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  1. 1

    A billion more jobs in Asia by 2000 A.D.?

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East

    In: International Labour Office. Asian Employers' Seminar on Population and Family Planning, New Delhi, March 22-27, 1971. Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1971. 50-3.

    If the working-age Asian population doubles between 1970-2000, as UN projections indicate, where will the additional billion men and women find jobs and the training needed to fill them? This question was addressed at a Bangkok meeting of the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Coordination in a number of fields, including education and health, was stressed as necessary to wise development. Vocational education should be given top priority. Seminar participants came from Afghanistan, Australia, Brunei, Ceylon, Republic of China, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Khmer Republic, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Viet-Nam, Singapore, Thailand, and Western Samoa. The participants recommended consultations by the ECAFE Executive Secretary with high-level experts in manpower and population; information exchanges between experts and policy makers to help ECAFE countries solve overall manpower problems; development of coordination between manpower and population policies to social and economic development goals for use of human resources; pilot projects in individual counries to utilize manpower in project-oriented activity; and, intensification and increased coordination of work by UN agencies in use of human resources.
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  2. 2

    The feasibility of establishing a world population institute.

    United Nations. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; World Health Organization

    N.Y., United Nations, 1971. 69 p

    The mission has concluded that it is highly desirable to establish a new facility within the United Nations system, which, for the purpose of the present report, is designated as "World Population Institute". The extent of our investigations was necessarily limited by the need to submit a report within three months. Within this period it was essential to discover what was being thought and done on the subject of population by the United Nations and the specialized agencies most concerned; by a cross-section of Governments with varying interests and experiences; by academic institutions, foundations and international non-governmental organizations associated with those Governments and with the United Nations agencies in studies and action. Clearly, we could not visit all the countries we would have liked to contact, nor could we carry out a comprehensive inventory of all national and multinational training and research facilities. Nevertheless, the mission feels that its sample was indicative of the entire range of attitudes and stages of programmes designed to illuminate population questions, formulate policies or carry out actions designed to influence fertility. Moreover, all the members of the mission have had previous wide experience in the international field; and we believe that, thanks to the excellent arrangements made for us in the countries visited and the warm assistance everywhere given to us, we have in fact had sufficient exposure to relevant views and facts to enable us to discharge our tasks. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Bibliography on the health aspects of human reproduction, population dynamics and family planning and related subjects.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Nursing Unit

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, (1971). (NURS/71.1) 53 p.

    The references cited in this bibliography cover the mandates of the United Nations and its specialized agencies in the field of human reproduction, population dynamics and family planning, and other related documents as well as World Health Organization publications dealing with family planning and related subjects.
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  4. 4

    Health education in health aspects of family planning.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Health Education in Health Aspects of Family Planning

    Geneva, World Health Organization, 1971. (Technical Report Series No. 483). 47 p.

    A WHO Study Group on Health Education in Health Aspects of Family Planning met in Geneva from December 15-21, 1970. A report of the group is presented. It is asserted that family planning contributes materially to 1 of the main aims of health services, by helping to ensure that every child, wherever possible, lives and grows up in a family unit with love and security in healthy surroundings, receives adequate nourishment, health supervision, and efficient medical attention, and is taught the elements of healthy living. The Study Group gave primary consideration to an analysis of the educational components fundamental to achieving the objectives of family planning services within the context of health services: the programming process, implementation, evaluation, methodology, coordination, and needs for studies and research. The Group noted that in many countries the integration of family planning care into health services not only has important educational implications but also brings many administrative and technical advantages. The contents of the report include sections on 1) family planning and its dependence on many services, 2) dependence of family planning on people, 3) some important requirements and difficulties, 4) objectives of education in health aspects of family planning, 5) a systematic approach to education in the health aspects of family planning, 6) importance of an organized health education service, 7) coordination of effort, 8) studies and research, and 9) recommendations.
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  5. 5

    Handbook of population and housing census methods, part VI: sampling in connection with population and housing censuses.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1971. v, 34 p. (Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 16.; ST/STAT/SER.F/16 (Part VI).)

    This is the 6th part of a 7-part HANDBOOK OF POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS METHODS. This handbook is intended to give assistance to governments in the implementation of the PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE 1970 POPULATION CENSUSES and the PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE 1970 HOUSING CENSUSES. Accordingly, it elaborates on the various aspects of census work that are briefly presented in the 2 sets of recommendations, and offers suggested approaches to problems frequently encountered in the planning and execution of population and housing censuses. Part VI of the handbook is concerned with sampling in connection with population and housing censuses. Chapter I on sampling a an integral part of the census covers general considerations, advantages and disadvantages of sampling and conditions of acceptable sample operations, and applications of sampling methods. Chapter II deals with the census as a basis for subsequent sample inquiries.
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  6. 6

    Report of the IPPF/UNESCO Experts Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Communication Materials and Equipment for Family Planning and Population Activities. Held in London at the IPPF Central Office, 18-20 Lower Regent Street, London, S.W.1.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1971. 8 p.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation/UNESCO Meeting on Clearinghouse Facilities for Communication Materials and Equipment for Family Planning and Population Activities met in London during October 1971 to consider the role of the mass media in family planning programs. Due to the fact that it is unlikely that a single institution would become resonsible for all clearinghouse functions with respect to communications materials for family planning and population activities, meeting participants gave consideration to ways and means for using and building on existing facilities so that better service could be provided to those countries in need of help. Participants felt that a clearinghouse should be an active agency, whose basic objectives would be to stimulate effective and economic use of communications materials and equipment. Thus, it must begin with the collection of materials and equipment from all possible sources, the collection being used for reference at site; as prototype material; and for direct use elsewhere. Basic activities should include: collection of materials (or information about materials, the context of use, including audience, effectiveness, and evaluation; processing of materials and information; dissemination of materials and information concerning their use; feedback and processing of information from the user; and identification of gaps and stimulation of production to fill these. The total materials field to be covered is vast but may be considered under the following major headings: training (professional, technical, and auxiliary); program -- public information (via mass media or campaigns), community education (nonformal), and formal education systems (schools, adult education); and research. For each heading, materials would need to be further subdivided according to users. The meeting, feeling that it would be advantageous to start with a more limited target until experience was gained, and considering that the greatest need appeared to be demonstrated in the area of training, decided to recommend that materials suitable for this objective should be chosen for priority development. 3 types of training materials are needed: basic information (content) on population and family planning; instructional materials (models, other teaching aids, textbooks); and information (on hows and whys) and materials to help teach communication skills. Much consideration was given to the kind of organization that might be developed. The meeting recognized the existing facilities of a number of organizations already involved in clearinghouse activities at various levels and noted the extent to which the IPPF has already developed such services for its own affiliated nongovernmental members at both central and regional levels. The meeting felt that the participating organizations could provide much of the information which would be needed to implement activities. Specific recommendations are outlined.
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  7. 7

    IPPF/UNESCO Experts Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audio-Visual Aids and Teaching Materials, 20th - 23rd October, 1971, IPPF, London, S.W.1. Background paper.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1971. [33] p.

    Significantly for this International Planned Parenthood Federation/UNESCO Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audiovisual Aids and Teaching Materials, the proportion of work and of funding devoted to education, information, and training is steadily increasing. Program activities in need of audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: components designed to motivate people to practice family planning and to persuade opinion leaders to support program objectives (face-to-face communication and mass media outlets); training courses; and the education of government officials, opinion leaders, the community, young people both in and out of school, and family planning acceptors. Discussion of the present state of clearing house facilities for audiovisual aids and teaching materials covers the following: UN agencies, government activities, nongovernment organizations. UNESCO, WHO, FAO, ILO, AND UNICEF have services in audiovisual materials, including the production and distribution of films, photographs, and printed materials. These services illustrate the broad areas of activity of each agency and until the present time family planning and population problems have not featured very prominently in these materials. Many of them are used extensively in family planning programs because they demonstrate the health and socioeconomic development aspects to which family planning is related. Materials produced by the specialized agencies circulate through regional and national offices and are at the disposal of other agencies for loan usually without charge. Donor governments vary in the emphasis they place on educational materials. The Population Council is a nongovernmental organization which has been particularly active in the past in the production and distribution of audiovisual aids and teaching mterials. Among the universities, the Carolina Population Center has established an educational materials unit which produces audiovisual aids for use at home and overseas. The IPPF houses a rapidly growing collection of films, slides, and filmstrips, printed materials, nonprojected aids, and models relating to family planning motivation, training, population, and sex education. Some factors to be taken into account in considering the feasibility of establishing an international clearing house for audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: means of assessing levels of expressed demand; possibility of stimulating demand for audiovisual aids and teaching materials in family planning information and education programs; possiblity of promoting knowledge and understanding of the proposed clearing house at all levels of operation; extent of personnel equipped and trained to utilize audiovisual aids and teaching materials; adaptability of materials to local situations; desirability of a central, regional, or combination structure; and funding. Factors to be considered in formulating a blueprint for an international clearing house include: scope of materials to be handled by clearing house; problems inherent in identification and collection of materials; need for services to support circulation of materials; international transportation of materials; storage; need for a reporting system and evaluation; and policy with regard to meeting clients' equipment requirements and to payment by client.
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  8. 8

    Regional Course in the Production and Use of Mass Media for Family Planning Programmes in Asia, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 14 September-10 October, 1970. Final report.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Asia

    Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia, 1971. (1) 58 p. (MC/FP/ASIA/)

    The Regional Course in the production and use of mass media for family planning programs in Asia, held at the National Family Planning Training Center in Seoul, Korea during 1970, was given a seminar/workshop character. The meeting took note of the purpose and program of the course, as stated by Unesco, as well as the purposes which each paticipant has in mind in coming to the Course. The basic elements of the program were identified as follows: principles and steps involved in the planning, production, use, and evaluation of mass media for family planning; problems arising from the practice of these stages; field reconnaisance of Korean family planning projects and media organizations; screening of materials for communication in family planning, individual, and group research; an integrated campaign; and recommendations primarily in the form of a draft for a Manual on Production and Use of Mass Media for Family Planning Programs, which Unesco plans to prepare and publish in 1971. A Working Paper on the Principles of Production and Use of Mass Media for Family Planning Programs in Asia was submitted to the paticipants. Its discussion was preceded by the presentation of the frames of reference in which the whole problem of communication and its relation to social change, national development, and in paticular family planning were to be considered. Participants examined the practice of communication support to family planning programs in light of their experiences in their respective countries. The difficulty generally encountered concerned the channel and the type of media program to be used for reaching different target audiences in different communities and to achieve different levels of impact at different stages of a family planning program. The participants spent 3 days in field visits to family planning and mass media activities in Korea. Teams were formed to deal with the following activities of the course: field trips; documentation; exhibits; and screening of films. A framework of communication strategy was presented to the meeting. It provided for a combination of channels, both mediated and interpersonal, a relation to audience characteristics, resources, service infrastructure, and coordination with other fields. It was based on the following stages: planning; production; dissemination; promotion and implementation; and feedback, evaluation, and research.
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  9. 9

    The task ahead, statement made at the Sixteenth Session of the Population Commission, United Nations, Geneva, 3 November 1971.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1971]. 8 p.

    This statement evaluates the status and work of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The goals of the UNFPA are as follows: 1) to promote awareness and realistic recognition for population problems and their significance for economic and social development, human well-being and quality of life; 2) to promote the formulation of population planning and policies as a part of economic and social development planning, recognizing the economic, social and cultural characteristics of the population concerned; 3) to facilitate the implementation of effective means of accomplishing the objectives of extablished population policies; and 4) to promote the spread of family planning in the interests of the health and well-being of the individual, the family and the community. Topics covered include: contributions, range of projects, rate of delivery, new measures, country programming, and coordination with various donor agencies.
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  10. 10

    Establishing criteria for United Nations population activities, statement made at the Global Meeting of UNDP Resident Representatives, New Delhi, India, 18 February 1971.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1971]. 16 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities makes 2 fundamental assumptions in providing assistance--1) the UN system does not prescribe any population policy to any country and acts only when a country requests assistance; and 2) population programs are not substitutes for economic development efforts but are necessary complements to them. In giving assistance, the Fund divides countries into 3 types: 1) countries which have population policies and programs, e.g., India; 2) countries which do not have population policies but are in the process of adopting one, e.g., some countries in southeast Asia; and 3) those which do not have any population policies or programs and may not have one for some time, e.g., Brazil. The resources of the Fund are expected to reach about $24-$30 million this year. The guidelines for the Fund's operations are: 1) recognition of Governments' sovereignty in determining their own policies but responding to their requests for assistance; 2) utilization whenever possible, of the appropriate organizations in the UN system as executing agencies but, if necessary, also utilizing other channels for execution of the proposed intensified activities; 3) aim at broadening if necessary, requests received from Governments or organizations in the UN system to include, as appropriate, one or several of the approaches outlined as the policies of the UNFPA; 4) utilization, to the fullest extent, of the Population Program Officers in the preparation of projects for UNFPA financial support; 5) strengthening the implementation and follow-up activities of projects approved for UNFPA financing; and 6) undertaking evaluations of the impact of the UNFPA's assistance to developing countries. Selected Fund activities are described in detail.
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  11. 11

    Population and family education. Final Report.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Asia

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Regional Office, 1971. 104 p.

    The Regional Workshop on Population and Family Education, organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia in Bangkok during September-October 1970, is discussed in this report. The Workshop objectives were to study how elements of population and family education can be incorporated in the curriculum of secondary and possibly upper elementary levels of education, to prepare a few sample curriculum units in terms of analysis of content objectives, and to develop appropriate curriculum materials. The 4 chapters of this report focus on the following: definition and objectives of population education; instructional materials for population education (content, the characteristics that would be desirable in instructional materials, form, and problems); strategies for establishing a population education program (decision makers, planning elements of the program, types of courses, choice of level, teacher education, and research); and major conclusions. It was concluded that population education is an education program which provides for a study of the population situation in the family, community, nation, and world for the purpose of developing rational and responsible attitudes and behavior. The Workshop noted that knowledge of population policies and programs is not intended to imply that the detailed offerings of a local family planning clinic be included in the program. The Workshop felt that all participants had a special and personal responsibility to reach decision makers and try to convince them of the need for a population education program. Appendices include a content objectives analysis, sample test questions, reference material on population education, opening messages, officers elected by the Workshop, Workshop agenda, a list of participants, and a list of documents.
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  12. 12

    Improvement of planning and implementation of population projects funded by United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    Chow LP

    [Unpublished] 1971 Sep 29. 46 p.

    UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) was formulated by the U.N. with the goal of providing assistance to developing countries in controlling their rapid population growth in order to achieve greater and quicker social and economic development. Inadequate development of the "ideal" contraceptive technology, lack of awareness of rapid population growth as a problem, and inadequate program planning and management were cited as the main barriers to efficient operation of population programs. It was agreed that UNFPA would concentrate its efforts in areas where the concept of family planning is still controversial. Major questions surround funding policies: 1) whether to fund fewer large projects or more smaller projects; 2) whether to provide direct or indirect assistance; and 3) whether to support research or action projects. Advantages of action through UNFPA and constraints on such action are cited and discussed. The organizational structure of UNFPA is summarized. General discussion is given to the major areas of UNFPA endeavor. Evaluation of the success of UNFPA-sponsored programs is a necessary part of the Fund's activities.
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  13. 13

    The politics of population.

    Miller NN

    American Universities Field Staff Reports. East Africa Series. 1971; 10(2):1-15.

    Kenya was one of the 1st sub-Saharan countries to develop a national family planning program and has made considerable progress in promoting contraception; however, the program is beset with many staffing, administrative, and political problems. In 1965 the government requested the Population Council to conduct a demographic survey in Kenya and to develop recommendations for establishing a family planning program. The Ministry of Health subsequently instituted most of these recommendations and established 220 family planning clinics in various facilities across the nation. The program receives funding and other forms of assistance from a large number of outside organizations and relies on a large number of foreign advisors for planning, operating, andevaluating the program. One of the major problems confronting the program is the lack of strong and consistent program support from high level government officials. Many officials fear that they will lose political support if they issue strong family planning directives. This lack of commitment weakens the program at all levels and reduces the effectiveness of the educational component of the program. Other problems include 1) inadequate coordination and communication between the various organizations which contribute to the program; 2) internal conflicts between medical and administrative personnel; 3) high reliance on foreign advisors who tend to be insensitive tolocal issues and concerns; and 4) an insufficient number of staff personnel. Despite these problems the outlook for family planning in Kenya is good. Future funding is assured, staff increases are contemplated, and plans call for less reliance on foreign personnel.
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  14. 14

    Some relevant points of the conclusions of the Asian Seminar on Trade Unions, Workers' Education and Population Questions, (Bangalore, 10-16 May 1970).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    In: International Labour Office. Asian Employers' Seminar on Population and Family Planning, New Delhi, March 22-27, 1971. Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1971. 34-6.

    The Governing Body of the International Labour Organization proposed 3 types of measures: 1) promotion of information and educational activities through workers' education, labor welfare, and cooperative and rural institutions' programs; 2) policy-oriented research on demographic aspects of social policy in fields such as employment promotion and social security; and, 3) action to stimulate participation of social security and enterprise-level medical services in family planning. Family planning should be considered an important component of any voluntary labor welfare program. Population questions have assumed a noncontroversial character in several Asian countries, therefore cooperation can be expected from individual employers/their organizations with any agency, national or international, actively working on such programs. Employers should be able to use the unions cooperation in conducting family planning programs accepted by the industry. Where an employer provides medical assistance over and above that coming from local authorities or public funds or under arrangements by social security agencies, a fair share of the funds should be devoted to family planning. Shop supervisors and managers should be trained by employers to support and encourage participation in family planning programs.
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  15. 15

    Asian employers' seminar on population and family planning, New Delhi, March 22-27, 1971.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1971. 101 p.

    The Asian Employers' Seminar on Population and Family Planning, organized by the International Labor Organization and funded by UNFPA, met in New Delhi from March 22-27, 1971. This document contains the papers delivered at the conference and the recommendations made by the participants at the end of the session. The purpose of the seminar was to encourage employers to become more activity involved in family planning endeavors. The papers dealt with 1) problems associated with rapid population growth; 2) ways the employers could promote family planning programs; and 3) what had been learned from previous family planning programs. The participants concluded that 1) developmental programs would be ineffectual unless population growth was curbed; 2) employers should play a major role in promoting family planning among their workers; and 3) employers' efforts should complement those of other parties. The participants recommended that governments 1) assume responsibility for educating the public about population problems; 2) supplement employer contributions to labor welfare; 3) consider revising family allowance and tax structures which encourage large families and raising the legal marriage age; and 4) organize family planning programs for government workers. The participants recommended that employers 1) integrate family planning into already existing welfare services; 2) provide time off for workers engaged in promoting family planning; 3) educate all levels of management in family planning; 4) encourage other employers to become envolved; and 5) seek industry wide integration of family planning activities. Employers should also enlist the cooperation of worker organization and of voluntary organizations in their efforts to promote family planning. International agencies should provide advisory and coordination assistance and conduct research in family planning.
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  16. 16

    The feasibility of establishing a world population institute: report of a United Nations/UNESCO/WHO mission.

    United Nations; World Health Organization [WHO]

    N.Y., United Nations, 1971. 69 p

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  17. 17

    Allocations issued by the UNFPA in 1970.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1971 Feb. 44 p

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  18. 18

    Projects approved for financing during 1969.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1971 Feb. 9 p

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  19. 19

    World plan of action in the field of population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1971. 46 p

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  20. 20

    An inventory of International Clearing House services in population/family planning.

    Radel D

    Paper prepared for Expert Group Meeting on Clearing House Facilities, London, Oct. 1971. 20 p. (Occasional Paper of East-West Communications Institute)

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  21. 21

    Assessment of education and training programmes assisted by the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Health Organization.


    N.Y., U.N., Jan. 1971. 44 p

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  22. 22

    Family planning program of Korea. 3. Administration.

    American Public Health Association [APHA]. Survey Team for AID / Korea

    In: Report of the APHA Survey Team for AID/Korea. n.p., mimeo, Sept. 1971, pp. 9-28

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  23. 23

    The African population programme.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa

    Paper presented at First Regional Inter-Agency Meeting on Population, Addis Ababa, and Meeting of Non-UN Organisations Working on Population in Africa, Addis Ababa, Jan. 1971. 13 p

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  24. 24

    Training national health personnel.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Official Records of the World Health Organization. 1971 Oct; 193:82-90.

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  25. 25

    UNESCO's activities in relation to population.

    UNESCO. Population and Family Planning Section

    Prepared for the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Population Conference, Accra, Ghana, December 9-18, 1971. (E/CN.14/POP/40) 9 p

    The work of UNESCO is centered around education in a broad sense and seeks to ensure that population activities should reflect understanding of and sensitivity to the widely varying social and cultural traditions in different countries which condition the nature and direction of national population policies. In ethical terms, the program is concerned with the actual and potential conflict between demographic situations and welfare and development goals--individual, social, national, international, and global--the achievement of which the Organization was established to foster. In functional terms, the program attempts: 1) to ensure that population variables are taken into account in planning and implementing social policies; and 2) to support policies and programs designed to influence population variables. In terms of content, education and communication are at present receiving considerable emphasis from member states. The General Conference of UNESCO has instructed the Director-General to prepare the Secretariat to meet in a coordinated manner the urgent demand from member states within the fields of population and family planning: 1) within education by helping in the development of teaching materials, curricula, teacher training, adult education, women's education, and community education; 2) within the social sciences by carrying out studies on the different aspects of population and family planning; and 3) within communication by studying ways for the establishment and operation of efficient programs within the fields of population and family planning, and by providing relevant information and documentation.
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