Your search found 98 Results
Educational aspects of developmental programmes leading to lower fertility: the renewal of education as a population action programme.
[Unpublished] 1972. Presented at the Interregional Workshop on Population Action Programmes, Manila, Philippines, November 15-25, 1972. 11 p. (ESA/P/AC.1/15)Population is not an isolated variable in the development process; it is one of the many socio-economic variables affecting developing countries in their efforts to attain a higher quality of life. Education must respond to the total socio-economic situation if it is to be expected to contribute to the promotion of change. In order to respond effectively, education must be integrally and relevantly renovated. This integral renovation implies innovation in educational planning and administration, and in curriculum contents and teaching and learning methodologies. Within this framework of renovation population-related issues become important components which must be included in educational activities because of their present and future effect on individuals and society. Population education will then be one of the obvious products of an integral and relevant educational response to the challenges proposed by the process of change. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1972 Dec 4.  p. (SHC/WS/276)This present study attempts to review the state of knowledge today on the relationship between educational attainment and fertility, and to list some of the major institutions conducting research in the area of human fertility, which takes into account the effect of education on fertility. Finally, a bibliography of recent literature (in English) dealing with education and fertility, is given here. (excerpt)
Application of the factor analysis of correspondence to a fertility survey in Algeria. [Application de l'analyse factorielle de correspondance à une étude de fertilité en Algérie]
[Unpublished] 1972. Presented at the Seminar on the Role of Social Sciences in Demographic Activities, UNESCO, Paris, France, June 19-23, 1972. 39 p. (SHC.72/Conf.13/6)The so-called factor method of correspondence shows that it is possible to analyse globally and simultaneously all the large number of variables that come into consideration in a survey where the sample is relatively small, as is most often the case in investigations into, for example, fertility factors or the motives for migration. This method brings to light the highly logical structure and inner coherence of the replies formulated by the respondent without however going beyond a simple description of the facts and a classification of the variables. It also shows the wealth of material available through the so-called C.A.P. fertility surveys, which furnish us with information not only on fertility but also on daily life in the Third World. Educational status and the development of mass communication media unquestionably stand out as the principal variables in Algeria, where considerable efforts have in fact been made in this domain over the past few years. However, the results of these efforts have yet to influence the fertility rate, still one of the highest in the Third World. It is indeed only to be expected that there should be a time-lag between the occurrence of changes in economic and social conditions and the moment when the fertility rate begins in turn to be affected. (excerpt)
The role of the traditional midwife in the family planning program. Report of National Workshop to Review Researches into Dukun Activities related to MCH Care and Family Planning.
[Jakarta], Indonesia, Department of Health, 1972. 83 p.A number of studies conducted already have revealed that there are possibilities of using dukuns as potential helpers in the family planning programme. Bearing in mind that the number of dukuns at the present time is large, it is easy to imagine that they are capable of contributing a great deal towards progress in our family planning programme provided that the dukuns are assigned a role which is appropriate. In this respect, I am only referring to dukuns whose prime function is helping mothers during pregnancy and immediately afterwards, and who have close contact therefore, with the target of the family planning programme, i.e. the eligible couples. It would indeed be very helpful, if we could find out from the available data and from the results of applied research what exactly is the scope and usefulness of dukuns in the family planning programme. It seems to me that in this project we have to consider a twofold problem. The first aspect of the problem is that the dukuns are mostly of an advanced age and they are illiterate. The second aspect is that in spite of relationships with MCH centers extending over a period of years most of the dukuns still prefer their own way of doing things and they remain unaffected by modern ways of thinking. (excerpt)
Report of the second advisory group meeting held in Kuala Lumpur at the Hotel Majestic on the 18-19 September 1972.
[Unpublished] 1972. 67 p.This report of the proceedings of the 2nd Advisory Group Meeting covers the following: the workshop sessions; the progress report; the role and functions of the Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC); and the speech of Encik Mohd. Khir Johardi. The progress report reviews all the projects and programs that will be initially implemented by the Secretariat IGCC: the regional program for observation and exchange of information; the regional program for exchange of experience through workshop in the various activities of family and population planning; clearinghouse activity; regional research project on thromboembolic disease; the special project to assist member countries without a national family planning program (Laotian Seminar, consultants for Khmer Republic, training 12 Khmers in the Philippines, the contraceptive supplies for the Khmer Republic); population and development planning workshop; joint ECAFE/IGCC/Government of Malaysia Training Course for Statisticians and Demographers; workshop on adult education and family planning; regional incentive program; Second Ministerial Conference and Third IGCC Meeting; and first obstetrician and gynecological meeting within the IGCC Member Countries. Member of the senior government officials who met at the 1st and 2nd Meeting were keen on the idea of exchange of professional staff among member countries for a short period of time. Some of the participants particularly at the 2nd Senior Government Officials Meeting felt that it is necessary to set up IGCC Regional Training Center to be utilized for the training of all facets of family planning program within the IGCC Region. Appendixes review backgrounds and objectives of the visits to Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines; report on the 1st Regional Training Workshop in Jakarta during December 1972, progress to date on clearinghouse activities, the ECAFE trip during August 1972, and the First National Seminar on Population and Family Well Being during August 1972; and discuss the population and development planning workshop proposal, the proposed workshop by IGCC on adult education and family life planning, and the proposed meeting of panel of regional advisers on sexual sterilization.
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1972. (WHO Technical Report Series No . 508) p. 5-28.The World Health Organization Study Group on Education and Training for Family Planning in Health Services met in Geneva from December 6 to 10, 1971, to deal with the problems of developing education and training programs on the health aspects of family planning. They made the following recommendations: 1) health and other personnel should share the responsibility of providing and promoting family planning; 2) educational theories and practices that have been tested and proved successful should be used in family planning education and training; 3) instruction on human reproduction, family planning, and population dynamics should be provided at all levels and stages of health personnel education and training; 4) appropriate training programs consistent with local requirements should be developed when new types of family planning personnel are needed; 5) the training program administrator should first be involved in the planning of both service and health manpower training needs; 6) personnel require training before preceding with the action program; 7) top priority should be given to the training of teachers at all levels for education in family planning and population dynamics; 8) universities should take a leadership role in the promotion of education and training programs; 9) staff development should be identified as an essential concomitant of institutional change; 10) field studies based on the results of periodic evaluation of the training program should be undertaken; 11) the need for attitudinal change should be recognized and emphasized; and 12) family literature and training materials should be made available to all those involved in family planning efforts. (AUTHOR'S MODIFIED)
Tokyo, IPPF, Western Pacific Region, (1972).Add to my documents.
[Plan of the investigation and production of mass media programs, for family planning] Proyecto de investigacion y produccion de programas de comunicacion de investigacion y produccion de programas of comunicacion colectiva en planificacion familiar.
Research proposal of ADS submitted to U.N. Fund for Population Activities, April 1972. 26 p.Add to my documents.
London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 pFamily planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1972. 40 p. (World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 485)A World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Group met in Geneva in 1971 to discuss human development and public health. A review is made of the scientific knowledge of various needs and opportunities for intervention that occur during the cycle of human development. Economic, social, genetic and perinatal factors were discussed. Family planning, nutrition, and infection were all looked at in relation to human development. The phases and events of human development require a co-ordinated approach by workers in many different disciplines. A holistic approach should guide in setting the focus of public health programs. Broad, interdisciplinary research is required to examine specific factors and also to investigate the relationships among various factors. More research is required on the effects of the environment and on educational content and methods that will prepare children to live in a world of rapid change. research is recommended on the relationship between genetics and malnutrition and the long-term effects of perinatal factors on growth and development. Collaborative epidemiological studies of human reproduction should be extended to include health parameters of growth and development. Many research questions were defined in the area of nutrition. Recommendations for immediate action included public health action to interrupt the synergism of malnutrition and infection and to ensure that every mother receives prenatal and postnatal health care. Regional conferences should be convened to discuss needed policy changes to improve human development.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 32 p. (COM/72/CONF.32-A/3)This paper describes the nature and current status of family planning communication research, focusing on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys; proposing some types of needed research; and analyzing the common problems of inadequate research utilization. The discussion's theme is that communication research offers the potential for providing eventual solutions to some of the problems currently impeding family planning programs in less developed countries. In the past, with few exceptions, family planning communication research has been unimaginative, repetitious, and irrelevant. Communication research provides a feedback function to program administrators about various inputs to the family planning program. This type of research also can provide a "feedforward" function by allowing sources of communication messages to better know their audiences and hence how to reach them more effectively. Communication research is itself a special kind of communication, providing a linkage between client audiences and agency officials. 1 of the best of the KAP studies and 1 which had a particularly laudatory effect of later research in family planning communication is the Taichung Study of Twaiwan Study in the early 1960s. The Taichung study data showed the importance of interpersonal channels and the 2 step flow of communication. It should be noted that the Taiwan Study was a field experiment rather than a survey. A typical field experiment begun in 1970 in Isfahan Province, Iran consisted of the following experimental treatments: an intensive mass media communication campaign that promote a family planning slogan "2 or 3 children is better; the loop and pill are safe;" the recruitment of various types of nonfamily planning change agents and aides recruited to promote family planning with their clients; and home visits by family planning field workers in a rural and an urban district of about 20,000 population. The main measures of the communication treatment efforts are changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice, which were measured by surveys prior to and after the campaigns. Most important are changes in rate of adoption, which seem to have increased by about 64%. In addition to the Isfahan Project numerous field experiments on family planning communication have been conducted in Jamaica, India, Korea, and Thailand since the Taichung Study in the early 1960s. Several conclusions, such as the following, may be generally considered from these experiments: home visits to clients by paraprofessional field workers are 1 of the most effective communication strategies to secure the adoption of family planning methods; and mass media alone can create widespread awareness and knowledge of a family planning innovation. KAP studies have all the methodological problems of any other type of survey research as well as some special problems that arise from the taboo nature of family planning. Yet, in the few cases where adequate evidence is available, KAP studies do not fare too badily on reliability, especially in an aggregate sense.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 43 p. (COM/72/CONF.32-A/6)This paper offers some guidelines for family planning administration, communications staff, donor agency advisers, and researchers on developing a model communication research project. The target for a family planning communication project includes government and political elite, family planning administrators, the medical profession and family planning clinic staff, fuctionaries and opinion leaders, and the general public by means of mass media, full and part time family planning workers, medical personnel providing contraceptive services, and functionaries. A model for communication research should have comprehensive and extensive family planning services. This report of the Meeting of Experts on Research in Family Planning Communication covers the problems in population and family planning communication, goals and design for a model communication research project(administration, organization, and targets and the development of contraceptive services); priorities in a comprehensive model (elite education, mass communications, the use of field workers, functionaries and mobile units, and developing training and text materials for institutions with public contact); the communication research methodology; local, national, regional, and international suggestions; and some budgetary considerations. Assessing priorities in a comprehensive model is difficult. Initially, developing a contraceptive service is more important than a communication program. Priority should be given in the following order: elite education; mass media; field workers; mobile unit and functionaries; and developing training and text materials for institutions with public contact. Each country wanting to participate in such a model project should conduct some feasibility studies and fact finding in an area with about 2 million people. Once the project location has been chosen and a fact finding survey has identified the medical personnel, media structure, functionary infrastructure, and research capabilities, then a project director should be selected, one with administrative experience in developing communication programs. He/she would choose 3 deputies: one for developing contraceptive services; one for the overall communications program; and one for research and evaluation. The communication director must find out what to say, to whom, through what channels, when, and how often. The strategy should consider the audiences to be reached, the cost effectiveness of the media, and the media infrastructure.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 15 p. (COM/72/CONF.32/A/5)The widely differing opinions concerning the effects of mass media on behavior suggests the need to question some strongly held beliefs among population communicators. On the basis of this awareness the discussion reviews some of the existing major communication studies in the areas of voting behavior, purchasing behavior, and smoking behavior as well as family planning communication research studies to shed some light on what effects one might expect the mass media to have on contraceptive behavior. Little is known about the effects of mass media on voting behavior. Research has provided few definitive answers. All studies suggest that most voters in the US and the UK vote for the party label rather than the candidate. It has been noted that mass media does not change attitudes and behavior and reinforces existing behavior and attitudes. Exposure to mass media ishighly selective. Most people have an exaggerated fear of the persuasive power of advertising campaigns. The effects of an advertising program, among other variables, depends upon the skill of the advertiser in reaching the right audience with the most persuasive messages over the proper media mix, with a useful product at the proper competitive price. Advertising can announce the availability of a product, shape brand images, create positive attitudes toward a product, and reinforce existing attutudes--all of which are steps toward a trial purchase of a new product. Efforts to reduce cigarette consumption in the US via the mass media have been substantial. A random telephone survey concluded that only those individuals predisposed to giving up smoking reported that commercials persuading cigarette smokers to cut down or quit had any significant effect on them. A review of the history of family planning communications research is difficult for several reasons: several hundred studies have been completed which relate to family planning; the quality of these studies varies greatly; and most are relevant only to specific cultural areas. The result of such dissimilarity is that generalizations are almost impossible. A few of the better known and more successful studies are reviewed. The majority of these studies are concerned with communication campaigns using a wide variety of media ranging from wall writings to television. It seems that as far as short-term, general, large scale behavioral effects are concerned, a mass media campaign is ineffective in increasing clinic attendance and is ineffective in increasing nonclinic sales of contraceptives.
Asia: an area assessment, statement made at the Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 1 November 1972.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 13 p.This report offers a critical evaluation of population policies in Asia. Suggestions for future strategies to solve the problem of high fertility include: 1) studies involving in depth village level research in order to deepen understanding of the factors influencing family size; 2) greater attention to be paid to education on population problems and their implications, as well as the basic principles of human reproduction and family planning; 3) scrutinizing all relevant social legislation such as tax and welfare benefits and family allowances to determine their probable influence upon childbearing; and 4) integrating population policies with economic and social development. In order to carry out these activities, training personnel is of the utmost importance. Furthermore, research leading to the elaboration of systemic models of the development process should be intensified.
Strengthening the UNFPA, statement made at the Regional Meeting of UNDP Resident Representatives for Africa, Addis Ababa, 18 May 1972.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 18 p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) recognizes that much of the success of its activities depends on having the full support and cooperation of the Administrator of UNDP, the Resident Representatives and the United Nations Regional Economic Commissions and looks forward to integrating Fund-supported population work even more closely with the overall economic and social development programs being assisted by the United Nations system. Issues discussed in this statement are: financing; assistance to projects in Africa; the General Assembly Resolution 2815 (XXVI) and recommendations for the implementation of the resolution; UNFPA reorganization; field staff; UNFPA flexibility; country programming; and proposals to improve the implementation of projects funded by UNFPA.
the New York Times. 1972 Apr 30; (12):15.In 1967 the Secretary-General established the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). This was a most important step towards mobilizing the energies and skills of all nations and peoples to deal with world population problems. The new organization is supervised by the Administrator of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), making population a part of the overall development assistance to developing countries. The Fund has given more impetus and a wider scope to the population work of the United Nations and consequently it can now identify many areas of special urgency. Countries in need of assistance have shed more light on their own needs and priorities. About 400 projects make up the bulk of the present program. In recognition of breakthroughs in research, technology, teaching and demonstration methods, especially of fertility control, the Fund is prepared to take the lead in developing new fields of activity to combat the problem. 1971 was the 2nd fully operational year of the Fund. Almost 50 countries have contributed close to the US$50 million mark for the support of the Fund's activities. The US has been most supportive. Over 60 countries have requested assistance in effecting population projects costing almost the total amount of available resources. More countries are seriously considering the effects of population trends on their economic, social and environmental progress as a preliminary to taking action. The Fund's work confirms that the United Nations can bring into play 3 elements to arrest the grave population problem which no single country or international organization can provide. It offers impartiality, structure and resources. By coordinating the inputs of a wide range of United Nations agencies with special competencies, of numerous nongovernmental and private organizations with active field operations, of countries with advanced research and technical programs that are already effected, by drawing on the experience and skills of all nations, and by its unassailable neutrality, the Fund offers a unique opportunity to deal with the population issue.
Report on the FAO/UNDP Asia and the Far East Seminar on Strengthening Family Life, Los Banos, Philippines, 28 April-7 May 1971.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1972. 204 p. (Nutrition Miscellaneous Meetings Series ESN;MMS/72/4)The major purpose of the Food and Agriculture (FAO)/UN Development Program (UNDP) was 3 fold: to examine the relationship between rapid population growth rates and low levels of living in countries of the region; to develop mutual understanding of the Planning for Better Family Living program concept of the FAO; and to formulate strategies for integrating this concept into existing programs serving families in the region. Specific objectives were as follows: to develop mutual understanding and appreciation for FAO's concept of Planning for Better Family Living within Asia and the Far East region; to exchange information and experience concerning present and planned programs and services designed to strengthen family life; to consider ways and means of integrating Planning for Better Family Living into programs serving families in the countries represented; to examine the central role of planned communication activities in programs reaching families; and to plan feasible seminar follow-up activities within the countries of Asia and the Far East Region. In plenary sessions, presentations by speakers and panel discussions provided valuable background information on population dynamics, the concept of planning in agricultural development programs, the relationship of population growth to food and nutrition, health, education, and the socieconomic and cultural aspects of family living programs. Discussions by participants in open forums following each presentation provided opportunities for examining the relationship between population and resources at the family level. They also provided a basis upon which to assess the problems and status of existing programs within countries of the region. A presentation summarizing country reports provided an overview of population policies and programs for families within the region. The following were among the seminar recommendations: national planning bodies consider within their efforts toward stabilization of population growth rates the incorporation of Planning for Better Family Living as a positive educational measure aimed at improving the quality of life; a national Planning for Better Family Living committee should be set up by the governments in member countries to study ways and means of implementing and integrating the concept of PBFL in national plans; and pilot projects should be established to examine, develop, and evaluate criteria for planning curricula, methods, and materials.
Population: science and technology and problems of population growth in developing countries. Report of the Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development.
[Unpublished] 1972 Mar 21. 49 p. (E/5107, 72-06266)This report considers briefly the major program areas in the population field: demographic statistics and analysis; the understanding of population interrelationships with economic and social change; policy development; biomedical aspects of human fertility; population education; and organizational aspects of population and family planning programs. The report outlines the need for more knowledge and action in these broad priority areas and makes appropriate proposals to meet these needs. The Advisory Committee emphasizes that population growth must be understood and responded to in the general framework of socioeconomic development. The size, rate of change, geographic distribution, and economic and social characteristics of populations are essential data for understanding population relationships to development planning, but such data are inadequate in most of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Even when the data are available, analytic capabilities are needed to assess and correct for possible errors and to describe and interpret population patterns for the purposes of national planning. Better understanding of the complex interrelationships of factors influencing and influenced by population changes will require the development of broader theory, intensified field research, and the use of modern simulation and modeling methods. All countries have population policies at least for lowering mortality and influencing inmigration, and at least 2/3 of the world's people live in countries with policies favoring family planning. Strengthened research on human reproductive biology is needed to provide basic knowledge and leads for developing improved fertility control methods. 1 of the broad policy steps to facilitate changes in population patterns is purposeful mobilization of the process of communication of ideas and influences related to population and family planning. National population and family planning programs in many countries have focused primarily on the promotion of contraceptive use for fertility moderation. Increasingly, program leadership will be concerned with helping to develop and implement other aspects including indirect measures to encourage desirable birth patterns. In Asia a number of countries need and are requesting assistance on a large scale for implementing effective national population programs, including family planning. In Africa the main need in the majority of countries is the creation of awareness and understanding of population problems and their economic and social implications. An increasing number of Latin American governments are interested in advice and assistance in sex and family life education. The need for international assistance of this and other kinds is likely to increase rapidly.
[Unpublished] 1972 Dec. 15. 23 p. (SEA/Comm. and Educ. Consult/FP/5)This document states Unesco's approach to family planning communication and shows the dimension of family planning communication projects in Unesco. On the basis of work initiated by Unesco and the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that during the period 1973-78 assistance to family planning communication programs in 25 member states would be made available and nearly 400 communicators from member states trained. Recommendations of 4 expert meetings on integrated family planning and development programs, research, folk media, and training are included, and these would form the basis of Unesco action during the 1970s. Some of the areas which are included in these recommendations and which have implications for collaboration and cooperation between the Unesco and WHO are: 1) preparation of the guidelines of training courses in family planning communication and education on regional bases; 2) promotion of itinerant family planning communication and education training teams for regions; 3) dissemination of research findings to family planning administrators, communicators, and educators; 4) promotion of mobile regional research teams to help initiate research programs and development of corps of researchers at regional/national levels; 6) promotion of studies on the economics of family planning communication and education programs, deployment of resources between various components of such programs and development of guidelines for evaluation of such programs; 7) inclusion of folk media as a crucial part of family planning education and communication strategies; and 8) assistance in making available communication and media hardware to supplement the meagre mass media channels in developing countries and to increase the reach of conventional mass media.
New York, Planned Parenthood-World Population Research Department, 1972. 115 p.This report presents a statistical record of the accomplishments of the 189 Planned Parenthood affiliates and 634 clinics operated by them in 1970. An introductory section presents summary figures for the entire program and information on number of patients served in Planned Parenthood centers by affiliate and region and affiliate classification by size of total contraceptive caseload with cross tabulations for distribution of patients, color/ethnic status, family income of patients, and age. A series of chapters presents data for the 7 regions on number of patients served, number of visits by type of service, number of persons receiving other services, distribution of affiliates by services and activities provided, affiliate operation statistics, patient characteristics, and cost data. During 1970 over 480,000 patients, 85% of them seeking contraceptive services, were served. The number of new patients increased 30% over the preceding year. The total number of contraceptive patients showed an 18% increase. The proportion of patients who were members of racial minority groups dropped to 38% in 1970 from 59% in 1965. In 1970 only 21% of new patients had 3 or more children, while 45% had none. Total expenditure per patient minus campaign costs in 1970 was $42.58, while per visit cost was $24.31.
In: Husain IZ, ed. Population analysis and studies: Rodhakamal Mukerjee commemoration volume. Bombay, India, Somaiya Publications, 1972. 104-11.The census is a basic element in any integrated national statistical system. Although it supplies only part of the demographic information needed, it is often the 1st step in any statistics collection process. It is limited in time, providing information for 1 static period. The value of census information increases when comparisons can be made with previous censuses. In recent years, various economic and political international organizations have taken responsibility for fostering international census activities. There has been an increase in the number of countries performing censuses. In addition, there have been changes in the approach to censuses, the importance attached to them, and census methodolgy itself. Sampling techniques are becoming more widely used. Evaluation, both of the data collecting techniques in the field and the actual processing of the data, is becoming more widespread also. Computers were 1st used for processing large scale census data in 1951; the importance of this tool for data processing has been universally recognized. As census-taking becomes more widespread, the types of data being collected increase as well. More information useful for social and economic planning is being collected in national censuses.
New York, UN, 1972. 82 p. (E/CN.9/263)This report of the 16th Session of the UN Population Commission is helpful in many respects, but primarily it gives information on further meetings seminars, and gatherings of organizations interested in population dynamics and the future of population trends. Progress of the UN work in the field of population is summarized. Major decisions of the commission are outlined, including their endorsement of 15 research and development programs, worldwide, an emphasis on improvement of technical information services, and a committment to improved demographic statistics. Activities slated for the 2nd decade of UN population strategy are enumerated, and 5-year and 2-year programs of work are outlined. These programs include continued fertility and family planning studies, increased mortality studies, studies of migration and urbanization, demographic aspects of economic and social development, and improvement of demograhic statistics. It was decided that the global population strategy for the UN Population Commission must not be restricted to developing countries, but that the UN must continue to work in the population field in all countries of the world.
Expanded programme of research, development and research training in human reproduction: report on programme implementation during the first year.
Geneva, WHO, October 1972. 37 p. (RH/72.5a)The overall objective of the WHO Expanded Programme in Human Reproduction is the development of a variety of safe; acceptable and effective methods for fertility regulation. A predominantly clinical orientation with emphasis on research and development is adopted in view of limited resources. The Programme's major approaches to research include: 1) Task Forces, which involves collaborative research by teams of scientists from various institutions and pharmeceutical firms; 2) Clinical Research Centres (CRCs) which involves groups of clinical scientists in different parts of the world providing a ready facility for testing new methods arising from Task Force research, or methods from other sources (industry; other organizations; individual scientists); 3) Research and Training Centres (RTCs) who meet such criteria as interest and achievement in research in fertility regulation; number of scientists; multidisciplinary approach; and ability to provide services to the expanded Programme. 4 RTCs have been identified: All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; All Union Scientific Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Moscow; 5 institutions in Buenos Aires; Montevideo and Santiago; and the Karolinsha Institute and Hospital, Stockholm; 4) Research training and other activities (individual research training grants); 5) Advisory Group; Review Mechanisms; Staffing and Instrument for Programme Management. The Programme Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) and mathematical simulation technique provide useful systematic mechanisms for planning and evaluation, and general programme management.
In: Sukarti S, ed. The role of the traditional midwife in the family planning program. Jakarta, Indonesia, National Family Planning Coordination Board, 1972. 11-2.WHO applauds the decision to hold a workshop in Indonesia in 1972 aimed at 1) assessing the role of trained TBAs (traditional birth attendants) in the delivery of maternal and child health services in recent years and 2) exploring the possibility of utilizing TBAs in the delivery of family planning services. WHO is ready to provide assistance in implementing the recommendations which result from this workshop. For the past 20 years WHO has assisted governments in India, Indonesia, and Thailand in their efforts to provid training in maternal and child health care for TBAs, and UNICEF has provided delivery kits for graduates of these courses. To date, most of these programs have not been evaluated; however, there is a considerable amount of data on the role of trained TBAs in Indonesia, and an assessment of the data will help determine the feasibility of training TBAs to delivery family planning services. Midwives may have the potential to serve as effective agents in changing community attitudes toward family planning since the community has confidence in them and the midwives are in close contact with the women in the community at a time when these women might be most receptive toward family planning.