important learning continues to be that there is no single solution for population problems; each country must find its own way. In the World Conference on Population held in Bucharest, the Fund received strong support in spite of differences in opinion among the participants on issues such as population and the present and future functions of the Fund. This indicates that the Fund's activities are adequate for any type of population politics. The adoption of a World Plan for Population suggests that a new, international view based on the cooperation of all nations in population activities is germinating.
In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 27-31.The actions undertaken by UNFPA on population matters have been guided by 3 basic principles. 1st is the emphasis on the right of the individual to have access to knowledge and facilities on the basis of which he/she could decide freely on the family size and child spacing. 2ndly, population has always been viewed by the UN in the larger context of development. 3rdly, the responsibility for action on population questions is considered to be within the sovereign domain of national governments. The increasing involvement of national governments in population activities and the increasing role of the UN system in providing assistance for such programs led to the designation of World Population Year in 1974. The Year provides an opportunity for increasing the awareness and understanding of population questions among people around the world. Community groups have an important role to play in promoting awareness and understanding of the population question among people everywhere. The community accepts ideas more easily if they can be shown to have already acquired a degree of social acceptability. The population question touches the standards of moral and ethical behavior in a personal way. If it can be shown that the new patterns of family life are related in a significant way to well established norms of ethical behavior, it will be so much easier for individuals to follow new patterns of behavior. The role of education in promoting and deepening awareness of population issues should be included in the development of population information.
In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 17-26.Although demographic statistics are grossly inadequate, a fairly convincing panorama of the population situation and trends has been prepared by demographers based on fragmentary information, coupled with assumptions and tested against collateral information. Population study reveals a 1st stage early in the recent historic perspective during which fertility and mortality rates were very high and the corresponding rates of natural growth were low. The 2nd stage of the transition begins with a decline in the death rates while fertility rates remained at high levels, and even increases, population growth accelerates during this period. This stage is characterized by rapid urbanization provoked by displacement of population from rural areas to urban centers. Fertility rates begin to decrease at a later period, in some cases more than 20 years after the decline of death rates--tending to level off with death rates at low levels. In this stage, population growth is near zero and has in some cases decreased. The entire transition may take at least 50 years. The key question is how to determine the crucial character of the interactions between population and the critical problems of our society: poverty; underdevelopment; gaps of income between and within countries; food; and environment. In 3 symposia at Cairo, Honolulu, and Stockholm, it was concluded that there were 3 schools of thought. 1 considered rapid population growth as a major cause of structural rigidities of the less developed economies, and therefore reduction of population growth as a 1st priority for improvement of living standards. Another, putting its faith in technological innovation, considered that the way to development was by socioeconomic changes rather than demographic paths of action. The 3rd considered the demograpic approach as one of many leading to the attainment of economic and social progress. The consensus was that there are limits to the growth of population both in the short-term and in the long-term. A World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Rumania in 1974 addressed the issues of recent population trends; relations between population change and economic and social development; relations between population, resources, and environment; and population, family, and well being.
In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 11-6.The rapid growth of population around the world has become the focus of international concern. This conference, which focuses on the theme of population growth and human development, uses a 3-fold perspective to understand and analyze population issues. 1st, human solutions to the population problems, which are essentially the problems of ordinary men and women who have their own private histories and recognizable identity as members of a family group, are recommended. 2nd, no population policy can be effectively formulated and implemented in isolation. It is always as an integral part of the total socioeconomic development strategy of the country. 3rd, the conference, which was organized by a voluntary organization with assistance from the UN and other international organizations, is a sign of the increasing realization that population problems cannot be solved except through international cooperation. A basic concern of the developing countries of Asia is to bring about a decline in fertility rates. Governments and voluntary organizations have collaborated in various action programs designed to promote the kind of social atmosphere that is required for responsible decision making in voluntary family limitation. The experience of most of the developing countries of Asia with respect to the sociocultural changes, which are thought to be conducive to the small family norm, has not been encouraging. Fertility control has been imposed from the top, and has not been understood by the common people, who are often illiterate and influenced by the customs of tradition. Through social education, public opinion, and legislation, the problems of excessive population can be conquered.