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International Migration Review. 1973 Summer; 7(2):189-190.A fact emerged from the 35th session of the Council of the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) is the importance of the Refugee Migration, although a slight increase in the National Migration Programme is foreseen for 1973. As of November 30, 1972, 56, 368 Refugees had already been moved by ICEM to countries of resettlement and this number was close to 58,000 by the end of the year. A similar number of Refugee Migration movements is estimated for 1973. The ICEM Refugee Programme for 1972 and 1973 comprises: the Jews emigrating to Israel; they will be at least 36,000 in 1972 (32,000 from the USSR and 4,000 from other countries) and it is estimated that another 36,000 will migrate in 1973; the other Eastern European refugees emigrating to other countries; some 4,600 have departed or are being processed for resettlement in Austria and 3,300 in Italy. Movements in 1973 are estimated at about the same level as in 1972, but could be higher because of an increase in newly arriving refugees during the last quarter of 1972; the Cuban refugees from Spain; also more than 6,000 have migrated in 1972 (mainly to USA), another 25,000 are still awaiting resettlement overseas and some 1,000 new refugees continue to arrive each month in Spain. This influx represents a problem since it is foreseen that only 6,000 will depart to immigration countries in 1973; the refugees emigrating from the Middle East, mainly Armenians, whose number is about 1,000 per year for 1972 and 1973; the non-Europeans from the Far-East concern yearly about 3,000 refugees from countries in South East Asia, many emigrating to the USA. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1973 Jul 9.  p. (SHC/WS/297)The paper entitled "The Impact of Education on Fertility Patterns: An Analytical Survey of Research Findings" reviews findings on the relationship between education and fertility in developed and developing countries. It presents age-education-specific fertility data for selected countries and discusses problems in data collection and analysis. The use of models an statistical techniques in the analysis of the relationship between education and fertility is considered in the final section. (excerpt)
Population problems and policies in economically advanced countries: report of a conference at Ditchley Park, England, Sept. 29 - Oct. 2, 1972.
Wash., D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1973. 36 p.Add to my documents.
Geneva, WHO, 1973. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 520) 34 p.After summarizing current WHO research directed at the control of male fertility focusing on 1) gametogenesis and ultrastructure of the testis; 2) cytogenetic aspects; 3) hormonal regulation; 4) epididymal function (the maturation and preservation of spermatozoa); 5) vas deferens; and 6) semen analysis; recommendations for further research in the area are made. Studies are required on the following aspects of reproductive function in the male: 1) structural and cytochemical organization of the various classes of germ cells in humans and nonhuman primates; 2) interstitial tissues and the components of the blood-testis barrier and their role in the regulation of gametogenic function of the testis; 3) structural and functional state of the testis during growth and development, during aging, and in most histopathological conditions leading to partial or complete sterility; 4) the role of meiotic chromosome aberration in degeneration of germ cells; 5) role of abnormal chromosomes as an etiological factor in male infertility; 6) binding and metabolism of androgens and their effects on the seminiferous tubule; 7) role of gonadotropins, particularly follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in regulation of spermatogenesis; 8) identification of tubular factors involved in regulation of FSH secretion; 9) elucidation of epididymal function in a number of species; 10) characteristics of sperm surface; 11) nature of epididymal plasma and the factors that control it; 12) anatomy, physiology, and functional role of human vas deferens, with emphasis on blood supply; 13) effect of vasectomy on male reproductive function and possible immunological sequelae of this operation; 14) relationship between fertility and such characteristics of sperm as number, motility, and morphology; 15) biochemical characteristics of the nucleus, acrosome, and midpiece of sperm, and their relationship to sperm motility and fertility; 16) chemical nature of substances secreted specifically in different accessory sex organs; 17) the possible relationship between autoimmune phenomenoa and testicular disease; and 18) immunological sequelae of vasectomy. In addition, studies on the cryobiology of human and animal sperm are expected to yield information on the biology of sperm.
Contraception. 1973 Jul; 8(1):67-73.The World Health Organization (WHO) Program of Research in Human Reproduction that began in 1972 deals with the development of a variety of safe, acceptable, and effective methods for the regulation of human fertility. Research has concentrated on areas where international collaboration would be most likely to accelerate the development of new methods. The program is clinically oriented and emphasizes meeting the objectives in the shortest possible time. Collaborative task force research was started in the following fields: 1) methods to interfere with the transport and/or survival of the ovum; 2) methods to prevent the implantation of the fertilized ovum in the uterus; 3) contraceptive methods for men that affect the fertilizing capacity of sperm by interfering with their maturation and survival without affecting sexual competence; and 4) methods to regulate sperm migration and survival in the human female.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1973. x, 424 p.The historical review of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities, since its inception in 1953, traces the birth control movement back to the Malthusians of 1881-1922. The first international conference was held in London in 1881 to attract attention within the medical profession to birth control. After 1922, public opinion had changed and there was more active interest in family planning (FP). Sometimes the focus was eugenics, sometimes women's emancipation, sometimes maternal and child health. The World League for Sexual Reform was formed in 1922 to examine old institutions and new ways. In 1930, the 7th International Birth Control Conference was held; the sponsors later formed the core group for the IPPF. Conditions and social changes are described for the US, Great Britain, and the Netherlands, which had the first birth control clinic in 1882. The impact of World War II and birth control in Sweden are also discussed. The international conference of 1947 and the influence of Margaret Sanger are described as the backdrop to the Cheltenham Conference, which provided futuristic thinking. The Bombay Conference of 1952 was attended by 487 delegates and observers from 14 countries. India contributed considerable influence on the international FP movement at that time, even though the movement had little impact on India. IPPF was an outgrowth of 5 resolutions, of which one was to change the name from the International Committee for Planned Parenthood to IPPF. Margaret Sanger and Lady Rama Rau were selected as joint presidents. IPPF came into formal existence on November 29, 1952. The continued discussion of IPPF's growing influence attempts to give a human face to institutional development. The effort reappraises 21 years of work and makes suggestions for the future. The organization was primarily and international volunteer effort that only in recent years received government financial support. The main body of the volume concentrates on the period of the 8 international conferences between 1952 and 1967.
In: World population crisis: the United States response, by Phyllis T. Piotrow. New York, New York, Praeger, 1973. vii-ix. (Law and Population Book Series No. 4)In this article, George H. Bush, Jr., the US Representative to the UN, expresses his support for family planning and fertility control at both the national and international level. Long aware of birth control as a public policy issue, Bush recalls how in 1950 his father lost a US Senate race when his opponent disclosed that the elder Bush supported Planned Parenthood, a family planning organization. But the previously taboo subject of birth control now demands public discussion, says Bush. With a 2% annual increase, the world's population of 4 billion is increasing by 80 million every year. Higher birth rates in poor countries have widened the income gap between developed and developing countries. While a member of the US House of Representative during the 1960s, Bush faced such disturbing issues as famine, unwanted pregnancies, and poverty. Finding it ridiculous that clinics and hospitals were prohibited from discussing birth control, Bush and other members of the House Ways and Means Committee took the lead in Congress to make family planning available to all women. Bush also helped repeal a law barring the mailing of birth control information and birth control devices. And when he moved to the UN, Bush saw that though the population issue was high on the agenda, it lacked some of the urgency it deserved. But having planned the 1974 World Population Conference, the UN is ready to tackle the population problem. Individual choice and responsible government represent the framework within which individuals and organizations must work. This work will be difficult, considering the large number of countries, races, and religions around the world. But addressing the population problem may help resolve such issues as peace, prosperity, and individual rights.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1973. 118 p. (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series No. 52; WHO Technical Report Series No. 522)The present Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Ad Hoc Expert Committee met from March 22 to April 2, 1971 to consider energy and protein requirements together and to examine fully this interrelationships so that a diet or a food supply might be assessed simultaneously in terms of its energy and protein content. Its specific tasks were to: examine the characteristics and criteria of the reference man and reference woman; review new data as a basis for revising estimates of requirements and recommended intakes for energy, protein, and essential amino acids; and consider the method of chemical scoring and other methods used in the evaluation of the nutritive value of proteins. The committee was asked to examine the interrelationships between requirements for energy and proteins and to recommend means for the integration of requirement scales for energy and proteins, if that were feasible. Additionally, this committee report includes a discussion of basic concepts, a glossary of terms and units, some background information, as well as identification of practical applications and future research needs. 5 annexes contain: percentiles for weight and height of males and females aged 0-18 years; calculation of the energy values of foods or food groups by the Atwater system; conversion of nitrogen to protein; standard basal metabolic rates of individuals of both sexes; and some values of energy expenditures in everyday activities.
WHO Chronicle. 1973 Jun; 27(6):236-41.The front line elements in health services - the primary care health personnel - can play an important part in the development of those services, but also in the development of the community in which they work and therefore of the country as a whole. Clearly all health personnel contribute to development, but it is worth noting the privileged position of front line personnel, who live among the people and meet their basic health needs. This position and the respect that often goes with it give health personnel a largely or totally unexploited field of influence and action reaching far beyond the sphere of health. Its exploitation would benefit both the community and the health workers themselves, who may discover a new personal interest, a source of additional motivation, even a new ideal. (author's)
Catholics and World Population Year, a question of morality, statement made at the Centre of Concern Seminar, New York, 30 November 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 7 p.The world's population, now 3.8 billion, is growing at the rate of 2%/year, fast enough to double itself in 35 years. The work undertaken by UNFPA is described in brief, followed by its aims for 1974--World Population Year. The responsibility of the Church in promoting awareness and understanding of the population problem is extremely important. Beyond the family, on national and international issues, information and guidance is needed on the relationship of the rich to the world poor, including issues such as the rate of consumption of natural resources, pollution and the environment, aid and trade, and population and development. It is important not to become so closely involved in consideration of the morality of the specific means of family planning, to cause us to lose sight of the wider issue, which is no less than the physical, mental and moral well-being of 2/3 of mankind.
Government programmes and voluntary action, partnership in Planned Parenthood, statement made at the "IPPF 21" Conference, London, England, 22 October 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The IPPF has been a major institution in the population field and one of the most successful international nongovernmental organizations. Compared to the IPPF, UNFPA is a relative newcomer in the population field. The role of both these organizations is outlined. These agencies must continually adapt their strategies and explore new approaches to fertility control and the relationship of population to development. There is a growing sense of complexity of the relationships involved, of the importance of the context in which individual decisions about family size are made and of the need for a comprehensive approach to the problem of rapid population growth which goes beyond the traditional confines of demography and family planning.
Population assistance and national development, the search for commitment, statement made at the Australian Council for Overseas Aid Conference, Canberra, 25 August 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 12 p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities has been in existence only since 1967, set up at a time when the programs of the major bilateral donors were declining in real terms. It has expanded its operations since then to become the central United Nations funding agency in the field, with a total of US$110 million in contributions and estimated needs of over US$250 million from 1973-76. A major reason for this has been the increasing recognition of the importance of the population as a coefficient in the development equation. Since India undertook her 1st programs in 1952, most of the countries of Asia have adopted national population policies, sometimes with startling results, notably in the countries where development efforts have been most successful. The idea of population action programs as a legitimate area for national activity has spread to the developing countries of Africa and South America, taking hold even in areas where there was traditionally strong ideological or cultural opposition to a concept regarded as interference with natural processes or as irrelevant to national development. At present, it is possible to look forward to broad agreement between nations at the World Population Conference next year on the principles of a common World Plan of Action.
International population assistance--a spur to national effort, statement made at the Institute of Man and Science, Rensselaerville, N.Y., 6 May 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.Nothing concerns aid-administrators more today than the probability that the volume of development assistance which showed an accelerated rate of increase in its early years has not reached a plateau from which ascent is difficult to foresee. This predicament is real, in spite of the multi-national commitment of donors and recipients to the strategies of the Second Development Decade which set a desired rate of increase in the volume of assistance up to 1980. This state of affairs does not hold true for population assistance as yet. The volume of resources available for population assistance has so far been adequate to meet the demands of countries in need and in their capacity to absorb the assistance. The prospects for increases in the volume are good as 1974 approaches. If international population assistance is to act as a spur to development, its aim should be the creation of clear national population objectives toward which the country's human resources should be mobilized. Necessary components of this primary aim are: the creation of an administrative infrastructure, training facilities, and adequate communication to carry out national population objectives. The Fund will continue to assist countries and deliberately apply a portion of the assistance to spurring the countries to undertake these programs themselves, by continuing to train as much of each country's human resources as possible, and assisting in the building of their own institutions.
Population consensus--the need for a common idiom, statement made at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, London 14 February 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 11 p.Today, international agreement on the fundamental question of the necessity to rationalize the growth of the world's population is increasing. Even countries which a few years ago resolutely opposed any move in the United Nations to support population activities now give at least qualified endorsement to the work of the UNFPA. The following considerations are suggested as a continuing basis for the consensus: 1) the pressure of population on resources is increasingly making development efforts difficult in many parts of the world; 2) it is the responsibility of all governments to take stock of population growth and movements in their countries, and formulate appropriate policy; 3) having determined their policy, governments have the responsibility to devise effective means of delivery of family planning and related services; 4) it is the responsibility of each government to devise responsive channels through which individual needs and desires can make themselves known; 5) each government must recognize the need for international co-operation in research and in the transfer of skills and resources; and 6) there must be a common acceptance that population is part of the wider issue of development and cannot be tackled on its own. The future of UNFPA is outlined in light of these criteria for international consensus.
Increasing the effectiveness of population programmes, statement made at the One Asia Assembly, New Delhi, 5 February 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 10 p.This report traces the growth of the UNFPA. The initial stages of development planning were influenced by the theory of "economic take off," in which increasing quantities of external assistance were invested in programs and projects designed to lead to "self-sustaining growth." The optimism of those years has been considerably modified by events, and the validity of the theory of development based on economic growth alone has itself been called into question. Today, greater emphasis should be placed on adapting existing development strategies, to enhance the capacity of the society to absorb existing and anticipated births, while at the same time creating the economic and social conditions conducive to the transition to smaller families. Population programs demand a sharper definition, a more flexible approach and a much greater degree of understanding and perception of specific situations.
Scope and direction: first report to the Governing Council, statement made at the Fifteenth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, New York, 29 January 1973.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.This report provides a general outline of UNFPA--its function and projects undertaken, its sources of finance, and its allocation of funds. The report recommends 5 actions concerning financial affairs to be evaluated by the Governing Council. The most important of these is the adoption of principles of annualized funding. The General Assembly has specifically authorized the 15th Governing Council to grant this. "Full funding," (which exists at present), is an inefficient basis for the operations of a well-established funding organization. It faces the organization with 2 alternatives, both of which are undesirable: 1) to limit commitments to 1 year, a basis too short for effective planning by recipient governments, or 2) to immobilize the assets granted by donor governments for an unnecessarily long period by making multi-year commitments. In considering the request for authorization for annualized funding, the Council is requested to bear these long-term considerations in mind as well as the Fund's short-term needs for specific sums of money not tied up by Full Funding rules.
[Unpublished] 1973 May 7. Paper prepared for Unesco as background to 1974 Population Conference in Rumania. 34 p.Some major obstacles to the success of national family planning programs are: 1) lack of commitment by public officials, 2) control of programs by physicians, and 3) unwillingness to attempt innovative approaches. Barriers to the success of communication programs include inadequate and uncoordinated funding and improper training of staff. Development efforts have included a wide variety of approaches to the application or communication and by the late 1960s several factors focused attention on communication as an undeveloped resource in population and family planning. These factors included unsatisfactory acceptance rates among women of reproductive age, underutilization of available services, lack of continuation of methods once they were adopted, and the spread of rumors based on isolated, false reports of contraceptive experience. A conference in 1967 identified 3 stages of developing family planning strategy: 1) voluntary agencies which are solely responsible for conducting family planning with no official recognition or government support, 2) family planning is recognized tacitly but with lack of official policy, and 3) family planning is a full-fledged government policy. The author suggests a scheme for classifying population communication efforts of countries along these lines, as countries with autonomous family planning coordinating bodies, countries which carry out the communication component of family planning programs from within health ministries, and countries in which the family planning communication program is carried out outside health ministries. Communication approaches need to involve an integration of developmental messages and media and proper research into attitudes towards family planning. In early family planning programs, family planning education was done through adult education programs. Objectives for family planning communicators include information, education, motivation, legitimation, and reinforcement. In most developing countries there is a system of training institutes going from local to national centers. Recommendations regarding use of folk media and administration of communication programs are included.
Who Chronicle. 1973 Oct; 27(10):410-7.In recent years the epidemiological pattern of venereal disease and endemic treponematoses has undergone important changes in both developing and developed countries. This discussion outlines the present situation and indicates the role that the World Health Organization (WHO) is playing in efforts to combat these infections. About 15-20 years ago 2 contrasting epidemiological situations confronted health authorities around the world. The developed countries were experiencing the lowest recorded incidence of venereal diseases since World War 2. At the same time in developing countries nonvenereal endemic treponematoses were becoming a major health problem because of their widespread endemicity and their disabling effect on the sufferers, which was causing a serious reduction in manpower resources. By the mid 1950s reports from several countries showed an increase in the incidence of early syphilis and gonorrhea and during the subsequent years the rising trend continued and began to affect most countries of the world. Simultaneously, the prevalence of endemic treponematoses dropped markedly in several developing nations as a result of WHO/UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) assisted mass treatment campaigns. There can be little question that the introduction of penicillin for the treatment of venereal diseases and treponematoses made a major contribution to the developments outlined. The marked treponemicidal effect of this drug, its ease of administration, and the low incidence of side effects made it almost ideal for the safe, short-term, ambulatory treatment of both venereal and nonvenereal treponematoses as well as of gonorrhea. The immediate result of intensive antivenereal campaigns in the developed countries at the end of World War 2 as well as of the mass treatment campaigns against endemic treponematoses was excellent. Yet, it led some to believe that these infections could be completely eliminated by treatment alone. Subsequent experience has shown this opinion to be unjustified, because the transmission of venereal diseases and treponematoses is closely dependent upon the socioeconomic structure of the society concerned. It is clear at this time that a new approach is required in the field of endemic treponematoses. The era of mass treatment is most likely nearing its end. The endemic treponematoses will remain a longterm public health problem until the hygiene and socioeconomic conditions of the populations concerned are improved so as to eliminate low level transmission of the disease. In regard to the increase of early syphilis and gonorrhea reported from most countries since 1955-57, it should be noted that national statistics are unreliable. Underreporting is general and the statistics are variously estimated to represent between 10% and 50% of the true number of cases.
M. A. thesis, Univ. of Chicago, Division of the Social Sciences, Dec. 1973. 90 p.In the summer of 1971 the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK), with the concurrence of the Korean government, launched a new phase in the Korean family planning program--"Stop at Two" movement. With this step the 10 year old family program became the 1st in the world to openly advocate and propogate through communications the 2-child family norm. Since then the movement has been vigorously pressed through all communications channels in spite of traditional norms and the need for major outside funding. The decision to actively bring the "Stop at Two" idea to the public was based largely on the implications for the future of the success of the 1st 10 years of the national family planning program. The Korean government has set an optimistic population growth rate target for the next 5 years--1.5 to be achieved by 1976. To reach these goals it is estimated that 45% of the eligible population will have to be regularly using some form of contraception. At 1 time or another the PPFK, supporting the national program, has used every conceivable method of communication to inform, motivate, and persuade the Korean population to adopt family planning. An attempt has been made to carefully analyze problem areas in the family planning program for which communication research is needed or would be relevant. An effort is made to show how the information obtained could be used to deal effectively through communication with the conditions presented by the problem. Communication research and evaluation techniques which would be most valuable to Korea are described. A research and evaluation design which spells out the components of a program of research intended to support the already published communication strategy of the Korean family planning over the next 3 years is included.
In: Hossain T, Ahmed JU, Khan NI, ed. Proceedings of the Seminar on Family Planning, November 21-25, 1972. Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Health and Family Planning, 1973. 563-7.The structure of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and its established program in certain sectors provide a firm basis for distinctive initiative in the population field. The ILO can effectively contribute to the broadening of the base of support and action of population programs. Additionally, the workers' education programs and the medical care component of social security schemes afford opportunities for forging substantive links of operational policy with population activities. Recent decisions on the part of policymaking programs have given special emphasis to population programs in the activities of the ILO. ILO effort in the Asian region was initiated by 2 exploratory missions: a medical specialist examined the possibilities of including family planning services into social security and enterprise level medical services; and a workers education expert collecting facts concerning attitudes and needs among Asian trade unions. 3 important regional meetings have been held for discussions among the ILO constituents and representatives of national family planning authorities on the ways in which workers and employers involvement in population and family planning activities could be strengthened. Another and more specialized type of meeting was held in 1971 with demographers and manpower planners to identify research objectives. A series of national seminars on population questions was begun in 1971. To meet an increasing demand among the government and the workers and employers organizations for assistance in the population and family planning activities in the organized sector, an Asian Labor and Population Team has been formed at the Regional Office in Bangkok. The Central Board of Workers Education in India (CBWE) has carried out a considerable amount of population education and produced visual aides particularly designed for this kind of education. ILO proposed to seek the collaboration of the CBWE on a project for the production and testing of educational kits for local level union courses.
Report of the Francophone West African Working Party, Yaounde, Federal Republic of Cameroon, 28th September-6th October 1973.
London, International Confederation of Mid-wives . 83 p.Report of 1 of several working parties convened by the International Confederation of Midwives to discuss and promote the inclusion of family planning among services provided by midwives. Representatives from Congo, Gabon, Chad, Central African Republic, Madagascar, Zaire and Cameroon attended, as well as representatives from the World Health Organization, International Planned Parenthood Federation and the International Confederation of Midwives. Discussions were held on several topics, including the status of maternal and child health programs in the countries represented, the functions and responsibilities of various categories of midwives and their training, modification of training regimens to include family planning, legislation, and traditional birth attendants. Appendices contain the texts of 2 speeches presented at the working party.
[New York?] Ford Foundation, June 1973. 56 p.This report of the world population situation and the status of work on population by developing countries and international assistance agencies is based primarily on discussions at the 3rd in a series of conferences of donor agencies to consider strategies for dealing with world population problems, which took place in Bellagio, Italy, in 1973. 5 principal conclusions of the conference are identified: 1) the overall world population situation is characterized by enormous problems, slow improvement, and little knowledge of how to proceed; 2) the 3rd world is critical of foreign assistance in population; 3) the major need for action is to increase the amount and relevance of social research to underpin population policies; 4) there has been solid progress in contraceptive development; 5) delivery of family planning services and information needs improvement. The implications of the conference conclusions for Ford Foundation population programs are discussed. Excerpts from a selection of background papers prepared for the conference include a status report on population developments, country and regional viewpoints from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, an overview of agency activities, and progress reports on social research and population policy, contraceptive development, delivery systems for family planning, and demographic data collection and analysis.
A methodology for indicators of social development, report 2: an analysis of selected A.I.D. operational indicators and concepts.
Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 1973 Sep. 82 p. (Sociology Report No. 116; Contract AID/csd-3642)The purpose of this report was to develop a method for developing countries to use in constructing indicators of social development for monitoring progress as each country defines it. Analysis is based on a taxonomy of 6 indicator types (policy descriptive, nonmanipulable, output, output distribution, impact and response), and on specific conceptualizations of society, social development, and indicators of social development. 4 sectors were specified: agriculture, education, health, and public administration. The agriculture sector is discussed in this report. Working definitions for the following key concepts were constructed: indicator, social indicator, project achievement indicator, system, subsystem society, institution and social development. The level of analysis of social development was designated as the interinstitutional or societal level. An interinstitutional hypothetical model is presented which allows societal analysis through the study of the interchanges among various societal institutions. In the future, projects should be evaluated from a holistic social development perspective rather than as autonomous programs.
In: Hossain T, Ahmed JU, Khan NI, eds. Proceedings of the Seminar on Family Planning, November 21-25, 1972. Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Health and Family Planning, 1973. 255-61.The Director, Bangladesh Family Planning Board, is in charge of procurement and supplies of contraceptive materials at central headquarters. These are then distributed to the districts and finally to the thanas. Clients get supplies from dais, chief male organizers, and clinics, who in turn get supplies from the Thana Headquarters and District Headquarters. Transportation and weather problems create bottlenecks in supply and distribution which may be overcome by the use of fair price shops as channels. Bangladesh is dependent on foreign suppliers for contraceptives; the usual donors are USAID, IPPF, SIDA, UNICEF, and UNFPA. Conventional contraceptives are supplied with a nominal price to cover the commission payment to the dais and organizers as an incentive for their hard work. The District Headquarters should have a ready stock for 3 months to meet any eventualities, whereas the Thana Headquarters should have a 1 month supply. The normal quota for a dai is 2 dozen of each type of contraceptive, and for each organizer it is 2 grosses. To streamline the supply/distribution system, Bangladesh may begin to manufacture their own supplies.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Europe Region, 1973. 5 p.The increasing interest of planned parenthood organizations in the mass media reflects an increasing concern with ways in which scientific knowledge about contraception can best be utilized to influence an individual, group or society. Information has to flow both towards the consumer as a utilization flow and away from the consumer as feedback for the practitioner. Public and private media should be used: radio, television, press, cinema; and, leaflets, pamphlets, books produced by the planned parenthood associations. The decision to use media resources involves consideration of the potential consumer, the sociocultural context, the legal structure, consumer demand, and potential benefits. Unmet needs in society must be weighed against media availability. Planned parenthood is not news every day. Advertising campaigns are more successful when their reception has been prepared for by use of other media. Private media which people seek out for themselves is not constrained by conservative public morality. In the early development of a planned parenthood association, private media should be used. In the middle stage of development, public media can be used to achieve a balance between public and private media. In the later stage of development, public media should be used. Private media should be retained for use in particular situations: specialist, political or psychological.